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753 BCE, May 1 - According to legend, the city of Rome is founded by Romulus.

585 BCE, May 28 - A solar eclipse occurred during a battle between the Lydians and the Medes in what is now Turkey. It is one of the earliest recorded events in history.

431 BCE, May 7 - The Peloponnesian War begins between Athens and Sparta, marking the start of a decades-long conflict in Ancient Greece.

333 BCE, May 1 - The Battle of Issus takes place between Alexander the Great of Macedonia and Darius III of Persia, resulting in a decisive victory for Alexander.

218 BCE, May 4 - Hannibal of Carthage wins the Battle of the Trebia against the Roman Republic during the Second Punic War. More 

324, The ancient city of Byzantium was selected to serve as the new capital of the Roman Empire, and the city was renamed Nova Roma, or 'New Rome', by Emperor Constantine the Great.

325 , May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - the first ecumenical council of Christian bishops at Nicaea, Asia Minor. 

330, May 11 - Byzantium was renamed Constantinople (now Istanbul) and dedicated to Emperor Constantine. Constantinople is generally considered to be the center and the "cradle of Orthodox Christian civilization". Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe, from the mid-5th century to the early 13th century.

1189, May 11 - Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and 100,000 crusaders depart Regensburg for the Third Crusade which is also known as the Kings's Crusade. It was an attempt led by three European monarchs of Western Christianity (Philip II of France, Richard I of England and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor) to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187. It recaptured the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversed most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem. .

1337, May 24 - Beginning of the Hundred Years' War - King Edward III of England formally declares war against King Philip VI of France, marking the start of a long-lasting conflict between the two kingdoms which is referred to as the Hundred Years' War which was eventually won by the French at the Battle of Castillon in 1453. This was largely due to the French use of guns against the English.

1348, May 10 - Siege of Calais begins: King Edward III of England surrounds the city of Calais during the Hundred Years' War, leading to a prolonged siege lasting over a year.

1360, May 8 - The Treaty of Brétigny is signed between England and France, marking a temporary end to the first phase of the Hundred Years' War and granting substantial territorial concessions to England.

1381, May 30 - Peasants' Revolt in England: The Peasants' Revolt, a major uprising against high taxes and social injustice, culminates in a confrontation between rebel forces and King Richard II at Smithfield in London.

1431, May 30 - Joan of Arc was burned at the stake for heresy by an English-dominated tribunal in Rouen. More

1498, May 20 - Italian explorer Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Trinidad during his third voyage to the Americas.

1498, May 20 -  Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama becomes the first European to reach India via the Atlantic Ocean. Arriving in Calicut, where he erected a padrão (stone pillar) to prove he had reached India.  More

1502, May 20 - Christopher Columbus sets sail on his fourth and final voyage to the New World.

1506, May 2 - The cornerstone of the current St. Peter's Basilica in Rome is laid by Pope Julius II.

1527, May 6 - The Sack of Rome takes place, as troops of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, led by Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, pillage and destroy the city.

1536, May 19 - Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII of England, is executed at the Tower of London after being found guilty of adultery and treason against the King. #gs.91u742">More

1541, May 8 - Spanish conquistador and explorer Hernando De Soto reaches the Mississippi River at a point below Natchez. De Soto was the first European documented to have seen the river.

1543, May 24 - Nicolaus Copernicus publishes his book "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres" which formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at its center. In all likelihood, Copernicus developed his model independently of Aristarchus of Samos, an ancient Greek astronomer who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

1559, May 2 - The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis is signed, ending the Italian Wars and establishing peace between France and Spain.

1559, May 8 -  A legal process by which the Protestant Church of England was restored becomes official as Queen Elizabeth gives the Royal assent to the Revised Act of Supremacy of 1558, which re-established the Church of England’s independence from Rome. and the the Act of Uniformity of 1559 which outlined what form the English Church should take.

1568, May 23 - The Eighty Years' War begins as the Dutch rebels, led by Louis of Nassau, defeat a Spanish force at the Battle of Heiligerlee. 
 
1570, May 20 - The Siege of Famagusta begins during the Ottoman-Venetian War, with the city of Famagusta in Cyprus being besieged by the Ottoman Empire.

1588, May 29 - The Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, with the aim of invading England during the Anglo-Spanish War.

1593, May 7- Playwright Christopher Marlowe is killed in a dispute, possibly over a bill, at a tavern in Deptford, London.

1607, May 14 - The first permanent English settlement in America was established at Jamestown, Virginia. More

1610, May 14 - French King Henry IV is assassinated by François Ravaillac in Paris.

1611, May 2 - The Authorized Version of the Bible (King James Version) was first published, and became the standard English language Bible.

1626, May 4 - Dutch explorer Peter Minuit arrives in New Netherland (present-day Manhattan) and establishes the colony of New Amsterdam.

1639, May 4 - The Fundamental Orders, often considered the first written constitution in North America, are adopted by the Connecticut Colony.

1642, May 29 - The city of Montreal is founded by French colonists under the direction of Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve.

1652, May 18 - The Battle of Dover takes place during the First Anglo-Dutch War, with the Dutch Republic gaining a decisive victory over England.

1660, May 29 - King Charles II of England is restored to the throne after the period of Commonwealth following the English Civil War.

1670, May 2 - The Hudson's Bay Company is chartered by King Charles II, granting it a monopoly over the fur trade in the region of Hudson Bay in North America.

1689, May 1 -  The English Parliament passes the Act of Toleration, granting freedom of worship to Protestant nonconformists.

1692, May 14 - The witchcraft trials in Salem, Massachusetts begin with the arrest of Sarah Osborne, Sarah Good, and Tituba.

1707, May 1 - The Union between England and Scotland is proclaimed. Whales had already been part of England since the 1500's.

1762, - Catherine the Great overthrew Peter III and began her reign as empress of Russia, leading her country into full participation in the political and cultural life of Europe and extending Russian territory.

1765, May 22 - The British Parliament passed the Quartering Act, which required American colonies to provide lodging and supplies to British troops.1841, May 3: New Zealand was declared a British colony.

1773, May 10 - The British parliament passes the unpopular Tea Act. More 

1785, May 23 - Ben Franklin reveals his invention of bifocal eyeglasses in a letter, now in the Library of Congress, to his friend George Whatley. Franklin was having problems seeing both up-close and at greater distances and in the prior year, he created a method for placing differently-calibrated lenses into the same frame rather than constantly changing glasses. His new "double spectacles" had pairs of half-lenses arranged in a top-bottom configuration. Franklin commented that all he had to do was but move his eyes up or down, and the proper glass was always ready!  Franklin never patented any of his inventions, and wanted to share them freely. More

1787, May 25 - The Constitutional Convention, which would draft the United States Constitution, began in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. More

1788, May 23 - South Carolina becomes the 8th State to Ratify the U.S. Constitution

1790, May 29 - Rhode Island becomes the 13th State to Ratify the U.S. Constitution

1792, May 17 - The NY Stock Exchange is born with the signing of the Buttonwood Agreement by 24 stockbrokers defining how stocks could be traded and establishing set commissions.

