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These are some of many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of February, listed by year. Dates provided for earlier time events may be approximate.

747 BCE, February 11 - Traditional founding date of Rome by Romulus.

660 BCE, February - Traditional accession of Emperor Jimmu, the legendary first Emperor of Japan.

509 BCE, February - Roman Republic established after the overthrow of the Roman monarchy.

490 BCE, February 12-13 - Battle of Marathon, where the Athenians defeated the Persians during the first Persian invasion of Greece.

356 BCE, February 7 - Birth of Alexander the Great in Macedonia.

338 BCE, February - Philip II of Macedon defeats Greek city-states, asserting Macedonian dominance.

310 BCE, February - Birth of the Indian Emperor Ashoka, one of the most influential rulers in history.

272 BCE, February 4 - Death of Pyrrhus of Epirus, a skilled military leader known for the Pyrrhic victories.

218 BCE, February - Hannibal begins his journey across the Alps with his army and elephants during the Second Punic War.

215 BCE, February - The Roman general Fabius Maximus begins his strategy of attrition against Hannibal during the Second Punic War.

207 BCE, February - Scipio Africanus wins the Battle of Metaurus against Carthaginians in Italy.

202 BCE, February - Battle of Zama, where Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal, ending the Second Punic War.

202 BCE, February - Liu Bang becomes Emperor Gaozu of Han, founding the Han Dynasty in China.

190 BCE, February - The Battle of Magnesia, where the Roman Republic and Pergamon defeated the Seleucid Empire.

176 BCE, February 5 - The third and final Punic War, between Rome and Carthage, comes to an end. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BCE, fought between Rome and Carthage lasting more than 100 years of fighting on land and sea across the western Mediterranean region with immense materiel and human losses on both sides. It ended in 146 BCE with a total Roman victory. More

168 BCE, February - The Roman Senate sends an embassy to Macedonia, leading to the beginning of the Third Macedonian War.

133 BCE, February 15 - Death of Tiberius Gracchus, Roman politician and reformer.

133 BCE, February - Attalus III, King of Pergamon, bequeaths his kingdom to the Roman Republic, marking the beginning of Roman rule in Asia Minor.

45 BCE, February - Julius Caesar abolishes the Roman Republic and becomes dictator perpetuo (dictator in perpetuity).

44 BCE, February 15 - Lupercalia festival during which Julius Caesar was assassinated in Rome.

31 BCE, February - Battle of Actium, where Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra, establishing himself as the undisputed ruler of Rome.

8 BCE, February - Dedication of the Ara Pacis Augustae, the Altar of Augustan Peace in Rome, commissioned by Emperor Augustus.

2 BCE, February - Dedication of the Temple of Concordia in Rome by Emperor Augustus.

62 CE, February - Earthquake in Pompeii, Italy, causing significant damage.

303 CE, February 23 - Martyrdom of Saint Polycarp in Smyrna, an important figure in early Christian history.

313 CE, February 27 - Edict of Milan, issued by Constantine the Great and Licinius, granting religious tolerance in the Roman Empire.

380 CE, February 27 - Edict of Thessalonica, Emperor Theodosius I declares Nicene Christianity as the official state religion of the Roman Empire.

395 CE, February 17 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I dies, leading to the division of the Roman Empire between his sons Arcadius and Honorius.

423 CE, February 17 - Emperor Theodosius II is born, becoming one of the longest-reigning emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire.

476 CE, February 28 - Deposition of the last Roman Emperor Romulus Augustulus by Odoacer, marking the end of the Western Roman Empire.

541 CE, February - The first recording of the Justinian Plague, an outbreak of bubonic plague during the reign of Emperor Justinian I.

628 CE, February 11 - Battle of Nineveh, Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Sassanid Persian Empire, marking a turning point in the Byzantine-Sassanid wars.

628 CE, February 22 - Byzantine Emperor Heraclius issues the Ecthesis, an attempt to reconcile monophysite Christians with the Chalcedonian Church.

740 CE, February 25 - Battle of Bagdoura, Berber forces under Uqba ibn Al-Hajjaj defeat the Berghouata tribe in North Africa.

869 CE, February 28 - Fourth Council of Constantinople concludes, condemning Photius and reconciling the East-West Schism temporarily.

869 CE, February 28 - Eighth Ecumenical Council, the Fourth Council of Constantinople, concludes with decisions against Photius and reaffirming Nicene Christianity.

962 CE, February 2 - Otto I is crowned Holy Roman Emperor, initiating the Ottonian dynasty in Germany.

962 CE, February 14 - Pope John XII crowns Otto I as Holy Roman Emperor.

962 CE, February 15 - Benedict V becomes Pope.

962 CE, February 23 - Pope John XII crowns Otto I's son Otto II as co-emperor.

962 CE, February 26 - Otto I's wife Adelaide is crowned empress by Pope John XII.

964 CE, February 8 - Pope Leo VIII dies, ending the only reign by a layman in papal history.

969 CE, February 13 - Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas is murdered by his wife Theophano and her lover John I Tzimiskes, leading to Tzimiskes' ascent to the throne.

983 CE, February 14 - Pope Benedict VII dies after a reign marked by the struggle between the papacy and the Roman nobility.

987 CE, February 2 - Hugh Capet is crowned King of France, founding the Capetian dynasty.

987 CE, February 6 - Accession of Pope John XV, succeeding Pope John XIV.

987 CE, February 10 - Hugh Capet is crowned King of France in Noyon.

992 CE, February 8 - Otto III becomes Holy Roman Emperor at the age of 16.

998 CE, February 13 - Death of Emperor Taizong of Song, a significant ruler in Chinese history.

999 CE, February 14 - Gerbert of Aurillac becomes Pope Sylvester II.

999 CE, February 28 - Death of Pope Gregory V, the first German Pope.

1001, February - Stephen I becomes King of Hungary.

1004, February 4 - King Sweyn I of Denmark reconquers England.

