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No one told me it would be like this—
how growing older is another passage of discovery
and that aging is one grand transformation,
and if some things become torn apart
or even lost along the way,
many other means show up
to bring me closer
to the center of my heart.

No one ever told me
if whatever wonder waits ahead
is in another realm and outside of time.
But the amazement, I found,
is that the disconcerting things
within the here and now
that I stumble and trip my way through,
also lead me gracefully home.

And no one told me that I would ever see
an earth so strong and fragile,
or a world so sad and beautiful.
And I surely didn't know
I'd have all this life yet in me
or such fire inside my bones.


From Susan Frybort, (author of Open Passages) poetry collection "Look to the Clearing" 

"It’s the big threat. A cheap, white powder — 50 times more powerful than heroin — which kills more than 70,000 people each year in the United States and countless others across the rest of the Western Hemisphere. EL PAÍS, in a long-term investigation that spanned two continents and included interviews with anti-drug czars in the U.S. and China, visited the clandestine laboratories in Sinaloa, where fentanyl is manufactured".......Read More at El Pais ➜  Also Read: How the United States got hooked on fentanyl 

Many people are wired to seek and respond to rewards. Your brain interprets food as rewarding when you are hungry and water as rewarding when you are thirsty. But addictive substances like alcohol and drugs of abuse can overwhelm the natural reward pathways in your brain, resulting in intolerable cravings and reduced impulse control. More at The Conversation ➜

"This revolutionary prosthetic limb is giving amputees the chance to regain natural movement. Developed by bioengineers at Johns Hopkins University, the prosthetic limb connects directly to the wearer's peripheral nervous system. The limb is controlled by the wearer's own thoughts, allowing them to move the prosthesis with the same ease as a real limb. More at WIRED UK ➜

"Your immune system requires a delicate balance to operate properly. When it’s out of balance, your immune system itself can cause disease. Healthy immune systems don’t need to be “boosted.” ... immunologists know that too much of an immune reaction could result in allergies, autoimmune disorders or chronic inflammation. On the flip side, too little of an immune reaction could result in illness or infection"  More at The Conversation ➜

Image credit: NIH NIAD (Scanning electron micrograph of a T cell)


 "First, the shrimp disappeared. In late 1980s, the catch became so poor that Diane Wilson, a fourth-generation shrimper, had to take a job running a fish house in Seadrift in Calhoun County, Texas, where she grew up and still lives. Then beached, diseased 300-pound dolphins started appearing, and dead pelicans kept floating to the shores of Lavaca Bay"  More at Reasons to be Cheerful ➜

"A vaccine against tuberculosis, the world’s deadliest infectious disease, has never been closer to reality, with the potential to save millions of lives. But its development slowed after its corporate owner focused on more profitable vaccines" More at ProPublica ➜

"Diseases that run in families usually have genetic causes. Some are genetic mutations that directly cause the disease if inherited. Others are risk genes that affect the body in a way that increases the chance someone will develop the disease. In Alzheimer’s disease, genetic mutations in any of three specific genes can cause the disease, and other risk genes either increase or decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer’s".... More at The Conversation ➜

"The idea of food as medicine dates back to the ancient Greek doctor Hippocrates, and a new study adds to the evidence that a diet full of fruits and vegetables can help improve heart health. The research comes amid an epidemic of diet-related disease, which competes with smoking as a leading cause of death"...  More at NPR ➜

These are some of many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of September, listed by year.  Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate.

476,  September 4 - Fall of the Western Roman Empire. Odoacer (Adovacar), a barbarian member of the Germanic tribe Siri and former commander in the Roman army enters the city of Rome unopposed and dethrones  emperor Romulus, becoming the first barbarian king of Italy. Although Roman rule continued in the East, the crowning of Odoacer marked the end of the original Roman Empire centered in Italy, although there was some resurgence and expansion of the power of Rome to the west.

1010 BCE, September - The Battle of Mount Gilboa takes place between the Israelites, led by King Saul, and the Philistines. The battle ends in a decisive victory for the Philistines and the death of King Saul and his sons.

1000 BCE, September - King David captures the city of Jerusalem, establishing it as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.

722 BCE, September - The Assyrian Empire conquers the northern kingdom of Israel, leading to the exile of the ten tribes of Israel and the collapse of the kingdom.

586 BCE, September - The city of Jerusalem is captured and destroyed by the Babylonian Empire under King Nebuchadnezzar II, leading to the Babylonian exile of the Israelites.

509 BCE, September - The Roman Republic is established after the overthrow of the last Etruscan king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbug, marking the beginning of the Roman Republic era.

490 BCE, September - The Battle of Marathon takes place between the Persian Empire and the city-state of Athens during the first Persian invasion of Greece. The Athenians, led by Miltiades, achieve a decisive victory over the Persians.

480 BCE, September - The Battle of Salamis occurs during the second Persian invasion of Greece. The Greek fleet, led by Themistocles, defeats the Persian fleet, halting the Persian advance.

480 BCE, September - The Battle of Salamis takes place during the Greco-Persian Wars. The Greek city-states, led by Themistocles, achieve a decisive naval victory over the Persian Empire, halting their advance.

480 BCE, September - The Battle of Plataea is fought between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire. The Greeks, led by Pausanias, achieve a significant victory, effectively ending the Persian invasion.

335 BCE, September - Alexander the Great completes his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire, including the capture of the Persian capital of Persepolis.

333 BCE, September - The Battle of Issus occurs between Alexander the Great of Macedonia and Darius III of Persia. Alexander achieves a decisive victory, securing his control over Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) and further weakening the Persian Empire.

331 BCE, September - The Battle of Gaugamela occurs between Alexander the Great of Macedonia and Darius III of Persia. Alexander achieves a decisive victory, further solidifying his control over the Persian Empire.

31 BCE, September 2 - The Battle of Actium takes place between the forces of Octavian (later known as Augustus) and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian emerges victorious, leading to the end of the Roman Republic and the establishment of the Roman Empire.

9 BCE, September 23 - The Roman general Publius Quinctilius Varus and his legions suffer a disastrous defeat at the hands of Germanic tribes in the Battle of Teutoburg Forest, resulting in the loss of three Roman legions.

9 CE, September - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest takes place in Germania. Germanic tribes led by Arminius ambush and defeat three Roman legions under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus, preventing further Roman expansion into Germania.

9 CE, September  - The Roman general Germanicus wins a significant victory over the Germanic tribes in the Battle of Idistaviso, consolidating Roman control in Germania.

14 CE, September 23rd - Emperor Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, dies in Nola, Italy. His stepson Tiberius succeeds him as the second Roman Emperor.

33 CE, September 14th - According to Christian tradition, Jesus Christ is crucified in Jerusalem, marking a significant event in the life and teachings of Jesus.

70 CE, September - The Siege of Jerusalem begins during the First Jewish-Roman War. Roman forces, led by Titus, lay siege to Jerusalem, eventually resulting in the destruction of the city and the Second Temple.

407 CE, September 24th - Vandals, Alans, and Suebi tribes cross the Rhine River into Gaul, marking the beginning of the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

476 CE, September 4th - Romulus Augustus, the last Roman emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed by Odoacer, a Germanic chieftain, leading to the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

610 CE, September - Muhammad receives his first revelation from the angel Gabriel, marking the beginning of the Islamic prophet's mission and the foundation of Islam.