1804, May 14 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition, set out from St. Louis, Missouri traveling up the Missouri River on a mission to explore and map the newly acquired western territory of the United States. The group consisted of around 30 members, including soldiers, interpreters, scouts, and others. They faced numerous challenges, including harsh weather, treacherous terrain, encounters with Native American tribes, and logistical difficulties.  The Lewis and Clark Expedition made significant contributions to American knowledge of the West. and it continues to be celebrated as a remarkable feat of discovery and an enduring symbol of the nation's westward expansion.  More

1812, May 30 - The United States declared war on Great Britain, beginning the War of 1812. More

1830, May 28 - The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson. The Act authorized the president to grant lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders, clearing the way for further white settlements. A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the relocation policy. During the fall and winter of 1838 and 1839, the Cherokees were forcibly moved west by the United States government. Approximately 4,000 Cherokees died on this forced march, which became known as the "Trail of Tears." More

1844, May 24 - Samuel Morse, inventor of the Telegraph  sent the first official telegraph message, "What hath God wrought?" from  Washington, D.C., to Baltimore. More

1846, May 12 - The United States declares war on Mexico, beginning the Mexican-American War. More

1848, May 29 - Wisconsin was admitted to the Union of States and becomes the 30th State

1856, May 21 - Pro-slavery forces attacked and burned the free-state town of Lawrence, Kansas, in what became known as the "Sacking of Lawrence."

1858, May 11 - Minnesota was admitted to the Union of States and becomes the 32nd State 

1861, May 20 - North Carolina became the last of the Confederate states to secede rom the United States, triggering the start of the American Civil War.

1862, May 5 - An elite French military force led by General Charles de Lorencez headed for Mexico City was stopped at Puebla by an outnumbered Mexican army of 2,000—5,000 led by Mexican General Ignacio Zaragoza. The larger French forces, which were experiencing a larger loss of troops withdrew by the end of the day. The victory at the Battle of Puebla rallied the Mexicans, eventually culminating in the complete withdraw of all French forces in 1867 and the capture and execution by firing squad of Emperor, Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, who had been installed in 1864 as emperor of Mexico by Napoleon III. More

1862, May 20 - President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act making millions of government owned acres in the west available to "homesteaders". More

1863, May 3 - The Territory of Arizona is created by Congress with Prescott as capital.

1865, May 10 - 1865: Confederate President Jefferson Davis is captured by Union forces in Irwinville, Georgia. General, Robert E. Lee, had surrendered on April 9 at Appomattox in Virginia to General Ulysses S. Grant.

1868, May 5 - Martha Jones of Amelia County, Va.,  become the first black woman known to receive a United States patent. Her application for an “Improvement to the Corn Husker, Sheller” was granted U.S. patent No. 77,494 in 1868. Jones claimed her invention could husk, shell, cut up, and separate husks from corn in one operation, representing a significant step forward in the automation of agricultural processes. More

1869, May 10 -The U.S. Transcontinental railroad opens for through traffic linking the East Coast and West Coast by rail, when CPRR President Leland Stanford ceremonially drove the gold "Last Spike" (later often referred to as the "Golden Spike") at Promontory Summit in Utah. More

1871, May 10 - The Treaty of Frankfurt am Main is signed, ending the Franco-Prussian War and leaving a stronger unified German state to influence European power politics and compete with England and France.

1873, May 20 - Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis obtained a U.S. patent on the process of putting rivets in men’s work pants for the very first time creating what we now call jeans.. More 

1881, May 21 - The American Red Cross is founded in Washington, D.C. by Clara Barton and a circle of her acquaintances.  Barton led the Red Cross for 23 years. More 

1882, May 6 -  The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by Congress and signed by President Chester A. Arthur. This act provided an absolute 10-year ban on Chinese laborers immigrating to the United States. It was the first significant law restricting immigration into the United States. More

1883. May 24 - The Brooklyn Bridge over the East River officially opens. connecting New York City and Brooklyn for the first time in history. The opening ceremony was presided over by President Chester A. Arthur and New York Governor Grover Cleveland. The bridge, designed by John A. Roebling, with a span of 1,595 feet was the largest suspension bridge ever built to that date and took 14 years to complete. Roebling died as a result of a construction accident, three weeks after the start of the project. The bridge construction was completed by his son, Washington A. Roebling, who took over as Chief Engineer. At least 20 workers were killed during construction, and many more suffered decompression sickness. More

1893, May 4 - The Panic of 1893, was one of the most severe financial crises in the history of the U.S. triggering a depression that lasted until 1897. The crisis started with a a slow down of economic activity and a large decline in U.S. Treasury gold reserves,  raising the rates of defaults on loans and weakening banks’ balance sheets. Fearing for the safety of their deposits, men and women began to withdraw funds from banks. Fear spread and withdrawals accelerated, leading to widespread runs on banks. The economy remained in recession until the following summer. According to some estimates, industrial production fell by 15.3% and unemployment rose as high as 19%. After a brief pause, the economy slumped into recession again in late 1895 and did not fully recover until mid-1897. More 

1887, May 27 - The Hells Canyon Massacre. The mass slaughter of Chinese gold miners by a gang of white horse thieves  takes place, in Lewiston, Washington Territory, in what is now Idaho. This was one of many hate crimes perpetrated against Asian immigrants in the American West during this period.

Two groups of Chinese workers were employed by the Sam Yup Company of San Francisco to search for gold in the Snake River in May of 1887. As they made their camps along the Snake River around Hells Canyon, a gang of seven white men who were known as horse thieves ambushed them, shooting them until they ran out of ammunition, mutilated some of the bodies and threw them in the river, and made off with several thousand dollars’ worth of gold.The indictment listed 10 counts of murder but other accounts hold that a total of 34 people were killed. The massacre was part of a broader pattern of acts of violence against Asians during the period. Anti-Chinese sentiment and the belief that Asian laborers were “stealing” white jobs led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882,

1902, May 8 - Martinique's Mount Pelée erupts and destroys the town of Saint-Pierre, killing approximately 30,000 people, 15 percent of the island’s population. in the space of a few minutes. This is considered the worst volcanic disaster of the 20th century. Mount Pelée is still classified as an active volcano.