1009, February 14 - First known mention of the city of Gundelfingen, Germany.

1014, February - Byzantine Emperor Basil II conquers Bulgaria after a long campaign.

1016, February - Cnut the Great becomes King of England after the death of Edmund II.

1027, February 22 - Death of Romanos III Argyros, Byzantine Emperor, possibly murdered by his wife Zoe.

1033, February 3 - Death of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor.

1043, February - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England.

1045, February 19 - Pope Gregory VI resigns as pope amid the scandal of simony (selling of church offices).

1054, February 15 - The Great Schism: Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople is excommunicated by Pope Leo IX, leading to the East-West Schism.

1055, February 10 - Abdication of Empress Theodora, ending the Macedonian dynasty in the Byzantine Empire.

1066, February 10 - The death of Edward the Confessor triggers the struggle for the English throne, eventually leading to the Battle of Hastings.

1067, February - The first stone of the Tower of London is thought to have been laid.

1071, February 23 - Battle of Manzikert: Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Empire, leading to the loss of Anatolia.

1076, February 14 - Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV during the Investiture Controversy.

1079, February 22 - Construction of Rochester Castle in England begins.

1081, February 28 - Alexios I Komnenos becomes Byzantine Emperor after the death of Nikephoros III.

1085, February - Alfonso VI of Castile captures the city of Toledo, Spain, from the Moors.

1086, February - The compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey of England initiated by William the Conqueror, begins.

1087, February 9 - Death of William the Conqueror, King of England.

1091, February 13 - The Barbary Crusade: Norman forces under Roger I of Sicily capture the city of Palermo.

1095, February 14 - Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.

1098, February - Crusaders under Bohemond I of Antioch defeat the Fatimid Egyptians at Antioch.

1100, February 2 - Death of King William II of England in a hunting accident, leading to the accession of Henry I.

1100, February 9 - Anselm of Canterbury becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.

1100, February 14 - First known reference to the village of Potten End, England.

1100, February 18 - Henry I of England marries Matilda of Scotland, securing a crucial alliance.

1100, February 23 - Duke Welf I is assassinated, possibly on orders from Emperor Henry IV.

1101, February - King Baldwin I of Jerusalem captures Acre from the Fatimids.

1103, February - Magnus III of Norway becomes King of Norway.

1106, February 6 - Death of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor.

1107, February 10 - Death of Edgar, King of Scotland.

1107, February 16 - Death of Edgar Ætheling, the last male member of the Anglo-Saxon royal family of England.

1111, February 13 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

1113, February - Baldwin II becomes King of Jerusalem upon the death of his cousin Baldwin I.

1119, February - The Order of the Knights Templar is officially established.

1120, February 2 - The White Ship sinks in the English Channel, resulting in the death of William Adelin, heir to King Henry I of England.

1126, February 14 - Death of William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, and troubadour poet.

1128, February 24 - Assassination of Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, in the Church of St. Donatian in Bruges.

1130, February 14 - Roger II is crowned King of Sicily.

1130, February 22 - Antipope Anacletus II crowns Roger II of Sicily as King of Sicily.

1135, February 1 - Death of Henry I of England, leading to a period of civil war known as The Anarchy.

1138, February - Battle of the Standard: Scottish forces under King David I are defeated by the English near Northallerton in Yorkshire.

1141, February 2 - Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I, is declared the Lady of the English.

1144, February - The siege of Edessa: Zengi, Atabeg of Mosul, captures Edessa, sparking the Second Crusade.

1153, February - The Treaty of Winchester: Stephen of Blois recognizes Henry Plantagenet as his heir in exchange for peace.

1154, February - Henry II becomes King of England after the death of King Stephen.

1158, February - Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa grants Lübeck city rights, leading to the establishment of the Hanseatic League.

1162, February - Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, returns to England from exile.

1164, February - The Council of Clarendon: King Henry II of England attempts to assert control over the church and clergy.

1173, February - Revolt of 1173–1174: Henry the Young King rebels against his father, Henry II of England, with the support of King Louis VII of France and other allies.

1177, February - Treaty of Venice: Pope Alexander III and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa reach an agreement, ending the papal-imperial conflict.

1185, February - The Uprising of Asen and Peter: Asen and Peter declare independence from the Byzantine Empire, establishing the Second Bulgarian Empire.

1189,
February - Richard the Lionheart is crowned Duke of Normandy.

1192, February 4 - The Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Richard the Lionheart and Saladin, ending the Third Crusade.

1199, February 6 - Death of King Alfonso II of Aragon.

1204, February - The Fourth Crusade begins the siege of Constantinople.

1208, February 22 - The Papal bull "Ad abolendam" is issued by Pope Innocent III, sanctioning the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars.

1214, February 27 - Battle of La Roche-aux-Moines: English forces under William Marshal defeat the French.

1215, February 3 - King John of England offers his kingdom to the Pope, making England a papal fief.

1215, February 19 - The Fourth Lateran Council, convened by Pope Innocent III, begins in Rome.

1229, February - Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, crowns himself King of Jerusalem in Jerusalem.

1238, February - The Mongols begin their siege of the city of Ryazan in Russia.

1242, February 5 - Battle of Taillebourg: King Louis IX of France defeats Henry III of England.

1244, February 18 - The Sixth Crusade ends with the surrender of the Egyptian city of Damietta to the crusaders.

1258, February 10 - The Mongols under Hulagu Khan capture and sack Baghdad, bringing an end to the Abbasid Caliphate.

1260,
February 10 - Hulagu Khan, Mongol ruler, is defeated at the Battle of Ain Jalut in present-day Israel by the Mamluks, halting Mongol expansion into the Middle East.

1261, February 5 - Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos recaptures Constantinople, ending the Latin Empire.

1266, February 26 - Battle of Benevento: Charles of Anjou defeats the Hohenstaufen Frederick II.