622 CE, September 24th - The prophet Muhammad completes the Hijra ("Flight"), the migration from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution and establishing of the first Muslim community and later marking the beginning (Year 1) of the Muslim calendar.  More

641 CE, September 20th - Arab forces led by Caliph Umar conquer the city of Alexandria, Egypt, ending Byzantine control and marking a significant moment in the Arab conquests.

732 CE, September 10th - The Battle of Tours takes place in modern-day France, where Frankish forces led by Charles Martel defeat an invading Muslim army, halting the spread of Islam into Europe. 

853 CE, September 15th - Viking raiders sack the city of Bordeaux in present-day France, highlighting their expansion and impact in Europe.

867, CE, November 13 - The Byzantine emperor Michael III is assassinated, leading to the ascent of Basil I to the throne.

877 CE, September 8th - Louis the Stammerer is crowned as the King of the West Franks, succeeding his father Charles the Bald. This event marks an important moment in the history of the Carolingian dynasty.

917 CE, September 20th - Byzantine forces led by Emperor Constantine VII defeat the Bulgarian army at the Battle of Achelous, securing Byzantine control over the Balkans.

919 CE, September - Henry the Fowler, the Duke of Saxony, is elected as the first king of East Francia (Germany), initiating the Ottonian dynasty.

927 CE, September - Simeon I of Bulgaria defeats the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Achelous, leading to the recognition of Bulgaria as an independent state.

935 CE, September 27th - The Battle of Andernach takes place between East Francia (Germany) and West Francia (France), marking a conflict over the division of the Carolingian Empire.

937 CE, September 17th - The Battle of Brunanburh takes place in England, where King Athelstan of England secures a decisive victory against a coalition of Viking and Scottish forces.

955 CE, September 10th - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, leads the East Frankish (German) forces to victory against the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld, halting their invasion of Central Europe.

962 CE, September 7th - Otto I is crowned as the Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, marking the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the Ottonian dynasty.

962 CE, September 26th - The Byzantine Empire defeats an army of the Emirate of Sicily at the Battle of Garigliano, solidifying Byzantine control over Southern Italy.

969 CE, September 2nd - The Fatimid Caliphate captures the city of Cairo, establishing it as their new capital and solidifying their control over Egypt.

972 CE, September 11th - Emperor Otto I holds a synod in Quedlinburg, Germany, where he confirms the appointment of his son Otto II as co-emperor and heir.

972 CE, September - The Battle of Cedynia occurs between the forces of the Piast dynasty and the Holy Roman Empire, leading to the establishment of Poland as an independent state.

980 CE, September 24th - The Byzantine emperor Basil II defeats the Bulgarian army at the Battle of Thessalonica, leading to the subjugation of Bulgaria under Byzantine rule.

991 CE, September 11th - The Battle of Maldon takes place in England, where the Anglo-Saxons are defeated by Viking raiders.

992 CE, September 10th - Holy Roman Emperor Otto III visits Rome and meets with Pope John XV, marking a significant moment of cooperation between the Holy Roman Empire and the Papacy.

994 CE, September 15th - The Battle of Swold takes place between the Norwegian king Olaf Tryggvason and a coalition of Swedish and Danish forces, resulting in Olaf's defeat and death.

996 CE, September 4th - Otto III, the Holy Roman Emperor, issues a document known as the "Privilege of Otto III," granting certain rights and privileges to the bishopric of Merseburg, Germany.

999 CE, September 9th - King Olaf II of Norway is killed in the Battle of Svolder, against an alliance of the Kings of Denmark and Sweden and Olaf's enemies in Norway,  leading to the temporary downfall of Christianity in Norway. 

1000, September 9 - The Battle of Svolder takes place in the Baltic Sea, resulting in a decisive victory for the combined Viking fleets of Denmark and Sweden over the Norwegian fleet, solidifying Danish and Swedish control over the region.

1002, September 29 - King Æthelred the Unready orders the massacre of Danes living in England, known as the St. Brice's Day massacre, as a response to a perceived Danish threat.

1004, September 15 - The Battle of Maldon occurs in Essex, England, where an English force led by Byrhtnoth is defeated by Viking raiders.

1014, September 23 - The Battle of Clontarf takes place near Dublin, Ireland, where the forces of Brian Boru, High King of Ireland, defeat the Viking forces of Dublin and their allies, although Brian Boru is killed in the battle.

1031, September 1 - The Battle of Stiklestad is fought in Norway, resulting in the death of King Olaf II Haraldsson, who would later be canonized as Saint Olaf.

1066, September 25 - The Battle of Stamford Bridge takes place in England, where King Harold II of England defeats an invading Norwegian army led by King Harald Hardrada, the Last Great Viking King Of Norway, securing his position before the Battle of Hastings.

1066, September 28 - William the Conqueror invades England after seven months of preparation for his invasion force, landing unopposed at Pevensey with about 7,000 men (including 2,000-3,000 cavalry). He quickly build fortifications at Hastings in preparation to fight the English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson. The" Battle of Hastings" was fought on October 14, 1066 beginning the Norman Conquest of England.  More 
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1071, September 7 - The Battle of Manzikert occurs in eastern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), where the Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Empire, leading to significant territorial losses for the Byzantines and opening Anatolia to Turkish conquest.

1091, September 9 - The Battle of Alnwick is fought in Northumberland, England, between Scottish and English forces, resulting in a Scottish victory and expanding their influence in northern England.

1098, September 21 - The Siege of Antioch begins during the First Crusade as Crusader forces surround the city of Antioch in present-day Turkey, initiating a prolonged siege.

1099, September 20 - The Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, capture the city of Jerusalem from the Fatimid Caliphate, marking the conclusion of the First Crusade.

1101, September 20 - The Crusaders, led by Sigurd I of Norway, arrive in Lisbon, Portugal, and establish a temporary alliance with King Afonso I against the Moors.

1106, September 27 - The Battle of Tinchebray takes place in Normandy, France, where King Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, securing his control over Normandy.

1110, September 29 - The Crusader army of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem is ambushed by Muslim forces near Beirut, Lebanon, resulting in heavy losses.

1120, September 25 - The White Ship Disaster occurs off the coast of Normandy, France, when the vessel carrying the heir to the English throne, William Adelin, sinks, resulting in his death and a succession crisis in England.

1130, September 26 - Roger II is crowned King of Sicily, establishing the Kingdom of Sicily and becoming its first Norman ruler.

1146, September 10 - Pope Eugenius III declares the Second Crusade at the Council of Vézelay in France, calling for a military campaign to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims.

1159, September 7 - The Treaty of Benevento is signed, ending the long-standing conflict between the papacy and the Kingdom of Sicily.

1167, September 29 - The Battle of Monte Porzio takes place near Rome, Italy, as forces loyal to Pope Alexander III defeat the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.

1176, September 29 - The Battle of Legnano is fought in Lombardy, Italy, where the Lombard League defeats the forces of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, resulting in a significant setback for imperial power.

1192, September 2 - The Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Richard the Lionheart of England and Saladin, ending the Third Crusade and securing a truce in the Holy Land.

1202, September 8 - The Fourth Crusade sets sail from Venice to reclaim the Holy Land but eventually deviates and ends up sacking the city of Constantinople.

1209, September 22 - The Siege of Carcassonne ends during the Albigensian Crusade, with the city surrendering to Simon de Montfort, leader of the Crusader forces.

1215, September 15 - King John of England puts his seal on the Magna Carta, a document that outlines rights and limitations on royal power.

1229, September 18 - The Treaty of Meaux-Paris is signed, officially ending the Albigensian Crusade and granting amnesty to the Cathars in Languedoc, France.