1904, May 4 - The U.S. officially acquires jurisdiction over the Panama Canal Zone. The U.S had tried and failed to negotiate an  agreement with Colombia leading to the United States backing a separatist group in Panama and President Roosevelt dispatching U.S. warships to Panama City (on the Pacific) and Colón (on the Atlantic) in support of Panamanian independence. Panama declared independence from Colombia on November 3, 1903. A French company was the first to attempt building such a canal, but was unsuccessful and roughly 20,000 workers perished due to accidents and tropical diseases, The company collapsed and was acquired by the U.S. in 1902 after Congress passed the Spooner act, gaining the rights to the land to build the canal . More

1905, May 27 - The Naval engagement of Tsushima starts during the Russo-Japanese War resulting in the final, crushing defeat of the Russian navy in that conflict. The Japanese ships were superior in speed and armament and sunk two-thirds of the Russian Fleet and captured six ships during the two-day battle. More

1912, May 13 - The U.S. Congress passes the 17th Amendment, modifying Article I, Section 3, of the Constitution by allowing voters to cast direct votes for U.S. senators. Prior to its passage, senators were chosen by state legislatures. The amendment was ratified on April 8, 1913,  More 

1914, May 9 - President Wilson makes his first Mothers Day proclamation after the U.S. Congress set the second Sunday of every May as the official Mothers Day celebration. By then most U.S. States were already celebrating Mother's Day. Julia Ward Howe (1872), a key women's rights figure and participant in the American Woman Suffrage Association and Anna Jarvis (1907) are also credited for suggesting and promoting the idea. The custom developed of wearing a red or pink carnation to represent a living mother or a white carnation for a mother who was deceased. The modern American version of the holiday has been criticized for becoming too commercialized. Many other countries have a multi-century history of a day to celebrate mothers on different dates. More

1915, May 7 - The passenger liner RMS Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine during World War I, killing 1,198 people. More

1915, May 23 - Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.

1916, May 31 - June 1: Battle of Jutland - World War I’s biggest naval conflict off the coast of Denmark marks the first and only showdown between German and British naval forces during World War I.

1917, May 17 - First regular airmail service begins, with one round trip a day between Washington, DC, and New York.

1917, May 18 - Congress passed the Selective Service Act, which authorized the Federal Government to temporarily expand the military through conscription. The act eventually required all men between the ages of 21 to 45 to register for military service. More

1918, May 18 - Day of the proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from the Russian Empire.

1918, May 28 - Independence Day - Commemorates the date on which the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) was founded as the first secular democratic state in the Muslim East. Until 2021, it was marked as Republic Day. In October 2021, it was renamed and became Independence Day.

1919, may 19 - Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Black Sea coast, starting the Turkish War of Independence. More

1920, May 13 -The Socialist Party nominates Eugene V. Debs as its candidate for president in the upcoming November election. It was the fifth nomination for the 64-year-old, Indiana-born labor leader. At the time Debs was in jail, serving a 10-year sentence at a federal penitentiary in Atlanta. He was convicted of violating the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918, controversial laws pushed through Congress by President Woodrow Wilson to silence critics of U.S. involvement World War I. He wasn't due to get out until 1928. Debs had promised to pardon himself if elected. Harding, the newly elected President, pardoned Debs. More

1921, May 31 - The Tulsa race massacre began. A two-day-long riot when mobs of white residents, some of whom had been appointed as deputies and armed by city government officials, attacked black residents and destroyed homes and businesses of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The event is considered one of the worst incidents of racial violence in American history. More  

1924, May 26 - President Calvin Coolidge signs into law the Immigration Act of 1924. The Act also know as the Johnson-Reed Act, established a national origins quota system, which severely restricted migrants from eastern and southern Europe and almost entirely barred “aliens ineligible for citizenship” from Asia and the Middle East. The Johnson-Reed Act was the legislative achievement of a eugenics movement that sought to racially engineer the US populace by excluding Asians, as well as “inconclusively white” Catholic and Jewish migrants. Upon signing the bill, President Calvin Coolidge declared, “America must be kept American.” He won the approval of the Ku Klux Klan and the admiration of Adolf Hitler. Weeks later, Congress authorized the creation of the US Border Patrol to enforce the Johnson-Reed Act’s imperatives. More

1926, May 1 - The Ford Motor Company becomes one of the first companies to adopt a five-day, 40-hour workweek for workers in their factories. A move that help change the way companies in America operated. Before this change, factory workers at Ford and other companies typically worked six days a week for up to 60 hours. This left workers with little time for rest or leisure, and they often struggled to balance work with family and personal commitments. It wasn't until 1940 that the 40 hour work week became law. More

1927, May 20-21 - Charles Lindbergh becomes the first man to fly solo completed the first solo across the Atlantic Ocean, flying 3,610 miles from New York to Paris in his plane, the Spirit of St. Louis in 33 1/2 hours. More  

1927, May 26 - The last of the Model T Ford comes off the line and Henry Ford and his son Edsel drive the 15 millionth Model T Ford out of their factory and closing the Model T production line. In 19 years, the company made 15,007,033 of the model T cars. More

1929, May 16 -The first Academy Awards ceremony was held in Hollywood.

1931, May 1 - The New York City’s Empire State Building was dedicated, 45 five days ahead of its original projected opening date. President Herbert Hoover , pressed a button in the White House that turned on the building’s lights for the first time, Construction costs were about $41M ($550M in 2023 money) and $20M under budget. The Site was previously occupied by the Waldorf -Astoria Hotel which opened in 1890. Official records indicate that 5 workers died during construction, although 14 deaths were reported by local News. More

1932, May 12 - The body of Charles Lindbergh Jr. son of aviator Charles Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, was found in Hopewell Township, New Jersey. More

1932, May 21 -  Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. (May 20 - May 2021). More

1934, May 11 - An enormous dust storm, 1,500 miles long and 600 miles wide, that originated on the west coast, moved eastward across the Great Plains. A total of 300 million tons of topsoil, parched to dust by drought were blown out of the Great Plains. More

1934, May 23 - Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary. When World War I began in July 1914, Italy was a partner in the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, but decided to remain neutral. However, a strong sentiment existed within the general population and political factions to go to war against Austria-Hungary, Italy’s historical enemy.

1937, May 6 - The Hindenburg disaster occurs in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States. More

1937, May 12 -  King George VI was crowned at Westminster Abbey,  following the abdication of his older brother Edward who abdicated so he could marry American socialite Wallis Simpson.

1937, May 27 - , The San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge is opened to the public for the first time for “Pedestrian Day. 200,000 people strolled across the bridge to celebrate the grand opening. More

1939, May 22 - The Pact of Steel formally known as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy  was a military and political alliance between Italy and Germany. is signed. The pact was initially drafted to include Japan wanted the focus of the pact to be aimed at the Soviet Union, Italy and Germany wanted the focus of it to be aimed at the British Empire and France. On September 27, 1940, Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy, thus entering the military alliance known as the "Axis." More 

1939, May 27 - The St. Louis, a boat sailed from Hamburg carrying 937 refugees from Germany, most of whom were Jews fleeing Nazi persecution, is turned away from Havana, Cuba. Only 28 immigrants are admitted into the country. After appeals to the United States and Canada for entry are denied, the rest are forced to sail back to Europe, where they’re distributed among several countries including Great Britain and France.

1940, May 10 - Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He lead the U.K  through the tumultuous years of World War II.