1276, February 22 - Pope Innocent V becomes the head of the Catholic Church.

1284, February 23 - Statute of Rhuddlan: King Edward I of England creates laws for Wales.

1288, February - The Battle of Worringen: Duke John I of Brabant defeats Duke Henry VI of Limburg, leading to the collapse of the Duchy of Limburg.

1291, February 19 - Ghazan, the Mongol ruler of the Ilkhanate, converts to Islam, marking a significant shift in the Mongol Empire.

1296, February 10 - First War of Scottish Independence: King Edward I of England sacks Berwick-upon-Tweed during his invasion of Scotland.

1297, February 14 - Battle of Stirling Bridge: William Wallace defeats the English forces under John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey.

1300, February 8 - King Edward of England calls for a parliamentary assembly to discuss taxation and other issues.

1301, February - Edward I of England captures William Wallace, a prominent Scottish rebel, near Glasgow.

1302, February 18 - Battle of the Golden Spurs: Flemish militia defeat French knights in Kortrijk, Belgium.

1303, February 17 - The French Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull "Unam Sanctam," asserting papal supremacy over secular rulers.

1303, February 18 - Battle of Roslin: Scots under John Comyn and Simon Fraser defeat English forces.

1304, February 22 - Scottish independence leader William Wallace is captured by English forces near Glasgow.

1306, February 10 - Robert the Bruce kills John Comyn, his rival for the Scottish crown, in Dumfries.

1307, July 7 - Edward II becomes King of England after the death of his father, Edward I.

1310, February - Dante Alighieri becomes a prior of Florence, Italy.

1312, February 1 - King Edward II of England marries Isabella of France.

1308, February 8 - King Edward II of England marries Isabella of France.1

1310, February - Dante Alighieri becomes a prior of Florence, Italy.

1312, February 1 - King Edward II of England marries Isabella of France.

1314, February - Construction begins on the Notre-Dame de Paris Cathedral in France.

1315, February 23 - Battle of Monte Catini: Forces loyal to Florence defeat those of Pisa in Italy

1317, February 4 - Pope John XXII issues the papal bull "Quia vir reprobus," condemning the teachings of Marsilius of Padua.

1322, February - King Edward II of England suppresses the rebellion of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, at the Battle of Boroughbridge.

1327, February 1 - Edward III becomes King of England after the abdication of his father, Edward II.

1330, February 8 - Birth of William of Ockham, a prominent philosopher and theologian known for Occam's Razor.

1336, February 24 - Battle of Buçaco: Portuguese forces defeat the Castilians during the 14th-century Portuguese Crisis.

1343, February 26 - Pope Clement VI issues the papal bull "Unigenitus," condemning the ideas of the Franciscan Spirituals.

1349, February - Strasbourg Massacre: Jews in Strasbourg, accused of causing the Black Death, are burned at the stake.

1355, February - St. Scholastica Day riot: A confrontation between Oxford University students and townsfolk leads to a two-day riot resulting in numerous deaths.

1360, February 8 - Treaty of Brétigny: A peace treaty ends the first phase of the Hundred Years' War between England and France.

1361, February 1 - Edward III of England proclaims himself King of France, escalating the Hundred Years' War.

1367, February 19 - Battle of Nájera: English forces under Edward, the Black Prince, defeat the Franco-Castilian forces of Henry of Trastámara during the Hundred Years' War.

1377, February 21 - Pope Gregory XI moves the Papal See back to Rome from Avignon, ending the Avignon Papacy.

1386, February 28 - Union of Krewo: Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, converts to Christianity and agrees to marry the Queen of Poland, Jadwiga, forming a dynastic union.

1389, February 28 - Battle of Kosovo: Ottoman Empire defeats Serbian forces, resulting in heavy casualties on both sides and solidifying Ottoman control in the Balkans.

1397, February 17 - Battle of Rudau: Teutonic Knights defeat the Lithuanians under Grand Duke Vytautas.

1400, February 18 - Richard II of England orders the execution of Henry Percy, sparking the rebellion known as the Percy Rebellion.

1400, February 20 - Battle of Erquelinnes: Armies of the County of Hainaut and the Duchy of Brabant engage in conflict, marking the start of the Brabant Revolution.

1400, February 21 - Rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr: Welsh forces under Owain Glyndŵr revolt against English rule in Wales.

1400, February 23 - Battle of Kassel: German mercenaries under Enguerrand VII of Coucy defeat Hainaut forces during the Brabant Revolution.

1403, February 1 - Henry IV of England's forces defeat rebel forces led by Henry "Hotspur" Percy at the Battle of Shrewsbury.

1405, February 22 - The Hongxi Emperor ascends to the throne of China following the death of his father, the Yongle Emperor.

1408, February 4 - Death of Roman Catholic theologian and philosopher William of Ockham.

1413, February 20 - Henry V becomes King of England upon the death of his father, Henry IV.

1416, February 17 - Duke John the Fearless of Burgundy orders the assassination of his cousin, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, leading to a civil war in France known as the Armagnac-Burgundian Civil War.

1420, February 10 - Treaty of Troyes: Henry V of England and Charles VI of France sign an agreement declaring Henry as heir to the French throne and marrying him to Charles's daughter Catherine of Valois.

1429, February 12 - Joan of Arc arrives in the city of Orléans during the Hundred Years' War, eventually leading French forces to victory.

1431, February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc begins in Rouen, France, led by a pro-English ecclesiastical court.

1435, February 17 - The Congress of Arras is convened to negotiate peace between Burgundy and France during the Hundred Years' War.

1440, February 7 - The Prussian Confederation is established to oppose the Teutonic Knights and seek autonomy within the Kingdom of Poland.

1447, February 23 - Vlad the Impaler (Dracula) becomes the ruler of Wallachia for the first time, starting his legacy.

1450, February - Jack Cade leads a rebellion against King Henry VI of England in the Kent region, known as Cade's Rebellion.