1238, September 23 - The Battle of the Puig takes place during the Reconquista, where forces of the Kingdom of Aragon defeat the Almohad Caliphate in Valencia, Spain.

1241, September 11 - The Battle of Legnica occurs during the Mongol invasion of Europe, resulting in a decisive Mongol victory over the Polish and German forces.

1260, September 3 - The Battle of Ain Jalut takes place between the Mongol Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, resulting in a significant Mongol defeat.

1283, September 1 - The Treaty of Rheinfelden is signed, ending the conflict between the House of Habsburg and the Swiss Confederation, establishing peace in the region.

1297, September 11 - The Battle of Stirling Bridge is fought during the First War of Scottish Independence, where Scottish forces led by William Wallace defeat the English army.

1297, September 22 - The Treaty of Alcañices is signed between the Kingdom of León and the Kingdom of Portugal, resolving territorial disputes and establishing peace between the two kingdoms.

1209, September 22 - The Massacre at Béziers takes place during the Albigensian Crusade, as Crusaders led by Simon de Montfort sack the city of Béziers, resulting in a large number of deaths.

1217, September 2 - The Battle of South Foreland occurs during the First Barons' War, where English naval forces defeat a French fleet off the coast of Kent.

1227, September 18 - Genghis Khan, the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, dies while on campaign in Western Xia (modern-day China).

1241, September 9 - The Battle of Legnica takes place during the Mongol invasion of Europe, where a combined Polish-German force is defeated by the Mongols.

1248, September 1 - The construction of the Cologne Cathedral in Germany begins. It would take over 600 years to complete.

1260, September 3 - The Battle of Ain Jalut occurs, as the Mamluks of Egypt decisively defeat the Mongols, halting their westward expansion.
1271, September 17 - Marco Polo sets off on his journey to the East, embarking on a 24-year exploration of Asia and becoming one of the most famous European explorers.

1282, September 4 - The War of the Sicilian Vespers ends with the Peace of Caltabellotta, granting independence to the Kingdom of Sicily from the Angevin Kingdom of Naples.

1283, September 8 - The Battle of Evesham takes place during the Second Barons' War in England, resulting in a decisive victory for King Edward I over rebel forces.

1297, September 11 - The Battle of Stirling Bridge occurs during the First War of Scottish Independence, where Scottish forces led by William Wallace defeat the English.

1305, September 7 - Pope Clement V moves the papal seat from Rome to Avignon, beginning the period known as the Avignon Papacy.

1314, September 24 - The Battle of Bannockburn takes place during the First War of Scottish Independence, resulting in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Scotland against the Kingdom of England.

1322, September 20 - The Battle of Mühldorf occurs during the Bavarian Civil War, where forces loyal to Emperor Louis IV defeat the Habsburgs, securing Louis' position as Holy Roman Emperor.

1340, September 29 - The Battle of Sluys takes place during the Hundred Years' War, with the English fleet under King Edward III achieving a major victory over the French fleet.

1346, September 26 - The Battle of Blanchetaque is fought during the Crécy campaign of the Hundred Years' War, where the English army successfully crosses the River Somme to engage the French forces.

1364, September 8 - The Treaty of Brétigny is signed, ending the first phase of the Hundred Years' War between England and France and granting significant territorial concessions to England.

1368, September 17 - The Ming dynasty is proclaimed in China, marking the end of the Yuan dynasty and the beginning of a new era of Chinese rule.

1380, September 8 - The Battle of Kulikovo takes place during the Mongol invasion of Russia, where the forces of Grand Prince Dmitry of Moscow defeat the Mongol army.

1394, September 17 -  King Charles VI of France ordered that all Jewish people be expelled from the kingdom. More

1396, September 25 - The Battle of Nicopolis occurs during the Crusade of Nicopolis, where the Ottoman Empire, led by Bayezid I, decisively defeats the combined European forces.

1399, September 30 - Henry Bolingbroke lands in England and begins his successful campaign to overthrow King Richard II, eventually becoming King Henry IV of England.

1400, September 29 - King Richard II of England dies under mysterious circumstances, leading to the ascension of Henry IV to the English throne.

1409, September 30 - The Council of Pisa opens, marking the beginning of the Western Schism in the Catholic Church, with multiple claimants to the papacy.

1422, September 1 - King Henry V of England dies, and his infant son Henry VI becomes the king, resulting in the minority rule and political instability in England.

1454, September 20 - The Treaty of Lodi is signed, bringing an end to the conflict between the Italian city-states of Milan, Florence, and Naples, establishing peace in the region.

1459, September 23 - The Battle of Blore Heath takes place during the Wars of the Roses in England, where the Yorkist forces, led by Richard Neville, defeat the Lancastrians.

1475, September 19 - The Battle of Sant'Andrea takes place during the Italian Wars, where the forces of Florence and Venice defeat the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples.

1480, September 27 - The Sistine Chapel is consecrated by Pope Sixtus IV, who commissioned the famous frescoes, including Michelangelo's ceiling.

1486, September 8 - The printing of the first edition of "Malleus Maleficarum," a treatise on witchcraft, is completed in Germany, contributing to the witch-hunt hysteria of the time.

1487, September 9 - Bartolomeu Dias sets sail from Portugal on an expedition to find a sea route to India, becoming the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa.

1492, September 2 - The Battle of Granada takes place, marking the final phase of the Spanish Reconquista, as the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella capture the city of Granada from the Moors.

1504, September 29 - Michelangelo's sculpture "David" is installed next to the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio, in Florence, Italy, replacing Donatello’s bronze sculpture of Judith and Holofernes”.

1513, September 25 - Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa becomes the first European to reach the Pacific Ocean after crossing the Isthmus of Panama.

1519, September 20 -  Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, with five ships and a crew of 270 men, sets sail from Sanlucar de Barrameda in southern Spain, on what become the first circumnavigation of the world and the first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic. Magellan himself died during the tumultuous three year voyage, with Spaniard Juan Sebastian Elcano completing the journey from the Phillipines back to Spain with a final crew of only 18 men on September 6 1522. Despite Magellan’s tragic end, his legacy has become synonymous with exploration and geography—including the Strait in South America that still bears his name. More

1522, September 6 - The expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan becomes the first to complete a circumnavigation of the globe, arriving back in Spain. Magellan himself died during the tumultuous three year voyage, with Spaniard Juan Sebastian Elcano completing the journey from the Phillipines back to Spain with a final crew of only 18 men ftom the original 270. More

1533, September 18 - Queen Elizabeth I is born, who would later become one of the most influential monarchs in English history.

1540, September 27 - Pope Paul III officially recognizes the Society of Jesus as a religious order by promulgating the bull Regimini Militantis Ecclesiae, which established the Jesuit Order. More

1542, September 28 -  Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo led the first European expedition that explored what is now the west coast of the United States. Cabrillo departed from the port of Navidad, Mexico on June 27, 1542. Three months later he arrived at "a very good enclosed port," which is known today as San Diego Bay. Cabrillo later died during the expedition at what is now San Miguel Island part of the Channel Islands off Santa Barbara But his crew continued on, led by Ferrelo, his first officer, possibly as far north as Oregon, before winter storms forced them back to Mexico. More

1555, September 25 - The Peace of Augsburg is signed, officially recognizing the division of Christianity and granting each prince in the Holy Roman Empire the right to choose their own religion.

1565, September 7 - The Great Siege of Malta ends, as the Ottoman Empire lifts its siege of the island after several months of intense fighting.