1941, May 15 - The first test of an Allied aircraft using jet propulsion takes place as the Gloster-Whittle E 28/39 aircraft flies    successfully over Cranwell, England, The jet engine was the brain child of Frank Whittle, an English pilot and aviation engineer,  . A young German physicist, Hans von Ohain, working for Ernst Heinkel, developed the world's first jet plane, the experimental Heinkel He 178. It first flew on August 27, 1939. just before WW II started on September 1, 1939. More

1941, May 24 - The German Battleship Bismarck sinks the battlecruiser HMS Hood during a naval engagement in the Second World War, resulting in the death of all but 3 of her crew of 1,418. During the engagement, the Bismarck‘s fuel tank was damaged and headed for occupied France to effect repairs. Two days later the Bismarck was attacked by torpedo bombers from the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal; rendering the battleship's steering gear inoperable. In her final battle the following morning, the already-crippled Bismarck was engaged by two British battleships and two heavy cruisers, and sustained incapacitating damage and heavy loss of life. The ship was scuttled to prevent her being boarded by the British, and to limit further casualties. There were 2,300 German casualties.

1942, May 6 - U.S. Lt. General Jonathan Wainwright unconditionally surrenders all U.S. troops in the Philippines to the Japanese. All surviving troops; 12,000 Americans and 66,000 Filipinos, were taken to a prison stockade in Manila. This was the largest contingent of U.S. soldiers ever to surrender. More

1945, May 7 - Germany surrenders unconditionally to the Allied forces, bringing an end to World War II in Europe. More

1946, May 25 - Jordan's Independence Day marking its independence from The United Kingdom.

1948, May 14 - Jewish Agency Chairman David Ben-Gurion proclaims the State of Israel, at midnight May 14. The UN General Assembly had  adopted the resolution to partition Palestine on 29 November 1947 and Britain had announced the termination of its Mandate for Palestine, effective on 15 May 1948. Ben-Gurion became Israel’s first premier. More

1949, May 12 - Soviets end blockade of Berlin.

1949, May 23 - The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is established with the consolidation of the western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom and the United States. On 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (GDR)  When West and East Germany were reunited in 1990, West Germany’s constitution and official name (Federal Republic of Germany) were adopted by the former East German state.

1953, May 29 - Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay completed the first confirmed ascent of Mount Everest on May 29, 1953. More

1954, May 7 - French defeated at Dien Bien Phu bringing an end to French colonial efforts in Indochina.  Vietnam was partitioned by the Geneva Accords of 1954 into Communist North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam. President Eisenhower sent some 700 military personnel as well as military and economic aid to the government of South Vietnam. In 1961, JFK authorized sending additional Special Forces troops and military advisors to South Vietnam. By the end of 1962, there were approximately 11,000 military personnel in South Vietnam and 16,000 by the end of 1963.

1954, May 17 - The Supreme Court of the United States hands down its unanimous decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas,  ruling that racial segregation in public educational facilities is unconstitutional. More

1955, May 6 - The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) Joins NATO.

1955, May 14 - The Warsaw Treaty Organization (also known as the Warsaw Pact), a political and military alliance between the Soviet Union and several Eastern European countries. The Soviet Union formed this alliance as a counterbalance to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a collective security alliance concluded between the United States, Canada and Western European nations in 1949. More 

1958, May 13 - Vice President Nixon’s motorcade was attacked in Caracas by angry Venezuelans during his goodwill trip through Latin America. The trip was characterized by Latin American anger over the U.S. Cold War policies. Earlier on the trip Nixon had engaged in loud and bitter debates with student groups during his travels through Peru and Uruguay.

1960, May 1 - An American U-2 spy plane flying at 60,000 feet was shot down over Sverdlovsk in central Russia. The pilot, CIA agent Francis Gary Powers, survived the crash, and was tried, convicted and sentenced to 10 years in prison. More

1960, May 11 - The FDA announces approval of Enovid for birth control. The approval limited its use to no more than two years. Nine years later, in 1969  Barbara Seaman’s book, “The Doctor’s Case Against the Pill,” show testimony and research showing that the high doses of estrogen in the early Pill put women at risk of blood clots, heart attacks, strokes, and cancer. More

1960, May 20 - Cameroon National Day. Cameroon gained independence on 1 January 1960, but does not celebrate that date. Instead, it celebrates the National Day on 20 May commemorating the 1972 Cameroonian constitutional referendum.

1960, May 22 -  A magnitude 9.5 earthquake,  The largest earthquake ever measured,  - occurred along the coast of Chile causing a tsunami which radiated outward from a subduction zone along the coast. Its waves reached Hawaii in 15 hours and Japan in 22 hours. In Chile, the earthquake and the tsunami that followed took more than 2,000 lives and caused property damage estimated at $550 million (1960 dollars).The tsunami killed 61 people in Hawaii and 122 in Japan. More 

1960, May 23 - A tsunami resulting from the massive 9.5-magnitude earthquake off the coast of Chile which killed thousands the prior day travels across the Pacific Ocean and kills 61 people in Hilo, Hawaii, and 122 in Japan and causing much other property and structural damage.

1961, May 5 - Alan Shepard, one of the Mercury Astronauts, became the first American in space. He piloted the spacecraft Freedom 7 during a 15-minute 28-second suborbital flight that reached an altitude of 116 miles (186 kilometers) above the earth. Ten years later, Shepard made his second space flight as spacecraft commander on Apollo 14 on January 31, 1971. He was accompanied on man's third lunar landing mission by Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot. Maneuvering their lunar module, "Antares," to a landing in the hilly upland Fra Mauro region of the moon, More

1961, May 25 - United States President. John F. Kennedy announced before a special joint session of Congress the dramatic and ambitious goal of sending an American safely to the Moon before the end of the decade. More 

1964, May 24 - More than 300 soccer fans were killed and another 500 people were injured at the National Stadium in Lima, Peru, during a riot that erupted after a referee’s call in a soccer match between Peru and Argentina, disallowed an apparent goal for Peru. The stadium went wild as outraged Peruvian fans invaded the field and  police fired tear gas into the crowed causing stampedes in which people were crushed and killed. 

1966, May 26 - Guyana gains Independence from the United Kingdom.

1970, May 4 - Four students were killed and nine others were injured when National Guardsmen opened fire on a peaceful protest against the Vietnam War at Kent State University in Ohio, United States. More

1972, May 26 - U.S. and Soviet Union sign strategic arms control agreement known as SALT I 

1973, May 14 -  Skylab, America’s first space station and the first crewed research laboratory in space, lifts off on the last Saturn V rocket. Although the Soviet Union orbited the first experimental space station called Salyut in 1971, the larger and more complex Skylab enabled research in several areas. More 

1974, May 18 - India successfully detonates its first nuclear weapon in the Rajasthan Desert in the municipality of Pokhran. becoming the world’s sixth nuclear power and the first nation outside the five members of the U.N. Security Council—the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, China and France. More 

1979, May 25 - American Airlines Flight 191 - a Douglas DC-10 aircraft crashed as it was taking off from O'Hare International Airport in Chicago when its left engine detached from the wing, causing a loss of control. The aircraft crashed about 4,600 feet (1,400 m) from the end of runway. All 258 passengers and 13 crew on board and two people on the ground were killed. The total of 273 fatalities, makes it the deadliest aviation accident to have occurred in the United States. More

1980, May 18 - Mount St. Helens erupted in Washington state, killing 57 people. Hundreds of square miles of wilderness were reduced to wasteland, More

1981, May 13 - Pope John Paul II was shot four times by Mehmet Ali Agca in St. Peter's Square at the Vatican.