1451, February 3 - Mehmed II, inherits the throne to the Ottoman Empire when his father Murad II dies.  Mehmed II also known as The Conqueror is one of the famous sultans of Ottoman Empire. He had ruled the Ottoman for a brief time, from 1444 to 1446, after his father. After that time Sultan Murad II renounced the throne. Mehmed II ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1451 to 1481. More

1455, February 22 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first book, the Gutenberg Bible, using movable type in Mainz, Germany.

1459, February 17 - The Battle of Rovine: Vlad the Impaler defeats a large Ottoman army, temporarily halting Ottoman expansion into Wallachia.

1461, February 29 - The Battle of Towton: Edward IV defeats Henry VI during the Wars of the Roses, becoming the King of England.

1466, February 19 - The Second Peace of Thorn is signed, ending the Thirteen Years' War between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order.

1478, February 23 - George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, is executed for treason against his brother, King Edward IV of England.

1483, February 11 - King Edward IV of England dies, and his son, Edward V, ascends to the throne, initiating the brief reign known as the Princes in the Tower.

1484, February 12 - Pope Innocent VIII issues the papal bull "Summis desiderantes affectibus," authorizing the Inquisition to prosecute witchcraft.

1488, February 28 - Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer, reaches the Cape of Good Hope in his attempt to establish a sea route to India.

1492, February 18 - Pope Innocent VIII launches the Spanish Inquisition to combat heresy, contributing to the persecution of Jews and Muslims in Spain.

1493, February 20 - Explorer Christopher Columbus arrives back in Lisbon, Portugal, following his first voyage to the Americas.

1497, February 11 - Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci leaves Cadiz, Spain, on his first voyage to the New World.

1498, February 20 - Vasco da Gama's fleet reaches Mozambique during his voyage to India, exploring the East African coast.

1500, February 29 - Spanish explorer Vicente Yáñez Pinzón discovers Brazil while captaining a ship in a fleet led by Pedro Álvares Cabral.

1502, February 17 - Vasco da Gama sets sail on his second voyage to India, aiming to secure Portugal's trade interests.

1503, February 18 - Pope Julius II issues a papal bull against slavery, condemning the enslavement of indigenous peoples in the Americas.

1504, February 29 - Christopher Columbus uses a lunar eclipse to secure provisions during his stranded stay in Jamaica.

1503, February 8 - Construction begins on the Holy Trinity Bridge in Paris, France.

1509, February 3 - The naval Battle of Diu takes place in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese and the Ottoman Empires. The Portuguese prevailed establishing control of the trade. More

1509, February 21 - Henry VIII becomes King of England following the death of his father, Henry VII.

1512, February 29 - Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci arrives back in Spain after his final voyage to the New World.

1513, February 24 - Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León sets foot in Florida, the first known European arrival in what is now the United States.

1516, February 23 - The Fifth Council of the Lateran, an important council of the Roman Catholic Church, is convened by Pope Leo X in Rome.

1525, February 24 - Battle of Pavia: Spanish and Imperial forces defeat the French, capturing King Francis I of France during the Italian Wars.

1533, February 23 - King Henry VIII secretly marries Anne Boleyn, leading to the English Reformation and the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church.

1542, February 14 - Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII, is executed for adultery and treason.

1547, February 28 - King Edward VI of England is crowned at Westminster Abbey at the age of nine following the death of Henry VIII.

1554, February 12 - Lady Jane Grey, who briefly ruled as Queen of England, is executed for treason.

1559, February 15 - Queen Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey.

1564, February 15 - Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist, is born in Pisa, Italy.

1570, February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the papal bull "Regnans in Excelsis."

1575, February 24 - Université de Reims is founded in France by a bull of Pope Gregory XIII.

1582, February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII issues the papal bull "Inter gravissimas," reforming the calendar and introducing the Gregorian calendar.

1587, February 8 - Mary, Queen of Scots, was executed at Fotheringhay Castle, in Northamptonshire. After nineteen years in captivity, she was found guilty of plotting the assassination of her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I. More

1590, February 8 - The first recorded performance of Shakespeare's play "Henry VI, Part 1" takes place.

1594, February 5 - Flemish painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder dies in Brussels, Belgium.

1597, February 28 - Irish rebel Hugh O'Neill signs the Second Treaty of Dungannon, effectively ending the Nine Years' War in Ireland.

1600, February 8 - Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher and astronomer, is burned at the stake for heresy by the Roman Inquisition in Rome.

1600, February 19 - The stratovolcano Huaynaputina,  located on the southern Peruvian Andes range, explodes in the most violent eruption in South American recorded history and one of the largest volcanic eruptions in world history over the past 2000 years. eruptions and earth tremors continue until the first week in March. It has been reported that this event dramatically affected the weather and environment in China and the Korean Peninsula. More

1653, February 2 -  New Amsterdam is given municipal rights and becomes a city. In 1664, the English took over New Amsterdamand renamed it New York after the Duke of York (later James II & VII).

1700. February 12 - The Great Northern War begins between Sweden and the coalition of Russia, Saxony, Poland, and Denmark-Norway, during the reign of Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great), who wanted to gain access to the Black Sea. In 1715 Prussia and Hannover joined the war against Sweden. The King of Hannover was also King George II of Great Britain. Many battles were fought over the 21 years, but Russia finally defeated Sweden at the Battle of Poltava in 1709, although a formal peace treaty was not signed until 1721. More

1703, February 16 - The Tsar of Russia, Peter the Great, founds St. Petersburg, later established as the capital of Russia.

1709, February 11 - Alexander Selkirk is rescued by Woodes Rogers after being marooned on a desert island, inspiring Daniel Defoe's novel "Robinson Crusoe."

1713, February 13 - The Treaty of Utrecht is signed, ending the War of the Spanish Succession and reshaping European alliances.