1565, September 8 - The Spanish Colonial Settlement of St. Augustine in Florida is inaugurated by the Spanish Admiral Don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés with 600 voyagers cheering. Menéndez named the colonial settlement St. Augustine in honor of the saint whose feast day fell on the day he first sighted land. It is the oldest continuously occupied settlement of European origin in the United States; established forty-two years before the English colonized Jamestown and fifty-five years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.

1571, September 29 - The Battle of Lepanto takes place, where a Holy League fleet defeats the Ottoman Empire in a major naval battle, halting Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean.

1580, September 24 - The Portuguese succession crisis is resolved when King Philip II of Spain is declared Philip I of Portugal, bringing Portugal under Spanish rule.

1598, September 22 - The Edict of Nantes is issued by King Henry IV of France, granting religious freedom to French Protestants and ending the French Wars of Religion.

1599, September 27 - The Treaty of Basel is signed, bringing an end to the War of the Spanish Succession and solidifying the rule of King Philip III of Spain.

1650, September 3 - The Battle of Dunbar takes place during the English Civil War, resulting in a decisive victory for the English Parliamentarians over the Scottish Covenanters.

1666, September 2-6 - The Great Fire of London breaks out and devastates much of the city, destroying thousands of buildings.

1609, September 12 - English explorer Henry Hudson discovers Manhattan Island and sails up the river that would later bear his name.

1619, September 20 - The first representative assembly in America, the House of Burgesses, meets in Jamestown, Virginia.

1620, September 16 - The Mayflower ship departs from Plymouth, England, with a group of English Pilgrims bound for the New World in search of a new life – some seeking religious freedom, others a fresh start in a different land. More  

1642, September 20 - The Battle of Edgehill takes place, marking the first major conflict of the English Civil War.

1666, September 2 - The Great Fire of London starts at a bakery in Pudding Lane shortly and spreads rapidly. It swept through central London for four days gutting the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall, while also extending past the wall to the west. More

1676, September 19 - The Battle of Lund takes place during the Scanian War, where Sweden defeats Denmark.

1683, September 12 - The Battle of Vienna occurs, as an alliance of European powers successfully repels the Ottoman Empire's siege of the city.

1692, September 19 - The last hangings resulting from the Salem witch trials take place in Massachusetts, United States.

1697, September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick is signed, ending the Nine Years' War between France and the Grand Alliance of European powers.

1698, September 11 - Tsar Peter I of Russia imposes a tax on beards as part of his efforts to modernize and Westernize the country.

1752, September 2 - The British Empire adopts the Gregorian calendar, skipping 11 days to correct the discrepancy with the Julian calendar.

1759, September 13 - The Battle of the Plains of Abraham occurs during the Seven Years' War, leading to the British capture of Quebec City and ultimately changing the course of Canadian history.

1776, September 7 - during the Revolutionary War, the American submersible craft Turtle attempts to attach a time bomb to the hull of British Admiral Richard Howe’s flagship Eagle in New York Harbor. It was the first use of a submarine in warfare. More

1776, September 9 - The Continental Congress formally declares the name of the new nation to be the “United States” of America. Formally replacing the term “United Colonies.” More

1776, September 22 - Revolutionary War Nathan Hale is executed by the British for spying. Born in Coventry in 1755, Hale attended Yale College and later became a schoolteacher. After hostilities erupted in Lexington and Concord in 1775, Hale joined a Connecticut militia and participated in the siege of Boston. More

1779, September 23 - John Paul Jones, commanding the U.S. ship Bonhomme Richard, wins the naval Battle of Flamborough Head  against the British ships of war Countess of Scarborough and Serapis, off the the coast of Yorkshire, England. The Americans suffered approximately 170 casualties, while the British suffered approximately 117 casualties and 2 captured ships. More

1779, September 27 - Without consulting Abigail, Adams accepts Congress' offer to return to Europe as minister plenipotentiary to negotiate peace with Britain, whenever America's enemy was ready to come to the table. Adams hadn't sought the post, but reveled in Congress' nearly unanimous decision to appoint him. More

1780 September 21 - Revolutionary War hero Benedict Arnold turned his back on his country and met secretly with British Major John Andre to discuss handing over West Point to the British, in return for the promise of 20,000 pounds and a British military command for Arnold. More 

1783, September 3 - The Treaty of Paris is signed, officially ending the American Revolutionary War and recognizing the United States as an independent nation. More

1787, September 17 - The U.S. Constitution is finally accepted and signed  The document consisted of a Preamble and  seven Articles. Some pointed to the missing bill of rights as a fatal flaw in the new document. A compromised was reached assuring that amendments would be immediately proposed to addressed the need for a bill of rights and the Constitution was signed by 39 of the 42 delegates still present at the convention when it was finished (Governor Edmund Randolph and George Mason, both from Virginia, and Elbridge Gerry from Massachusetts, declined to sign It). On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document, and it was subsequently agreed that government under the U.S. Constitution would begin on March 4, 1789 thus replacing the existing Articles of Confederation which had been adopted by the Continental Congress on 11/15/1777.
On September 25, 1789, the First Congress of the U.S. proposed 12 amendments to the Constitution with its own Preamble. Ten of the proposed 12 amendments were ratified by three-fourths of the State legislatures on December 15, 1791. They form what is now referred to as The Bill of Rights

1789, September 2 - The First Congress of the United States creates the Department of Treasury, a permanent institution for the management of government finances. Alexander Hamilton served as the first Secretary of the Treasury from 1789 to 1795. Hamilton was killed in a duel in 1804. More

1789, September 24 - The Judiciary Act of 1789 is signed into law by President George Washington. Officially titled "An Act to Establish the Judicial Courts of the United States." Article III of the Constitution established a Supreme Court, but left to Congress the authority to create lower federal courts as needed. The House of Representatives passed the Judiciary Act on Sept 17, 1789 and the Senate on July 17 1789. More

1789, September 25 - The United States Congress approves the Bill of Rights, comprising the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. More

1793, September 18 - President George Washington crosses the Potomac to lay the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol. More

1804, September 14 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition, exploring the western portion of the United States, reaches the Pacific Ocean.

1806, September 20 - After more than two years exploring the western wilderness, Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery arrived at the frontier village of La Charette, in modern Missouri. More

1810, September 16 - Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Catholic Parish priest, launches the Mexican War of Independence by issuing his "Grito de Dolores" (The Battle Cry of Dolores) from the church pulpit in the town of Dolores, calling for the end of of 300 years of the Spanish rule of Mexico, the redistribution of land and racial equality. Soon after, a peasant army was marching toward Mexico City. Hidalgo was later captured and later eventually executed, on July 30, 1811. Mexican Independence is officially celebrated on September 16.

1810, September 18 - Chiles Independence Day (Establishment of the Government Junta of Chile)

1812,  September 7 - The Battle of Borodino takes place during Napoleon's invasion of Russia, resulting in a costly victory for the French forces.

1812, September 14 - Napoleon and his Grande Armée enter the city of Moscow to find the city almost deserted and lacking the supplies they hoped to find for the French army. After waiting a few weeks for a surrender that never came and the threat of the approaching Russian winter, Napoleon orders the French army to leave Moscow.

1813, September 7 - The U.S. Receives The Nickname 'Uncle Sam".  During the War of 1812, Samuel Wilson, a meat packer from Troy, New York. was one of the suppliers to the U. S. Army. He labeled his barrels of beef with “U.S.” to indicate U.S. government property, but soldiers referred to the “U.S.” as Uncle Sam (Wilson). On September 7, 1813, a local newspaper picked up the story which eventually led to the widespread use of the nickname. Congress passed a resolution in 1961 that recognized Samuel Wilson as the inspiration for the symbol Uncle Sam.