1989, May 10 - Tens of thousands of Chinese students and civilians gathered in Tiananmen Square in Beijing to protest for democracy and government accountability, leading to a violent crackdown by the Chinese government. More

1990, May 4 - Day of the Restoration of Latvian Independence after the end of occupation by the Soviet Union. The Supreme Council adopted the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, and the Latvian SSR was renamed Republic of Latvia.

1991, May 19 - Somaliland Independence day. Officially the Republic of Somaliland,is an unrecognized de facto sovereign state in the Horn of Africa. Its claimed territory has an area of 68,000 square miles with approximately 5.7 million residents

1991, May 24 - Eritrea Independence day from Ethiopia.

1991, May 26 - Lauda Air Flight 004, a Boeing 767-300ER crashed following an uncommanded deployment of the thrust reverser on the No. 1 engine during the climb phase, causing the aircraft to enter an uncontrolled dive, and in-flight breakup,. All 213 passengers and ten crew members on board were killed. The plane’s black box was destroyed, making the cause of the crash difficult to determine.," The following official investigation analysis of mechanical evidence and the voice recorder pointed to a serious problem with the jet’s thrust reverser. Boeing was forced to recall and modify the 767’s thrust reversing system. It was the deadliest aviation accident in Thailand's history as of 2024. 

1994, May 6 - The English Channel Tunnel, or “Chunnel,” built under the English Channel is officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II and French president, François Mitterrand. The Chunnel is 31 miles long, 23 of them underwater at an average depth of 150 feet below the sea bed, making it the world’s longest undersea tunnel. The Chunnel cuts travel time between England and France to 35 minutes. More

1994, May 10 - Nelson Mandela becomes the first African president of democratic South Africa. .. More 

1998, May 28 - Pakistan detonates its first nuclear device at the Ros Koh Hills in the province of Balochistan, becoming the seventh country to publicly test nuclear weapons. More

1999, May 29 - Discovery Becomes the first Space Shuttle to Dock with the International Space Station. More

2002, May 10 -  Robert Hanssen, FBI agent who was convicted of spying for the Russian government is sentenced to life in prison without parole. Hanssen died in prison on June 5, 2023, at the age of 79. More

2003, May 1 - United States President George W. Bush declared the end of major combat operations in Iraq, marking the conclusion of the invasion of Iraq by coalition forces.

2004, May 1 -  Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, along with the island of Malta and the Greek portion of the island of Cyprus joined the EU,

2011, May 2 - Osama bin Laden is killed by US forces in Pakistan.

2016, May 19 - EgyptAir flight MS804, an Airbus 320, carrying 66 people, crashed into the Mediterranean Sea as it approached the Egyptian coast near Alexandria. There were no survivors. Egyptian authorities initially stated have stated that a bomb was the likely cause. A 2022 report from the French authorities attributed the cause to a pilot smoking a cigarette, a practice which wasn't banned at the time, caused the fire and the crash. 

2020, May 25 - George Floyd, an unarmed African American man, was killed during an arrest, by white Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin who knelt on his neck for almost 10 minutes. He was unresponsive when the paramedics arrived. The arrest and killing was filmed by bystanders and ignited the largest protest movement in the U.S. history, setting off massive protests around the country and generating greater support for the Black Lives Matter movement. The police officer, Derek Chauvin was later convicted of his murder. 

Note: These are some of the many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of May, listed by year. Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate. Online History Resources

These are some of many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of April, listed by year. Dates provided for earlier time events may be approximate.


753 BCE, April - According to tradition, Rome is founded by Romulus.

509 BCE, April - The Roman Republic is established after the overthrow of the Roman monarchy.

490 BCE, April - The Battle of Marathon occurs between the Greeks and the Persians, resulting in a Greek victory.

480 BCE, April - The Battle of Thermopylae takes place where King Leonidas and the Spartans valiantly resist the Persian invasion.

399 BCE, April - Socrates, the Greek philosopher, is sentenced to death in Athens.

356 BCE, April - Alexander the Great, Macedonian king and conqueror, is born in Pella.

331 BCE, April - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia at the Battle of Gaugamela.

323 BCE, April - Alexander the Great dies in Babylon, leaving his empire to his generals.

218 BCE, April - Hannibal of Carthage crosses the Alps with his army during the Second Punic War.

44 BCE, April - Julius Caesar is assassinated by a group of Roman senators, including Brutus and Cassius.

33 BCE, April - The Battle of Actium takes place, marking the end of the Roman Republic and the rise of Augustus Caesar.

30 BCE, April - Cleopatra VII dies, marking the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt.

4 BCE, April - Herod the Great, King of Judea, dies in Jericho.

30 CE, April 14 - According to tradition, the crucifixion of Jesus Christ takes place on Good Friday.

73 CE, April - The Jewish fort of Masada falls to the Romans after a lengthy siege.

248 CE, April - The Roman Emperor Philip the Arab celebrates the 1,000th anniversary of Rome, known as the Saeculum Novum.

476 CE, April 4 - Romulus Augustulus, the last Roman Emperor in the West, is deposed by the Germanic chieftain Odoacer.

711 CE, April 30 - The Islamic conquest of Spain begins with the landing of the Muslim General Tariq ibn-Ziyad armed forces at Gibraltar. By the end of the campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula (except for small areas in the north-west such as Asturias and the Basque territory were brought under Islamic rule. More

793 CE, April 8 - The Viking Age begins with the raid on Lindisfarne monastery in England.

800 CE, April 25 - Charlemagne is crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III in Rome.

870 CE, April 23 - The Viking invasion of England under the leadership of Ivar the Boneless results in the capture of Dumbarton.

878 CE, April 12 - The Battle of Cynwit takes place between the Wessex Saxons and the Vikings.

891 CE, April 20 - The Irish Viking fleet is defeated by the Franks at the Battle of Leuven in present-day Belgium.

909 CE, April - The city of Toledo in Spain falls to the forces of the Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III, establishing Umayyad control.

919 CE, April - The Saxon king Henry the Fowler is elected King of the Germans.

924 CE, April - King Edward the Elder of England dies, succeeded by his son Athelstan.

933 CE, April - Battle of Riade: Henry I of Germany defeats a Hungarian invasion.

944 CE, April - Edmund I succeeds his brother Athelstan as King of England.

955 CE, April 12 - The Battle of Lechfeld: Otto I defeats the Magyars, ending their raids in Europe.

972 CE, April - Edgar the Peaceful is crowned King of England.

987 CE, April 3 - Hugh Capet is crowned King of France, initiating the Capetian dynasty.

995 CE, April 23 - The Norwegian King Olaf Tryggvason is defeated in the Battle of Svolder.

999, April 2 - Brian Boru, High King of Ireland, wins the Battle of Glenmama, consolidating his power.

1002, April 23 - St. Brice's Day massacre in England: King Æthelred the Unready orders the killing of Danish settlers.