1725, February 8 - Peter I,  also known as Peter the Great dies from bladder gangrene at he age of 52. He was a very controversial and absolute monarch that managed to expand and westernize Russia's culture and to establish it as a major European power and an empire. Peter the Great moved the capital of Russia from Moscow to St. Petersburg. where it remained the capital of Russia until the communist revolution in 1918. More

1726, February 8 - The Supreme Privy Council is established in Russia, streamlining administrative processes.

1732, February 22 - The first president of the United States, George Washington, is born in Westmoreland County, Virginia.

1744, February 22 - War of the Austrian Succession: The French fleet bombards Plymouth, England.

1757, February 8 - The British recapture Calcutta when Robert Clive led forces defeat  Siraj-ud-daullah on the battlefield of Plassey. More

1757, February 23 - The Battle of Chandannagar takes place, leading to the capture of the French fort by the British during the Seven Years' War.

1763, February 10 - The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Seven Years' War and transferring Canada from France to Britain.

1768, February 6 - The first American chartered fire insurance company, the Philadelphia Contributionship, is founded.

1778, February 6 - France recognizes American independence and signs the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the United States during the American Revolutionary War.

1783, February 4 - Britain formally declares an end to hostilities with its former colonies, recognizing the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.

1787, February 21 - The Confederation Congress convenes to put the United States' newly written Constitution into effect.

1793, February 1 - France declares war on Great Britain and the Netherlands, marking the beginning of the War of the First Coalition.

1796, February 9 - Napoleon Bonaparte marries Josephine de Beauharnais, marking the beginning of their tumultuous relationship.

1789, February 4 - The State electors under the Constitution unanimously elect George Washington, the first president of the United States by all 69 presidential electors who cast their votes. John Adams of Massachusetts, who received 34 votes, was elected vice president. More

1799, February 9 - The USS Constellation, the first American warship under the Constitution, is launched in Baltimore, Maryland.

1800, February 9 - The Treaty of San Ildefonso is signed between France and Spain, leading to the retrocession of Louisiana from Spain to France.

1801, February 3 - John Marshall is appointed as Chief Justice of the United States.

1803, February 24 - The United States Supreme Court establishes its power of judicial review in the landmark case of Marbury v. Madison.

1806, February 11 - A British expeditionary force captures the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch during the Napoleonic Wars.

1818, February 12 - Chile formally declares independence from Spain, on the first anniversary of the pivotal victory over the Spanish at Chacabuco by the forces of Argentinian Jose San Martin and Chilean Bernardo O'Higgins, Although the decisive victory over the Spanish did not come until April 1818 at the Battle of Maipú. Chile's independence was formally recognized by Spain in 1844, when full diplomatic relations were established.

1819, February 22 - Spain cedes Florida to the United States via the Adams–Onís Treaty.

1824, February 9 - The United States adopts a new flag, featuring 24 stars to represent the number of states in the union after Missouri's admission.

1828, February 12 - George Washington's birthday is declared a federal holiday in the United States, later becoming Presidents' Day.

1836, February 23 - The Battle of the Alamo begins in San Antonio, Texas, between Texan rebels and Mexican forces during the Texas Revolution.

1848, February 2 - The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought an official end to the Mexican-American War (1846-48), is signed at Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city to which the Mexican government had fled with the advance of U.S. forces. By its terms, Mexico ceded 55 percent of its territory, including the present-day states California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, most of Arizona and Colorado, and parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Wyoming. Mexico also relinquished all claims to Texas, and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern boundary with the United States.

1848, February 21 - Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish "The Communist Manifesto."

1852, February 11 - The first British public toilets for women are opened in Bedford Street, London.

1855, February 22 - The Pennsylvania State University is founded as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania.

1858, February 11 - Fourteen-year-old Bernadette Soubirous (Later St. Bernadette) claims to have seen the Virgin Mary in a small town located near Lourdes in the foothills of the Pyrenee mountains. in southern France. This was the first of 18 reported encounters, the last one took place on July 16, 1858. More

1859, February 14 - Oregon is admitted as the 33rd state of the United States.

1861, February 4 - Seven seceding states  — South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas  meet in Montgomery, Alabama, and create the Confederate Constitution, a document similar to the United States Constitution, but with greater stress on the autonomy of each state. Jefferson Davis was named provisional president of the Confederacy until elections could be held. Four more States followed the secession path — Virginia (April 17, 1861), Arkansas (May 6, 1861), North Carolina (May 20, 1861), and Tennessee (June 8, 1861). These eleven states eventually formed the Confederate States of America. More 

1863, June 20 - West Virginia Is Born. Residents of the western counties of Virginia did not wish to secede along with the rest of the state. This section of Virginia was admitted into the Union as the state of West Virginia on June 20, 1863.

1865, February 1 - Abraham Lincoln approves the 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, abolishing slavery.

1867, February 1 - The United States Congress passes the Reconstruction Act, targeting the South for reconstruction after the Civil War.

1870, February 3 - The 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Voting Rights, is ratified allowing suffrage for all races and colors. More 

1870, February 25 - Hiram Rhodes Revels becomes the first African American to serve in the United States Senate.

1873, February 20 - University College London becomes the first university in England to admit women.

1878, February 19 - The patent for the phonograph is issued to Thomas Edison. More 

1883, February 27 - Oscar Wilde's play "Salomé" is premiered in Paris.

1891, February 15 - All-time high temperatures are recorded in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia.

1896, February 15 - The Western Australian gold rush begins, leading to significant gold discoveries in Kalgoorlie.