1814, September 11- The battle of Plattsburgh, also called the Battle of Lake Champlain concludes  with an important American victory that saved New York from a British invasion via the Hudson River valley. The Americans included 1,500 regulars and about 2,500 militia commanded by Gen. Alexander Macomb, supported by a 14 ship American naval squadron under Commodore Thomas Macdonough. The British army of some 14,000 troops was commanded by Sir George Prevost. More

1814, September 14 - The poem "The Star-Spangled Banner" is written by Francis Scott Key during the bombardment of Fort
McHenry, later becoming the national anthem of the United States 1830, September 26 - The city of Liverpool, England, is proclaimed a borough by royal charter.

1821, September 15 - Costa Rica Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - El Salvador Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - Guatemala Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - Honduras Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - Nicaragua Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1822, September 7 - Brazil Independance day from Portugal (Declaration of independence by Pedro I of Brazil)

1845, September 16 - Phineas Wilcox is stabbed to death by fellow Mormons in Nauvoo, Illinois, because he was believed to be a spy. Wilcox was one of the first victims of "blood atonement," a since abandoned Mormon doctrine, that certain sins were so so serious as to put the sinner "beyond the reach of the atoning blood of Christ"  For these fallen sinners, their "only hope" lay in having "their own blood shed to atone." More

1846, September 23 - Astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle is the first to identify Neptune as the eighth planet orbiting around the Sun. The discovery was made based on mathematical calculations of its predicted position due to observed perturbations in the orbit of the planet Uranus. The discovery was made using a telescope since Neptune is too faint to be visible to the naked eye, owing to its great distance from the Sun. Astronomers soon discovered a moon orbiting Neptune, but it took more than a century to discover a second one. Our knowledge of distant Neptune greatly increased from the scientific observations made during Voyager 2’s flyby in 1989, including the discovery of five additional moons and confirmation of dark rings orbiting the planet. More

1847, September 14 - During the Mexican-American War, General Winfield Scott captures Mexico City after a successful attack on the port city of Veracruz and a series of victories. More

1850, September 9 - California is admitted into the Union becoming the 31st State

1854, September 27 -  Two ships collided about fifty miles off the coast of Newfoundland, killing at least 322 people of the 400 who were onboard. The collision was caused by a sudden, heavy fog that obscured the view of both ships' Captains. The larger ship was the wood hulled paddle steamer called SS Arctic. The smaller ship was called the SS Vesta, an iron hulled, propeller driven French ship. More

1857, September 11 - A Mormon militia in southern Utah seized a wagon train from Arkansas and brutally murdered 120 people. Soon after, records of the event were destroyed and Mormon leaders attempted a cover-up. The "Mountain Meadows Massacre" still troubles the descendants of both the attackers and victims. More

1859, September 1 - The Carrington Event was the most intense geomagnetic storm in recorded history. It was associated with a very bright solar flare and it created strong auroral displays that were reported globally and caused sparking and even fires in multiple telegraph stations. The geomagnetic storm was most likely the result of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the Sun colliding with Earth's magnetosphere. A geomagnetic storm of this magnitude occurring today would cause widespread electrical disruptions, blackouts, and could cause an internet apocalypse, sending large numbers of people and businesses offline  due to extended outages of the electrical power grid. More

1859, September 11 - The Royal Charter storm wrecks over 130 ships along the coast of England and Wales, resulting in the loss of around 800 lives.

1862, September 17 - The Battle of Antietam takes place during the American Civil War, resulting in the bloodiest single day of battle in U.S. history. It showed that the Union could stand against the Confederate army in the Eastern theater. It also gave President Abraham Lincoln the confidence to issue the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. More

1862, September 22 - President Lincoln issued the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, declaring that as of January 1, 1863 "all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free."  More

1863, September 22 - The preliminary Emancipation Proclamation is issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, declaring that all
slaves in Confederate territory are to be set free.

1870, September 20 - The Papal States, the last remnants of the Papal territories, are incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy, marking the end of the temporal power of the Pope.

1886, September 4 - Goyathlay, also known as Geronimo, hands his rifle to a U.S. General bringing the Apache armed resistance to an end after his tribe had been relocated to a reservation in Arizona 14 years earlier. His military resistance with his tiny band of Chiricahuas made him feared by white settlers. After his surrender, Goyathlay and about 30 followers, including children, were sent to Fort Marion in St. Augustine, destined fto years of imprisonment. On his deathbed, he confessed to his nephew that he regretted his decision to surrender. His last words were reported to be: "I should have never surrendered. I should have fought until I was the last man alive." He dictated his autobiography "Geronimo's Story of his Life" to S.M Barrett Superintendent of Education, Lawton,  .

1888, September 8 - The first successful publication of The National Geographic Magazine is released.

1894, September 25 - US President Grover Cleveland signs Proclamation 369 - Granting Amnesty and Pardon for the Offenses of Polygamy, Bigamy, Adultery, or Unlawful Cohabitation to Members of the Church of Latter-Day Saints. More

1897, September 19 - The world's first recorded automobile accident occurs in New York City, involving a motor vehicle and a cyclist.

1898, September 21 - The United States captures the city of Manila during the Spanish-American War, establishing American control over the Philippines.

1901, September 6 - William McKinley, the 25th president of the United States, is shot and mortally wounded by anarchist Leon Czolgosz  at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.  President McKinley died days later on September 14. He was the third American president to be assassinated, following Abraham Lincoln in 1865 and James A. Garfield in 1881.President Theodore Roosevelt was immediately sworn in as president. More

1904, September 21 -  The Nez Perce chief Joseph died in 1904 in Nespelem, Washington, of an undiagnosed illness and what his doctor called "a broken heart." His tomb remains in Nespelem today. More

1908, September 16 - William Durant creates General Motors which included Buick and Oldsmobile. Less than 16 months after GM’s incorporation, Durant had purchased other companies including  Cadillac, Oakland (Pontiac), McLaughlin (GM Canada) and GMC. More 

1908, September 22 - Bulgaria Independence day from the Ottoman Empire.

1908, September 27 - The very first Ford Model T, finishes assembly at the Piquette plant in Detroit. The production card lists it as Model 2090, car #1. It had 4 cylinders, 2 levers (the second for reverse), and 2 foot pedals. About 1,000 of these early Ts were produced. More

1913, September 29 - Inventor Rudolf Diesel disappeared from a steamer in route to London. His body was recovered on the shore days later. The circumstances surrounding his death are still a mystery. Some believe he may have committed suicide, while others speculate that he was murdered by coal industrialists. More

1914, September 5 - The First Battle of the Marne begins during World War I, resulting in a French victory and halting the German
advance towards Paris.

1914, September 22 - The German U-boat U-9 sinks three Royal Navy cruisers of the 7th Cruiser Squadron. The cruisers  Aboukir, the Hogue and the Cressy were on patrol on the North Sea. The sinking eroded confidence in the British government and damaged the reputation of the Royal Navy, when many countries were still undecided about taking sides in the war.

1918, September 4 - About 4500 U.S. troops land at Arkhangelsk, Russia (Archangel) as part of an Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Starting at 4500 military personnel the U.S. troops, peaked to about 13000. By the time they left in late 1919, 150 U.S. soldiers had been killed in action and about 100 more died from illness or accidents. More

1918, September 29 - The Hindenburg Line is finally broken by the allied force with Australian and US troops spearheading this battle, given the task of breaking defenses in the center.  Advances were made, but it was a struggle between the two forces. The fighting lasted four days and resulted in heavy losses. More

1919, September 25 - The Paris Peace Conference officially ends World War I and establishes the League of Nations.