1009, April 17 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is destroyed by the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.

1014, April 23 - The Battle of Clontarf in Ireland sees the death of Brian Boru and his victory over the Vikings.

1016, April 23 - Edmund Ironside succeeds his father Æthelred the Unready as king of England.

1024, April 26 - Henry III, also known as Henry the Black, becomes King of Germany.

1034, April 19 - Mieszko II Lambert is crowned King of Poland.

1035, April 17 - William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, becomes the Duke at the age of 8 after the death of his father, Robert I.

1044, April 12 - The influential Chinese poet Su Shi is born.

1046, April 3 - Nizam al-Mulk, Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuk Empire, is born.

1048, April 26 - Pope Damasus II is consecrated as the 151st pope.

1050, April 15 - Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet Omar Khayyam is born.

1054, April 13 - Pope Leo IX issues a papal bull excommunicating the Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael I Cerularius, sparking the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western Christian Churches.

1055, April 25 - Pope Victor II succeeds Leo IX as the 153rd pope.

1057, April 16 - Pope Stephen IX (X) becomes the 154th pope.

1060, April 23 - Pope Nicholas II succeeds Pope Stephen IX as the 155th pope.

1066, April 6 - Halley's Comet makes its closest known approach to Earth, a significant event before the Battle of Hastings.

1068, April 14 - Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad, leading to the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate.

1071, April 27 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Empire, leading to Turkish dominance in Anatolia.

1073, April 22 - Pope Alexander II dies after a papacy that advanced many reforms in the Catholic Church.

1076, April 18 - The Synod of Worms condemns Pope Gregory VII and excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor.

1077, April 7 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, submits to Pope Gregory VII at Canossa, seeking absolution.

1080, April 25 - Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV for a second time.

1081, April 4 - Alexios I Komnenos becomes Byzantine emperor after the death of Nikephoros III Botaneiates.

1085, April 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile and León captures Toledo, Spain, from the Moors.

1087, April 9 - William the Conqueror, King of England, dies in Rouen, France.

1091, April 29 - The Battle of Levounion: The Byzantine Empire defeats the Pechenegs.

1093, April 24 - Malcolm III of Scotland, husband of Saint Margaret of Scotland, dies in battle against the English.

1095, April 8 - Pope Urban II presides over the Council of Piacenza, calling for the First Crusade.

1100, April 1 - Bishop Anselm of Bec becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.

1101, April 6 - Magnus III Barefoot, King of Norway, dies in an expedition to Ireland.

1105, April 1 - Maghribi geographer and cartographer al-Idrisi is born in what is now modern-day Morocco.

1111, April 13 - Pope Paschal II crowns Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome.

1113, April 26 - The Pisan fleet sacks the North African city of Mahdia.

1119, April 21 - Battle of Bremule: Henry I of England defeats Louis VI of France.

1124, April 2 - David I becomes King of Scotland.

1125, April 5 - Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, dies.

1126, April 6 - Wars of the Investitures: The Concordat of Worms is signed, ending the investiture controversy between the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire.

1139, April 6 - The Second Council of the Lateran, presided over by Pope Innocent II, begins.

1141, April 14 - The Battle of Lincoln sees King Stephen of England captured by forces loyal to Empress Matilda.

1147, April 24 - The Second Crusade is formally announced by Pope Eugene III in Vézelay, France.

1152, April 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry Plantagenet, who later becomes King Henry II of England.

1154, April 6 - Saint Maimonides, Jewish philosopher, theologian, and physician, is born in Córdoba.

1155, April 7 - Frederick I Barbarossa is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV.

1156, April 11 - Malcolm IV becomes King of Scotland at the age of 12 after the death of his grandfather David I.

1164, April 23 - Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, escapes from Northampton and flees to France.

1169, April 23 - Saladin becomes the emir of Egypt.

1170, April 20 - Construction begins on the Campanile (Leaning Tower of Pisa).

1176, April 14 - The Battle of Myriokephalon: The Byzantine Empire suffers a decisive defeat by the Seljuk Turks.

1185, April 25 - The Treaty of Łęczyca is signed, ending a war between Casimir II the Just of Poland and Mieszko III the Old.

1189, April 6 - Richard the Lionheart officially ascends to the throne of England.

1191, April 20 - Siege of Acre: Crusaders under King Richard I capture Acre from the Muslims after a prolonged siege.

1194, April 2 - Richard the Lionheart is released from captivity in Germany after paying a ransom.

1199, April 6 - King Richard I of England dies from an infection following the removal of an arrow during a siege in France.

1200, April 27 - King John of England marries Isabella of Angoulême.

1202, April 10 - Fourth Crusade: The siege of Zara (now Zadar, Croatia) begins.

1204, April 12 - Fourth Crusade: Constantinople falls to the Crusaders, leading to the sack of the city.

1208, April 15 - Pope Innocent III excommunicates Count Raymond VI of Toulouse due to his failure to suppress the Cathar heresy.

1214, April 27 - King Alexander II of Scotland is born.

1215, April 15 - King John of England submits to the demands of the barons, sealing the Magna Carta at Runnymede.

1217, April 24 - The Second Battle of Lincoln takes place during the First Barons' War in England.

1220, April 25 - Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, grants the Golden Bull of Sicily, establishing constitutional reforms in Sicily.

1229, April 30 - Ferdinand III of Castile captures Córdoba, ending Muslim rule in the region.

1232, April 9 - The University of Padua is chartered in Italy.

1233, April 13 - Pope Gregory IX issues the papal bull "Excommunicamus" against Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.

1241, April 9 - Batu Khan's Mongol horde inflicts a devastating defeat on the Polish and German forces at the Battle of Liegnitz.

1248, April 30 - The construction of Cologne Cathedral in Germany begins.

1250, April 13 - King Louis IX of France is ransomed after being captured by the Egyptians during the Seventh Crusade.

1258, April 27 - The Mongols, led by Hulagu Khan, capture and sack Baghdad, effectively ending the Abbasid Caliphate.

1260, April 4 - The Battle of Homs takes place between the Mamluks and the Mongols, leading to a decisive Mamluk victory.

1264, April 29 - The Battle of Lewes occurs during the Second Barons' War in England, resulting in the capture of King Henry III.

1271, April 24 - Kings Rudolf I of Germany and Otakar II of Bohemia sign a peace treaty.

1275, April 6 - Traditional founding date of the city of Amsterdam in the Netherlands.

1277, April 18 - Pope Nicholas III is elected as the 188th pope.

1282, April 30 - The Sicilian Vespers: A rebellion breaks out in Sicily against the rule of the Angevin King Charles I of Naples.

1284, April 18 - The Statute of Rhuddlan establishes English rule in Wales under King Edward I.

1287, April 14 - St. Louis IX of France is canonized as a saint by Pope Boniface VIII.

1291, April 5 - The death of Mongol ruler Kublai Khan is kept secret until February 5, 1294, to prevent unrest in the empire.

1296, April 27 - Battle of Dunbar: King Edward I of England defeats the Scots under John Balliol during the First War of Scottish Independence.