1897, February 2 - Alfred L. Cralle, is granted a patent for the first ice cream scoop, Cralle was an African American businessman and inventor who noticed ice cream servers having difficulty getting the popular confection desired by the customer into the cone they were usually holding. The ice cream tended to stick to spoons and ladles, requiring the server to use two hands and at least two separate implements to serve customers. The invention solved a real problem and spread so quickly that people soon forgot or never knew ,Cralle as the inventor, so he never profited from his invention. More

1897. February 9 - The British invasion of the Kingdom of Benin begins. The operation was named the Benin Punitive Expedition and part of its objectives was to capture the Benin Oba. The British invasion force of about 1,200 Royal Marines, sailors and Niger Coast Protectorate Forces. Eventually, Benin City was captured by the expedition, looted and set ablaze including the Palace building itself. The British occupied Benin, which was absorbed into the British Niger Coast Protectorate and eventually into British colonial Nigeria. More

1898, February 15 - The USS Maine explodes and sinks in Havana Harbor, leading to the start of the Spanish-American War. More

1901, February 25 - J.P. Morgan incorporates the United States Steel Corporation, the first billion-dollar corporation.

1903, February 15 -  The first "Teddy bear" goes on sale. Named after President Theodore Roosevelt, the stuffed bear was designed by Rose Michtom, wife of Morris Michtom, a Brooklyn, New York, resident who owned a candy shop where the first Teddy bear went on sale. More 

1903, February 18 - The first successful powered airplane flight is made by the Wright brothers in North Carolina.

1904, February 8 - Japan launches a surprise attack against the Russian-held Port Arthur, along the coast of Manchuria, beginning the Russo-Japanese War. Russia faced many defeats as it battled Japan while also fighting a revolution on the home front. In September 1905, President Teddy Roosevelt negotiates peace between the two countries, earning him the Nobel Peace Prize. More

1909, February 12 - The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded. More

1912, February 12 - Pu Yi, the last Qing dynasty Emperor of China, is forced to abdicate, ending 267 years of Manchu rule in China and 2,000 years of imperial rule. The former emperor, only six years old at the time, was allowed to keep up his residence in Beijing’s Forbidden City, and he took the name of Henry Pu Yi. More

1913, February 2 - The Grand Central Terminal officially opened to great fanfare at 12:01am on Sunday, February 2, 1913. Although construction was not yet entirely complete, more than 150,000 visited on opening day. New York City would never be the same. More

1913, February 3 - The 16th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, establishing the federal income tax. More

1917, February 7 - The Scottish ship, SS California , homeward-bound and approaching Ireland at full steam, was attacked by the German U-boat SM U-85 and sank in nine minutes, 38 miles off the coast of Ireland. More

1918, February 3 - The Twin Peaks Tunnel in San Francisco begins service as the world's longest streetcar tunnel.

1922, February 6 - The Washington Naval Treaty is signed, limiting the naval armaments of major world powers.

1923, February 16 -  The burial chamber of King Tutankhamun is unsealed and British archaeologist Howard Carter enters the ancient tomb. The tomb had been discovered  in the Valley of the Kings the previous year on November 22, more than 3,300 years after Tutankhamun's death and burial. Most pharaohs were plundered by graverobbers in ancient times, however Tutankhamun's tomb was hidden by debris for most of its existence and became the first known largely intact royal burial from ancient Egypt.

1929, February 14 - The St. Valentine's Day Massacre occurs in Chicago, involving a gang-related shooting that left seven dead.

1930, February 18 - The dwarf planet Pluto is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. Tombaugh, was  24-year-s old at the time and had no formal training in astronomy.

1933, February 15 -  President-Elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt narrowly escapes an assassination attempt shortly after giving a speech at Bayfront Park in Miami. The would-be assassin, Guiseppe Zangara, an unemployed bricklayer, fired 5 shots towards Roosevelt who was standing on stage, fatally wounding the Mayor of Chicago Anton Cermak and injuring four others. Zangara, was arrested, found guilty of murder , received the death penalty and was electrocuted on March 20, 1933. More

1933, February 27 - The Reichstag fire in Berlin allows Adolf Hitler to seize emergency powers, ultimately leading to Nazi dictatorship in Germany.

1937, February 6 - The Flint sit-down strike ends with a General Motors agreement recognizing the United Auto Workers union.

1939. February 20 - A Nazi rally with more than 20,000 people was held at the Madison Square Garden. It was sponsored by the German American Bund, an organization with headquarters in Manhattan and thousands of members across the United States. The stage had a large image of Washington hung between American flags — and swastikas. Their vision for America was a combination of white supremacy, fascist ideology and American patriotism. More

1942, February 19 - 10 weeks after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, authorizing the forced removal of all persons deemed a threat to national security from the West Coast to "relocation centers" further inland – resulting in the incarceration of more than 110, 000 Japanese Americans, Two thirds of those incarcerated were U.S. citizens. For the next two and a half years, they endured extremely difficult living conditions and poor treatment by their military guards. During the course of World War II, 10 Americans were convicted of spying for Japan, but not one of them was of Japanese ancestry. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill to recompense each surviving internee with a tax-free check for $20,000 and an apology from the U.S. government. More

1943, February 2 - The battle of Stalingrad ends as the German 6th Army surrenders in a major turning point in World War II

1945, February 4 - The Yalta Conference starts. Attended by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin to discuss post-World War II plans. The Yalta Conference took place in a Russian resort town in the Crimea from February 4–11, 1945, during World War Two. Important decisions were made regarding the future progress of the war and the postwar world. More

1945, February 19 - The U.S. Marines begin the invasion of Iwo Jima during the final phases of World War II. The Japanese put up fierce resistance. About 21,000 Japanese troops were killed and some 1,000 captured. U.S. casualties totaled about 28,000, including about 6,800 killed. Iwo Jima and the other Volcano Islands were administered by the United States from 1945 until they were returned to Japan in 1968.

1945, February 23 - The raising of the U.S. flag over Mount Suribach is photographed by Joe Rosenthal of the Associated Press, The iconic photograph went on to become one of the best-known photographic images of the Pacific war.