1923, September 1 - The powerful Kanto earthquake and the ensuing 39.5 feet tsunami kill more than 140,000 in Yokohama and Tokyo More

1928, September 15 - Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming accidently discovers penicillin leading to a breakthrough in the development of antibiotics. The following year, Fleming published his findings in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology and presented his discovery to the Medical Research Club. To his surprise, his peers showed little interest in his work. He recruited leading chemists and experts to help purify penicillin from the mold without any success. Penicillin was labelled a laboratory curiosity and Fleming gave up attempts to purify it. It wasn't until the 1940's fueled by the needs from WW2 and an unprecedented cooperation between the United States and Great Britain to produce penicillin that Penicillin became commercially available in 1943. More 

1932, September 16 - Gandhi announces a fast "unto death"  in protest of the British government's proposal to separate India's electoral system by caste which would aggravate the Indian caste and religious divisions, and in support of his goal to end the Hindu prejudice and discrimination against the untouchables. More

1938, September 29-30 - The Munich Agreement is signed by Germany, Italy, France, and the United Kingdom, allowing Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.

1939, September 1 - World War II effectively begins with Germany's invasion of Poland,

1939, September 3 - France and the United Kingdom declare war on Germany

1939, September 17 - The Soviet Union invades Poland which was already in a state of war with Nazi Germany and occupies the Eastern part of Poland. At the end of September the division of Poland was confirmed by German–Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Demarcation which included a correction of the borders first drawn in the secret clause of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact. It was the beginning of a 2-year long occupation of Central Europe by two totalitarian regimes. More

1940, September 7 - The Blitz begins as German Luftwaffe planes bomb London, marking the start of a sustained aerial bombing campaign during World War II  on British towns and cities which went on until May 1941. More

1940, September 12 - Lascaux cave paintings are accidentally discovered by four boys examining a fox hole down which their dog had fallen on the hill of Lascaux.  The boys, in awe of what they had found, told their teacher, after which the process towards excavating the cave was set in motion. By 1948 the cave was ready to be opened to the public. More

1940, September 13 - Italy invaded Egypt from their colony in Libya. Having limited success, Hitler realized that Germany would have to support the Italians and on 11 February 1941 Major-General Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps landed at Tripoli. The British won some spectacular victories over the Italians, but found the Germans a much tougher nut to crack. More

1940, September 16 - The United States instituted the the first peacetime draft in United States' history. with the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, which required all men between the ages of 21 and 45 to register for the draft. Those who were selected from the draft lottery were required to serve at least one year in the armed forces. Once the U.S. entered WWII, draft terms extended through the duration of the fighting. By the end of the war in 1945, 50 million men between eighteen and forty-five had registered for the draft and 10 million had been inducted in the military. More

1940, September 27 - Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact, forming the Axis Powers alliance one year after the start of World War II. It created a defense alliance between the countries and was in part intended to deter the United States from entering the conflict. More

Tripartite Pact, agreement concluded by Germany, Italy, and Japan on September 27, 1940, one year after the start of World War II. It created a defense alliance between the countries and was largely intended to deter the United States from entering the conflict.

1941, September 8 - The Siege of Leningrad begins as German forces surround the city, leading to a brutal and prolonged siege that lasted for nearly 900 days. More

1941, September 9 - The first aerial bombing of the United States mainland by a foreign power. Japanese pilot Nobuo Fujita catapulted aboard a seaplane from the Japanese I-25 submarine near the coast of southern Oregon and headed east on a mission to drop an incendiary (fire) bomb on the thick forest and cause a massive fire that would shock Americans and divert resources from fighting the war. Once over forested land, Fujita released the bomb, which struck leaving a crater about three feet in diameter and about one foot deep. No major fire happened due to the wet conditions of the forest. More

1942, September 3 - The Battle of Stalingrad begins as German forces launch an offensive against the city, marking a turning point in World War II as the Soviet Union successfully defends and ultimately defeats the German army.

1942, September 12 - the RMS Laconia was sunk by the U-156 German Submarine. The ship was carrying 268 British soldiers and 80 civilians, and1,800 Italian prisoners of war who were being guarded by 160 Polish soldiers. Some 1,500 of Laconia’s passengers survived. primarily due to the efforts of the U-156 and three other German submarines which participated in the initial rescue operations.  More

1942, September 21 - The initial Superfortress XB-29 prototype first flew from Boeing Field in Seattle, Washington. The powerful Wright R-3350 engines experienced chronic overheating issues during testing, leading to the crash of the second prototype just north of Boeing Field on February 18, 1943. The first war debut took place in June 5, 1944, against Bangkok, as part of the  Allied campaign to liberate Burma from Japanese hands. More

1943, September 3 - Italy secretly signs an armistice with the Allies, effectively surrendering in World War II and leading to the collapse of Fascist rule in Italy. No public announcement was made until September 8. More

1943, September 3 - Montgomery’s 8th Army crosses the Strait of Messina from Sicily and lands at Calabria, beginning the invasion of the Italian mainland.

1943, September 9 - The Allied Fifth Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, USA, lands on Salerno, Italy, transported by the Western Naval Task Force, TF 80, commanded by Vice Admiral H. Kent Hewitt, USN.

1944, September 15 - Operation Stalemate II, The Battle of Peleliu: The 1st Marine Division lands on “White” and “Orange” beaches on the western side of the Island of Peleliu, three days after the Island underwent a heavy naval and air bombardment by the Third Fleet forces. Once ashore, the landing forces quickly realized that the pre-invasion bombardment had not been particularly effective. The cost of taking the island, was high.  On Peleliu, Marine casualties were 1,336 killed and 5,450 wounded while the 81st Infantry Division suffered 1,393 casualties including 208 killed in action. On Angaur, the 81st Infantry Division had 1,676 casualties, including 196 killed in action.  The Japanese lost an estimated 10,695 men, with an additional 301 taken as prisoners of war.

1944, September 17 - Operation Market Garden, a major Allied airborne operation, commences in the Netherlands with the goal of securing key bridges and opening a path into Germany. The operation ultimately falls short of its objectives.

1945, September 2 - Japan formally surrenders aboard the USS Missouri, marking the end of World War II and bringing about the official cessation of hostilities in the Pacific theater.

1945, September 2 - Ho Chi Minh, the Vietnamese Communist leader —seizes an opportunity to escape decades of French rule and declares Vietnam independence on the same day Japan surrenders to the Allies. In a deliberate appeal for American support, he opened his speech with the words: “All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among them are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness." The U.S did not support the Vietnamese struggle and instead adopted a neutral policy when on the same year, France went to war to recolonize Vietnam and in 1950, President Harry S. Truman authorized financial and military assistance to the French. All leading to the eventual U.S military involvement.
Vietnam's official estimate of war dead is as many as 2 million civilians on both sides and some 1.1 million North Vietnamese and Viet Cong fighters. The U.S. military has estimated that between 200,000 and 250,000 South Vietnamese soldiers died in the war. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. is inscribed with the names of 58,200 members of U.S. armed forces who had died or were missing as a result of the war including at least 100 names of servicemen who were actually Canadian citizens. Other countries that fought for South Vietnam on a smaller scale also suffered soldiers deaths; South Korea more than 4,000 dead, Thailand about 350, Australia more than 500, and New Zealand 37 deaths. These deaths, were in addition to the estimated 50,000 French losses during the first Indochina war. More

1945, September 2 - Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. More

1945, September 22 - General Patton declares during a Press interview ,that he had “never seen the necessity of the denazification program,” asserting that 98 per cent of the Nazis were just camp followers. In October 1945 he was relieved of his duties by the Allied High Command and recalled to the US.