1297, April 12 - Scots under William Wallace ambush and defeat the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.

1299, April 27 - Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, is born.

1300, April 5 - King Albert I of Germany is assassinated by his nephew John Parricida.

1302, April 8 - The Battle of the Golden Spurs occurs in Flanders, resulting in a victory for the Flemish militia against the French army.

1305, April 20 - Pope Clement V succeeds Pope Benedict XI, becoming the 195th pope.

1314, April 6 - Pope Clement V suppresses the Order of the Knights Templar with a papal bull.

1315, April 25 - The Battle of Montecatini takes place between the forces of Florence and Siena, ending in a Florentine victory.

1316, April 5 - Louis X becomes King of France after the death of his father, Philip IV.

1320, April 6 - The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath, asserting their right to self-determination.

1327, April 25 - The Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton recognizes Scottish independence from England.

1336, April 16 - Francesco Petrarca, commonly known as Petrarch, is crowned poet laureate in Rome, marking the revival of the Roman tradition.

1337, April 24 - The Hundred Years' War begins between England and France after King Edward III of England claims the French throne.

1348, April 26 - The Order of the Garter, the most prestigious chivalric order in England, is founded by King Edward III.

1355, April 8 - Saint John of Capistrano, a Franciscan friar and Catholic saint, is born in Italy.

1364, April 8 - John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III of England, becomes the Duke of Lancaster.

1367, April 19 - King Charles IV of France issues the Ordonnance Cabochienne, which aims to restrict the powers of the French monarchy.

1370, April 3 - Building of the Bastille fortress in Paris begins under the reign of King Charles V of France.

1374, April 16 - Cola di Rienzo, an Italian populist and later self-proclaimed "Tribune of the People," is killed by a Roman mob.

1380, April 8 - Battle of the Vikhra River: The Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeats the Golden Horde, gaining territorial expansion.

1381, April 30 - The Peasants' Revolt in England begins as rebels march on London, demanding an end to serfdom and unfair taxation.

1385, April 6 - John, Master of Aviz, is declared King John I of Portugal after defeating the Castilian forces in the Battle of Aljubarrota.

1386, April 1 - Treaty of Windsor is signed, establishing an alliance between England and Portugal, which remains the world's oldest diplomatic alliance.

1397, April 17 - Geoffrey Chaucer tells the Canterbury Tales for the first time at the court of Richard II.

1399, April 30 - Henry IV of England is proclaimed King of England following the deposition of Richard II.

1400, April 14 - Rebellion in Wales led by Owain Glyndŵr against English rule begins with a surprise attack on the English-held town of Ruthin.

1402, April 10 - Battle of Bryn Glas: Forces loyal to Owain Glyndŵr of Wales defeat the English at Pumlumon in Powys.

1406, April 24 - James I of Scotland is captured by English pirates in the North Sea and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

1407, April 28 - Louis, Duke of Orléans, is assassinated on the orders of his cousin John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, sparking a civil war in France.

1415, April 29 - Frederick II, Elector of Saxony, is born.

1429, April 27 - Joan of Arc arrives at the siege of Orléans, boosting French morale and ultimately contributing to lifting the siege.

1431, April 23 - The trial and execution of Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France.

1434, April 4 - The foundation stone for Cologne Cathedral in Germany is laid.

1440, April 18 - Christopher of Bavaria is appointed King of Denmark.

1443, April 11 - The Battle of Střešovice takes place during the Hussite Wars in Bohemia.

1444, April 10 - The Battle of Anghiari occurs between the Milanese and the Florentine troops.

1452, April 15 - Leonardo da Vinci, Italian polymath and painter of the Mona Lisa, is born in Vinci, Italy.

1453, April 6 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople, eventually leading to the fall of the Byzantine Empire.

1460, April 25 - The University of Basel is founded in Switzerland.

1461, April 12 - The Battle of Towton takes place during the Wars of the Roses in England, resulting in a decisive Yorkist victory.

1465, April 7 - Fra Mauro, Venetian cartographer, completes his world map.

1471, April 14 - King Edward IV of England defeats the Lancastrian forces at the Battle of Barnet during the Wars of the Roses.

1478, April 26 - Pazzi conspiracy: A failed attempt to overthrow the Medici family in Florence results in the assassination of Giuliano de' Medici.

1483, April 9 - Edward V becomes King of England upon the death of his father, Edward IV.

1484, April 13 - Pope Sixtus IV consecrates the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.

1487, April 6 - John Argyropoulos, a Greek philosopher and scholar, becomes the first to introduce Aristotelian studies in Italy.

1492, April 17 - Christopher Columbus receives funding for his expedition from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain.

1495, April 25 - The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed, dividing the newly discovered lands between Spain and Portugal.

1498, April 25 - Vasco da Gama arrives at Calicut, India, opening the sea route from Europe to the East by circumnavigating Africa.

1500, April 22 - Pedro Álvares Cabral's 13 ship fleet lands in Brazil, leading to the Portuguese claim on the territory. 

1502, April 22 - Christopher Columbus begins his fourth and final voyage to the New World.

1509, April 21 - Henry VIII becomes King of England after the death of his father, Henry VII.

1513, April 2 - Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León claims Florida for Spain after landing on Florida's east coast near present-day St. Augustine. He named the land, with lavish landscape and beautiful beaches, "La Florida" or "place of flowers" Ponce de Leon had traveled from Puerto Rico where he established the first European settlement, Caparra, near what is now San Juan. More

1515, April 11 - Francis I of France achieves a victory over the Swiss at the Battle of Marignano.

1520, April 16 - The Revolt of the Comuneros begins in Spain against King Charles V's rule.

1521, April 22 - Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrives in the Philippines.

1526, April 30 - Battle of Panipat: Babur's Mughal forces defeat Ibrahim Lodi, establishing Mughal rule in India.

1536, April 23 - Anne Boleyn, second wife of King Henry VIII, is arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

1545, April 15 - The Siege of Buda begins as Ottoman forces lay siege to the Hungarian city.

1555, April 24 - The Peace of Augsburg is signed, ending the religious conflict between the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League.

1564, April 23 - William Shakespeare, English playwright, and poet is born in Stratford-upon-Avon.

1570, April 25 - Pope Pius V issues the papal bull "Regnans in Excelsis," excommunicating Queen Elizabeth I of England.

1578, April 14 - Battle of Gelves: Spanish forces defeat a fleet of English privateers off the coast of Portugal.

1581, April 26 - Sir Francis Drake completes his circumnavigation of the globe aboard the Golden Hind.

1586, April 10 - The Banquet of Chestnuts takes place at the Vatican, notorious for its scandalous behavior.

1598, April 13 - King Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes, granting religious liberties to the Huguenots.

1600, April 5 - Scottish preacher John Craig is appointed the first minister of Edinburgh.

1603, April 24 - King James VI of Scotland is crowned as King James I of England, uniting the crowns of England and Scotland.

1607, April 26 - English colonists establish the first permanent English settlement in America at Jamestown, Virginia.