1952, February 6 - Elizabeth II becomes queen of the United Kingdom following the death of her father, King George VI. The coronation was held more than a year later on June 2, 1953.  because of the tradition of allowing an appropriate length of time to pass after a monarch dies. It also gave the planning committees adequate time to make preparations for the ceremony. More

1959, February 3 - The music album "Music from Big Pink" by The Band is released, influencing the Americana music genre.

1959, February 16 - Fidel Castro becomes prime minister of Cuba, replacing José Miró Cardona who was the head of the country's new provisional government. Fidel Castro had led the guerrilla campaign that forced right-wing dictator Fulgencio Batista into exile. Castro, had become commander in chief of Cuba’s armed forces after Batista was ousted on January 1, 1959. More

1960, February 1 - Four African American students at North Carolina, Agricultural and Technical College, stage a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, sparking similar protests. The “Greensboro Four,” were Ezell Blair Jr. (now known as Jibreel Khazan), David Richmond, Franklin McCain, and Joseph McNeil. Their protest led to the Woolworth Department Store chain ending its policy of racial segregation in its stores in the southern United States. More

1962, February 7 - President John F. Kennedy proclaimed an embargo on trade between the United States and Cuba, in response to certain actions taken by the Cuban Government, and directed the Departments of Commerce and the Treasury to implement the embargo, which remains in place today. More

1962, February 20 - John H. Glenn, Jr., one of NASA’s original seven Mercury astronauts, becomes the first American to orbit Earth, circling it three times. Glenn went on to become a U.S. Senator in 1974. More 

1964, February 7 - The Beatles arrive in the United States for the first time, starting the "British Invasion" of music.

1965, February 15 -  Canada adopts a new National flag. The new maple leaf flag originally proposed by George Stanley was made official was inaugurated in a public ceremony on Parliament Hill.  More 

1965, February 21 - Malcolm X is assassinated in New York City. More

1966, February 3 - The Soviet Union's Luna 9 (Lunik 9) makes the first soft landing on the moon and transmits photographic data from the Moon's surface to Earth. It was the first spacecraft to achieve a soft lunar landing, preceding the U.S. Surveyor 1 soft lander by about 4 months. The probe also proved that the lunar surface could support the weight of a lander and that an object would not sink into a loose layer of dust as some models predicted. Luna 9 launched on 31 January 1966 at 11:41 UT (14:41 Moscow time) from Baikonur Cosmodrome and reached the Moon on 3 February. More

1968, February 1 - The Viet Cong launch the Tet Offensive during the Vietnam War, marking a turning point in the conflict.

1970, February 11 - Japan launches Ohsumi , it first man-made satellite, making Japan the fourth country in the world (after the former Soviet Union, the United States and France) to have launched a satellite without aid from outside sources. More

1971, February 5 -  Apollo 14's  Lunar module with astronauts, Alan B. Shepard Jr. (Commander) and Edgar D. Mitchell (Lunar Module Pilot) descends to the lunar surface on the third U.S. moon landing. The 3rd Apollo 14 astronaut was Stuart A. Roosa, (Command Module Pilot). The astronauts returned to earth on Feb. 9, 1971 Landing on the Pacific Ocean.  More

1971, February 9 - The Sylmar earthquake strikes Los Angeles, registering a magnitude of 6.6 and causing significant damage.

1974, February 8 - The U.S. Senate votes to confirm Nelson Rockefeller as Vice President of the United States under President Gerald Ford.

1977, February 18 - The first 10 episodes of "Roots," a groundbreaking TV miniseries about slavery, air in the United States.

1980, February 22 - The United States Olympic hockey team pulls off the "Miracle on Ice," defeating the Soviet team during the Winter Olympics in Lake Placid.

1983, February 11 - The "MAS*H" finale becomes the most-watched television episode in history at the time.

1984, February 7 - Navy captain Bruce McCandless II, on the Space Shuttle Challenger’s STS 41-B mission, becomes the first human being to do a spacewalk without a safety tether linked to a spacecraft. McCandless donned a backpack mobility device—the Manned Maneuvering Unit—and ventured about 320 ft (98 m) away from the vehicle, becoming the first human satellite. His solo ride lasted 1 hour and 22 minutes. More

1986, February 28 - Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme is assassinated in Stockholm.

1989, February 14 - Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini calls for the execution of British author Salman Rushdie over his novel "The Satanic Verses."

1990, February 11 - Nelson Mandela is released from Victor Verster Prison in South Africa after 27 years in captivity as South African President F.W. de Klerk lifts the 30-year ban on the African National Congress, and other black liberation parties, allowing freedom of the press, and releasing political prisoners marking the beginning of the end of apartheid. More

1992, February 7 - The Treaty of the European Union, also known as Treaty of Maastricht is signed in Maastricht. In accordance with that Treaty, the Union is founded on the European Communities (first pillar), with two additional areas of cooperation (second and third pillars): the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CSFP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). Upon entry into force of the Treaty on European Union, the EEC becomes the European Community(EC). More

1993, February 26 - A bomb planted by terrorists explodes beneath the World Trade Center in New York City, killing six and injuring over 1,000 people.

1995, February 3 - American astronaut Eileen Collins becomes, the first woman to pilot a Space shuttle as she pilots the Discovery in what was the first flight of the new joint Russian- American Space Program. In July 1999, Collins went on to be the first woman to be a Shuttle commander on the STS-93 Columbia. More

1996, February 9 - The Irish Republican Army (IRA) declares an end to its 18-month ceasefire in Northern Ireland.

1998, February 10-26 - The 1998 Winter Olympics are held in Nagano, Japan.

2000, February 1 - Malaysia Airlines Flight 363 is hijacked, but the attempt is foiled by passengers and crew.

2000, February 5 - The World Health Organization (WHO) declares the measles virus eliminated in the United States.

2001, February 18 - FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested for spying for Russia for more than 15 years.

2002, February 12 - The trial of Slobodan Milošević begins at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague.