1946, September 30th - The International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg delivers its verdicts, with several high-ranking Nazi officials found guilty of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other atrocities committed during World War II.

1947, September 2nd - The Partition of India takes effect, leading to the creation of the independent nations of India and Pakistan and resulting in widespread violence and mass migrations.

1948, September 17th - The Organization of American States (OAS) is founded in Bogota, Colombia, with the goal of promoting democracy, peace, and cooperation among the countries of the Americas.

1948, September 17 - The Nuremberg Trials of Nazi war criminals begin in Nuremberg, Germany.

1949, September 21st - The People's Republic of China is proclaimed by Chairman Mao Zedong, marking the establishment of a communist government in China.

1949. September 23 - US President Truman announces that the Soviet Union had tested a nuclear device several weeks earlier. The White House did not explain how the United States had detected the test, which had occurred on 29 August 1949 at Semipalatinsk, in northeastern Kazakhstan. More

1950, September 15 - On September 15, 1950, the soldiers, sailors, and Marines of X Corps landed at Inchon. Even though the Inchon plans had been leaked in U.S. media and throughout Japan, North Korea was unprepared for the landing. More

1952, September 2 - The Old Man and the Sea, written by Ernest Hemingway, is published and later wins the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.

1954, September 24 - The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is established, aimed at preventing the spread of communism in the region.

1955, September 19 - Argentina's President Peron is deposed after a revolt by the army and navy. He had ben reelected to his second term by a wide margin in 1952. He left Argentina and lived in exile and returned to Argentina in 1973 and was soon elected President for a third time More

1955, September 23 - The television series "The Mickey Mouse Club" premieres on American television, becoming an iconic part of
popular culture.

1957, September 4 - When integration began on September 4, 1957, the Arkansas National Guard was called in to "preserve the peace". Originally at orders of the governor, they were meant to prevent the black students from entering due to claims that there was "imminent danger of tumult, riot and breach of peace" However, President Eisenhower issued Executive Order 10730, which federalized the Arkansas National Guard and ordered them to support the integration on September 23 of that year, after which they protected the African American students. More

1957, September 19 - The US Military conducts the first-ever underground nuclear explosion as part of Operation Plumbbob. The test took place in Nevada. More

1959, September 14 - The Soviet spacecraft Luna 2 reaches the moon and crashes on its surface, making it the first spacecraft to contact another solar system body. More

1960, September 18 - Fidel Castro arrives in New York to address the UN General Assembly. His brief trip put the Cuban leader on the world stage. Days after his return to Cuba, the US imposed a trade embargo that would last more than half a century. Diplomatic relations with the island were severed in January 1961. More 

1960, September 22 - Mali Independence Day from France

1960, September 26 - The first-ever televised U.S. presidential debate takes place between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon.

1963, September 15 - The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, is bombed by white supremacists, resulting in the deaths of four young African-American girls.

1964, September 21 - Malta Independence Day from the U.K.

1966, September 30 -  Botswana Independence day from the UK (Effective date of the Botswana Independence Act 1966)

1968, September 6 - Eswatini Independence day from the UK

1969, September 1 - Libya's King Idris is removed from power in a coup d'état led by Muammar Qaddafi and the Free Patriotic Officers Movement Qaddafi remain in control of Libya October 20, 2011 when he was also deposed in a violent coup inspired by the Arab Spring protests.

1969, September 2 - The first ATM in the U.S goes live at one of Chemical Bank’s New York branches.. The bank was concerned that people would reject the idea of a cash machine that handled their money and saw such an expense as a big risk. However, the public quickly accepted the new machines and people were even willing to pay a small fee to use them. More

1970, September 1st - The deadliest hurricane of the 20th century, Hurricane Celia, makes landfall in Texas, causing widespread destruction and resulting in 11 deaths.

1970, September 21 - Oman gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1972, September 5th - The Palestinian terrorist group Black September attacks the Israeli Olympic team at the Munich Summer Olympics, resulting in the deaths of 11 Israeli athletes and coaches.

1973, September 11th - A military coup takes place in Chile, led by General Augusto Pinochet, overthrowing democratically elected socialist President Salvador Allende. This event marks the beginning of a brutal military dictatorship that would last for nearly 17 years during which over 2,300 people were killed, more than 30,000 tortured, and sent tens of thousands into exile. Reportedly, President Allende shot himself to death as troops stormed the burning palace. Many declassified documents have been released over the years which point to U.S involvement in Chile's Coup, while many other documents potentially central to understanding the exact role of the U.S. in Chile, during the 1960s and 1970s remain classified.

1973,  September 24 - Guinea-Bissau Independence day from Portugal.

1974, September 8th - President Gerald Ford grants a full pardon to former President Richard Nixon “a full, free, and absolute pardon ... for all offenses against the United States which he, Richard Nixon, has committed or may have committed or taken part in” while in office.“

1975, September 15 - Elizabeth Ann Seton is canonized (officially made a saint), by Pope Paul VI becoming the first native-born saint of the United States. More

1975, September 16 Papua New Guinea Independence Day from Australia

1975, September 30th - The Indonesian province of East Timor declares its independence from Portugal, leading to an Indonesian invasion and subsequent occupation that lasted until 1999.

1976, September 9 - Mao Zedong dies in Beijing at age 82. Mao's CCP-flag-draped body lay in state at the Great Hall of the People for one week where an estimated one million people, including diplomatic envoys, leaders of foreign communist parties, and foreign nationals in China paid their final respects. A three-minute moment of silence was observed in honor of the leader at the start of the 30-minute public funeral in Tiananmen Square, with reports that nearly all of China’s 800 million residents stood in silent tribute. 

1976,
September 17 - NASA Space Shuttle Enterprise Makes its Public Debut. More

1976, September 22nd - Former Argentine President Juan Perón returns to Argentina after 18 years of exile, reclaiming the presidency later that same year.

1977, September 7 - The Panama Canal Treaty is signed, stating that the Panama Canal Zone would cease to exist on the first of October, 1979, and the Canal itself would be turned over to the Panamanians at the end of 1999. A companion treaty stated that the U.S. could use its military to defend the Panama Canal against any threat to its neutrality. It took more than six months before the Senate voted. More

1977, September 15th - The Voyager 1 spacecraft is launched by NASA to explore the outer solar system. It would later become the first human-made object to reach interstellar space.

1978, September 17th - The Camp David Accords are signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, leading to a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.

1978, September 25 - A Boeing 727-214 airliner, operated by Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) as Flight 182, collides with a Cessna 172 during the landing approach at Lindbergh Field (SAN), today known as San Diego International Airport and crashes into a residential neighborhood. All 135 persons aboard the 727, both persons on the Cessna, and seven persons on the ground were killed. Another nine persons on the ground were injured. Twenty-two homes in a four-block area were destroyed or damaged. More

1979, September 7th - The Soviet Union launches the space probe Venera 12, which successfully lands on Venus and transmits data back to Earth.

1980, September 22nd - Iraq invades western Iran along the countries join border, initiating the Iran-Iraq War, which lasted for eight years and resulted in significant loss of life and economic damage.  More

1981, September 21 -  Belize Independence day from the UK (Effective day of the Belize Act 1981)

1981, September 4th - The Solidarity movement in Poland is officially recognized by the government after a wave of strikes and protests, marking a significant step in the fight for workers' rights and democracy.