2003, February 1 - Space Shuttle Columbia breaks apart upon re-entry, tragically killing all seven crew members. Columbia lifted off on time on the first shuttle mission of the year on Jan. 16, 2003, at 10:39 a.m. EST, It carried seven crew members, on a marathon international scientific research flight. More

2003, February 15 - Millions protest the impending invasion of Iraq. A coordinated day of protests was held across the world in which people in more than 600 cities expressed opposition to the imminent Iraq War. The demonstrations were believed to be the largest single day of anti-war protest in history. It was part of a series of protests and political events that had begun in 2002 and continued as the invasion, war, and occupation took place. More

2004, February 1 - The social networking website Facebook is launched by Mark Zuckerberg and his college roommates.

2005, February 14 - Former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri is assassinated in Beirut, sparking the Cedar Revolution.

2006, February 10 - The Winter Olympics open in Turin, Italy.

2007, February 17 - Kosovo formally declares independence from Serbia.

2008, February 10 - The British film "Slumdog Millionaire" wins eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture.

2009, February 1 - Australian wildfires, known as "Black Saturday," claim the lives of 173 people and destroy thousands of homes.

2010, February 12 - The 2010 Winter Olympics open in Vancouver, Canada.

2010, February 16 - The Web site WikiLeaks begins posting classified U.S. government documents provided by army intelligence analyst Bradley (later Chelsea) Manning. The release of information is believed to be the largest unauthorized release of state secrets in U.S. history.

2011, February 11 - Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak resigns amidst widespread protests in Cairo's Tahrir Square.

2012, February 11 - Singer Whitney Houston dies at the age of 48.

2013, February 15 - A meteor explodes over Chelyabinsk, Russia, injuring over 1,000 people from its shockwave.

2014, February 7-23 - The 2014 Winter Olympics are held in Sochi, Russia.

2015, February 16 - "Birdman" wins the Academy Award for Best Picture at the 87th Academy Awards.

2016, February 12 - Pope Francis meets Patriarch Kirill in Havana at the first meeting between Catholic and Russian Orthodox church heads for nearly 1,000 years

2016, February 13 - Justice Antonin Scalia of the U.S. Supreme Court dies at the age of 79.

2017, February 5 - Super Bowl LI sees the New England Patriots come back from a 28-3 deficit to defeat the Atlanta Falcons.

2018, February 9-25 - The 2018 Winter Olympics are held in Pyeongchang, South Korea.

2019, February 5 - The U.S. Senate acquits President Donald Trump of impeachment charges.

2020, February 2 - Super Bowl LIV sees the Kansas City Chiefs defeat the San Francisco 49ers.

2020, February 11 - The World Health Organization names officially names the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it.  The first case of COVID -19 had been confirmed On January 20, 2020, a day after  35-year-old man presented to an urgent care clinic in Snohomish County, Washington, with a 4-day history of cough and subjective fever. He disclosed that he had returned to Washington State on January 15 after traveling to visit family in Wuhan, China. More 

2021, February 18 - NASA's Perseverance rover successfully lands on Mars, beginning its mission to explore the planet's surface.

Sources for the Historical Content shown, include research and reviews of relevant Online History Resources or printed material. When possible, we show a link to a source which provides additional or unique perspective about the event. We do our best to provide accurate information but would appreciate being notified if any incorrect information is found. You may do so by using this link: Feedback

NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day:

When galaxies collide, how many stars are born? For AM1054-325, featured here in a recently released image by the Hubble Space Telescope, the answer is millions. Instead of stars being destroyed as galaxy AM1054-325 and a nearby galaxy circle each other, their gravity and motion has ignited stellar creation. Star formation occurs rapidly in the gaseous debris stretching from AM1054-325’s yellowish body due to the other galaxy’s gravitational pull. Hydrogen gas surrounding newborn stars glows pink. Bright infant stars shine blue and cluster together in compact nurseries of thousands to millions of stars. AM1054-325 possesses over 100 of these intense-blue, dot-like star clusters, some appearing like a string of pearls. Analyzing ultraviolet light helped determine that most of these stars are less than 10 million years old: stellar babies. Many of these nurseries may grow up to be globular star clusters, while the bundle of young stars at the bottom tip may even detach and form a small galaxy.

From out of the country,
the new year did bring,
a new direction,
and a brand-new Spring.

Long will I remember,
when involving the past,
how days of Summer,
would never last.

Then into Autumn,
Summer to fall,
of multi-color leaves,
the most colorful of all.

Winter is beautiful,
especially with snow,
a Holiday season,
with presents and mistletoe.

Words to Paper

Posted by MFish Profile 02/19/24 at 10:41PM Share Other See more by MFish

And it goes on.

You know who you are,
your style is unique,
as your smile still beguiles,
so this is how I speak.

I love you,
the way you are,
you have become,
a nice shining star.

A abrupt fall,
into sadness,
another lost soul,
gone away.

A long buildup,
had occurred,
the outcome
pre-determined,

When death rears,
its ugly head,
now anticipation,
no more.

Sadness lingers on,
with little respite.
Check your emotions,
staying in control.

It doesn't work,
that way, not now,
can't you,
understand how?

NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day:

What's happening near the Sun? To help find out, NASA launched the robotic Parker Solar Probe (PSP) to investigate regions closer to the Sun than ever before. The PSP's looping orbit brings it nearer to the Sun each time around -- every few months. The featured time-lapse video shows the view looking sideways from behind PSP's Sun shield during its 16th approach to the Sun last year -- from well within the orbit of Mercury. The PSP's Wide Field Imager for Solar Probe (WISPR) cameras took the images over eleven days, but they are digitally compressed here into about one minute video. The waving of the solar corona is visible, as is a coronal mass ejection, with stars, planets, and even the central band of our Milky Way Galaxy streaming by in the background as the PSP orbits the Sun. PSP has found the solar neighborhood to be surprisingly complex and to include switchbacks -- times when the Sun's magnetic field briefly reverses itself.

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