1981, September 19 - Saint Kitts and Nevis Independence Day from the UK

1982, September 14th - The massacre of Sabra and Shatila takes place in Beirut, Lebanon, where Lebanese Christian militia, under the supervision of Israeli forces, kill hundreds to thousands of Palestinian refugees.

1983, September 1st - Korean Air Flight 007 is shot down by Soviet Union forces after it strays into Soviet airspace, resulting in the deaths of all 269 passengers and crew on board. More

1984, September 20th - The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) carries out a bombing in Brighton, England, targeting the Conservative Party conference. Although Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher survives, five people are killed in the attack.

1985, September 19th - An 8.1 magnitude earthquake strikes Mexico City, causing widespread devastation and resulting in the deaths of 10,000 people, 30,000 injured and thousands left homeless. More

1986, September 26th - The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act is passed by the United States Congress, imposing economic sanctions against South Africa in protest against its apartheid policies.

1987, September 24th - The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is signed, aiming to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of ozone-depleting substances.

1988, September 5th - The ceasefire in the Iran-Iraq War is declared, ending eight years of conflict and marking the end of one of the longest and deadliest wars of the 20th century.

1989, September 11th - Hungary opens its border with Austria, allowing thousands of East German refugees to flee to the West. This event contributed to the eventual fall of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of Germany.

1987, September 11 - The "Star Trek: The Next Generation" television series premieres, becoming a highly successful continuation of the Star Trek franchise.

1991, September 1 - Uzbekistan Independence Day from the Soviet Union

1991, September 8 - North Macedonia Independence Day from Yugoslavia

1991, September 9 -Tajikistan Independence Day from the Soviet Union

1991, September 21 - Armenia Independence Day from the Soviet Union. (1991 Armenian independence referendum)

1991, September 27 - Turkmenistan Independence Day from the Soviet Union

1993, September 13 - The Oslo Accords are signed between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), aiming to establish peace in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Negotiator Mahmoud Abbas signed a Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements at the White House. Israel accepted the PLO as the representative of the Palestinians, and the PLO renounced terrorism and recognized Israel’s right to exist in peace. More

1994, September 28 - The Passenger ferry, Estonia, sinks resulting in 852 lives lost. The official disaster report, published in 1997, said the fatal event started when the locks on the ferry’s bow door failed from the strain of the waves. Conspiracy theories questioning the official report pointed to an explosion onboard the ferry or a collision with an unidentified submarine. A new official investigation of the MS Estonia wreck was launched in the wake of the Swedish documentary, “Estonia: The Discovery that Changes Everything”, which premiered in 2020 and showed that the sunken cruise ferry had a large wide hole in the hull.  More

1995, September 19 -  The New York Times and The Washington Post publish the 35,000-word manifesto of Unabomber Ted Kaczynski, which called for revolution against a corrupt industrial-technological society and was instrumental in identifying and capturing him. Kaczynski entered Harvard University when he was 16-year-old on a scholarship, after skipping the sixth and 11th grades. During Kaczynski’s sophomore year at Harvard, in 1959, he was recruited for a psychological experiment that, unbeknownst to him, would last three years. The Washington Post and others have reported that the experiment run by Harvard psychologist Henry A. Murray was backed by the Central Intelligence Agency. More 

1997, September 6 - The funeral of Princess Diana takes place in London, with millions of people around the world watching the event on television.

1999, September 21 - An earthquake of  7.6 magnitude on the Richter scale occurs in Taiwan The death toll from Taiwan's devastating earthquake was 2,375 . I caused billions of dollars in damages and left an estimated 100,000 homeless.. More

2000, September 28th - The second Intifada, a period of intensified Israeli-Palestinian conflict, begins with the visit of Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, sparking protests and escalating violence in the region.

2001, September 11th - The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. take place, resulting in the loss of nearly 3,000 people in those cataclysmic hours, and significant damage to infrastructure.

2001, September 20th - The War in Afghanistan begins when the United States, supported by its allies, launches military operations against the Taliban regime in response to the 9/11 attacks.

2004, September 1st - The Beslan school siege begins in North Ossetia, Russia. A group of armed militants takes over a school, resulting in a prolonged hostage crisis and the tragic deaths of more than 330 people, including many children.

2005, September 2nd - Hurricane Katrina makes landfall in the United States, primarily affecting the Gulf Coast region. The hurricane causes widespread destruction and flooding, resulting in the loss of thousands of lives and significant damage to property.

2008, September 15th - Lehman Brothers, one of the largest investment banks in the world, files for bankruptcy, marking the beginning of the global financial crisis that would have far-reaching effects on the global economy.

2004, September 13th - The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine, establishing a framework for collective action to prevent genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity.

2007, September 13 - The United Nations adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples; setting a global standard for the treatment of Indigenous Peoples.  While the Declaration is not legally binding, it is a vital step in securing Indigenous rights worldwide. It has since been ratified by 143 countries. More
 
2007, September 26th - Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) experiences widespread protests led by Buddhist monks and activists, known as the Saffron Revolution, demanding democratic reforms and an end to military rule.

2008, September 29th - The stock market experiences a significant drop as the Dow Jones Industrial Average falls 777.68 points, the largest single-day point decline at that time, reflecting the deepening financial crisis and concerns over the global economy.

2009, September 1st - The Eurozone officially enters a recession, as confirmed by the European Union's statistical agency Eurostat, following the global financial crisis that began in 2008.

2009, September 11th - The 9/11 Memorial Museum opens to the public in New York City, commemorating the victims of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and preserving the history and memory of the tragic event.

2009, September 23rd - The military junta in Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) releases pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest after almost 15 years of confinement, allowing her to participate in political activities once again.

2009, September 25th - The King of Pop, Michael Jackson, passes away at the age of 50, leaving a lasting legacy as one of the most influential musicians in history.

2009, September 29th - NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) successfully impact the Moon's surface as part of a mission to search for water ice in the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar poles.

2009, September 29th - The H1N1 influenza virus, also known as the swine flu, is declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The virus spreads rapidly worldwide, resulting in widespread illness and increased public health measures.

2010, September 4 - The 2010 Canterbury earthquake strikes Christchurch, New Zealand.

2010, September 8 - A massive pipeline explosion in San Bruno, California.

2011,  September 17 - The Occupy Wall Street movement begins in New York City.

2011, September 20th - The "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy is officially repealed.

2011, September 11 - The U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi, Libya, is attacked.

2012, September 14 - Protests erupt in various countries in response to an anti-Islamic video.

2012, September 25 - World leaders adopt the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development at the United Nations.

2013, September 14th - A terrorist attack occurs at the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya.

2014, September 20 - The Colombian government and FARC sign a peace agreement.

2014, September 18 - Scotland holds a referendum on independence from the United Kingdom.

2015, September 25 - Hurricane Maria devastates Puerto Rico.

2015, September 30 - The U.S., Canada, and Mexico agree to the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).

2016, September 28 - The International Criminal Court convicts Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi.

2017, September 19 - A powerful earthquake strikes Mexico.

2017, September 20 - Hurricane Maria devastates Puerto Rico.

2018, September 29 - Indonesia is struck by a massive earthquake and tsunami.

2018, September 30 - The U.S., Canada, and Mexico agree to the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).

2019. September 20 - Millions participate in a Global Climate Strike, led by Greta Thunberg.

2019, September 23 - Greta Thunberg delivers a speech at the United Nations Climate Action Summit. 

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