1609, April 4 - Explorer Henry Hudson sets sail from Amsterdam on his voyage to North America.

1610, April 13 - Henry IV of France is assassinated by François Ravaillac in Paris.

1611, April 23 - The first King James Bible is published in London.

1614, April 10 - Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, marries English colonist John Rolfe in Virginia.

1616, April 23 - William Shakespeare dies in Stratford-upon-Avon on his birthday.

1621, April 5 - The Mayflower sets sail from Plymouth, Massachusetts, returning to England.

1622, April 18 - A Powhatan Indian attack on Jamestown in Virginia results in the deaths of hundreds of English settlers.

1629, April 4 - King Charles I of England dissolves Parliament, beginning the period known as the Eleven Years' Tyranny.

1633, April 12 - Galileo Galilei is forced to recant his view that the Earth orbits the Sun by the Roman Catholic Church.

1640, April 13 - King Charles I of England disbands the Short Parliament.

1644, April 24 - The Ming dynasty Chinese general, Li Zicheng, breaches the walls of Beijing.

1652, April 20 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a settlement at Cape Town, South Africa.

1653, April 20 - Oliver Cromwell dissolves the Rump Parliament in England, leading to the rule of the Protectorate.

1660, April 25 - The Convention Parliament meets in England, beginning the Restoration of the monarchy under Charles II.

1667, April 27 - John Milton sells the copyright of "Paradise Lost" for £10.

1671, April 22 - Pirate Captain Henry Morgan captures Panama City from the Spanish.

1682, April 9 - René-Robert Cavelier claims the Mississippi River basin for France, naming it Louisiana.

1689, April 11 - William III and Mary II are crowned joint sovereigns of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

1692, April 30 - The Salem witch trials begin in Massachusetts.

1695, April 5 - The Treaty of Karlowitz ends the Austro-Ottoman War.

1700, April 5 - English pirate William Kidd is captured in Boston and sent to England for trial.

1701, April 16 - The privateer-turned-pirate Captain Kidd is captured in Boston and sent to England to stand trial.

1702, April 25 - Queen Anne's War (War of the Spanish Succession) begins between England and Spain.

1703, April 4 - The Great Storm of 1703, one of the worst storms to strike southern Great Britain, causes widespread damage and thousands of deaths.

1704, April 11 - The Battle of Culloden takes place in Scotland during the Jacobite rising, resulting in a victory for the government forces.

1707, April 25 - The Acts of Union 1707 are signed, merging the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1709, April 22 - The Battle of Poltava takes place, leading to a significant victory for Peter the Great of Russia over Charles XII of Sweden.

1710, April 27 - The Statute of Anne, the first fully-fledged copyright law, comes into force in Great Britain.

1713, April 11 - War of the Spanish Succession ends with the signing of the Treaty of Utrecht.

1719, April 14 - Daniel Defoe publishes "Robinson Crusoe."

1722, April 25 - On Easter Sunday, Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen makes the first-recorded European contact with Easter island and names the Island "Easter" He visited for a week and estimated there were 2,000 to 3,000 inhabitants on the island. The island is most famous for its nearly 1,000 extant, monumental stone statues, called moai, which were created by the early Rapa Nui people. The island had rich soil and a good climate and mostly under cultivation". Later Fossil-pollen analysis shows that the main trees on the island had gone 72 years earlier in 1650.

1729, April 7 - A fleet from Spain arrives in St. Augustine, Florida, capturing a British merchant ship.

1733, April 27 - The Molasses Act is passed by the British Parliament, imposing duties on molasses, sugar, and rum imported from non-British territories to the North American colonies.

1738, April 9 - John Wesley is converted, sparking the Methodist movement.

1746, April 16 - The Battle of Culloden ends the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, marking the defeat of Charles Stuart's attempt to reclaim the British throne.

1755, April 8 - Samuel Johnson's "A Dictionary of the English Language" is published in London.

1759, April 13 - The Battle of Bergen takes place during the Seven Years' War, with the British capturing the Dutch fleet.

1764, April 5 - The Sugar Act is passed by the British Parliament, imposing new duties and stricter enforcement on the American colonies.

1770, April 5 - The Boston Massacre occurs when British soldiers fire into a crowd, killing five civilians, in Boston, Massachusetts.

1770, April 29 - The HMB Endeavour, commanded by Captain James Cook's (then Lieutenant) and his crew arrive at Botany Bay, Australia. They fished, explored, found water and botanized but they didn’t set up a land based camp and remained on board their ship. The Endeavour departed on May 6th seven days after her arrival. More 

1775, April 18 - Paul Revere and William Dawes ride from Boston to Lexington warning of British troop movements, marking the beginning of the American Revolutionary War.

1777, April 27 - The Battle of Ridgefield takes place during the American Revolutionary War, with a small American force engaging British troops.

1780, April 19 - The Battle of Martinique takes place during the Anglo-French War.

1783, April 11 - Hostilities cease, and the American Revolutionary War essentially ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris between Britain and the United States.

1789, April 30 - George Washington is inaugurated as the first President of the United States.

1792, April 20 - France declares war on Austria, marking the start of the French Revolutionary Wars.

1793, April 6 - Committee of Public Safety is formed in France, wielding significant power during the Reign of Terror.

1794, April 7 - The French National Convention adopts the Law of 22 Prairial, accelerating the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution.

1795, April 5 - Beethoven debuts as a pianist in Vienna, showcasing his own compositions.

1796, April 9 - Napoleon Bonaparte wins a brilliant victory at the Battle of Montenotte, during his Italian campaign.

1797, April 22 - The Battle of Neuwied takes place during the French Revolutionary Wars, resulting in a French victory over the Austrians.

1798, April 20 - The United Irishmen Rebellion against British rule in Ireland begins with a failed uprising.

1799, April 9 - Napoleon Bonaparte, after returning from Egypt, stages a coup d'état and becomes the de facto ruler of France.

1800, April 24 - The Library of Congress is established in Washington, D.C., with an initial appropriation of $5,000 for books.

1803, April 30 - The agreement for the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France is formally completed.  this transaction with France, signed on April 30, 1803, the United States purchased 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River for $15 million. For roughly 4 cents an acre, the United States doubled its size, expanding the nation westward. More

1805, April 4 - Beethoven's Symphony No. 3, "Eroica," premieres in Vienna.

1806,
April 18 - The UK and Russia sign the Treaty of London, forming an alliance against Napoleon.

1807, April 17 - English poet William Wordsworth first publishes "Poems in Two Volumes."

1814, April 11 - Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba after the signing of the Treaty of Fontainebleau between Napoleon and representatives of Austria, Russia and Prussia. The agreement ended Napoleon's rule as emperor of the French and sent him into exile to the island of Elba, now an Italian island. More

1815, April 3 - Mount Tambora in Indonesia begins erupting, resulting in one of the most powerful eruptions in recorded human history. Increased steaming and smaller eruptions occurred during the next six months to three years. The effects of the eruptions included major climate changes the following year (1816) and a "volcanic winter" which is referred to as "the year without summer"  The death toll  estimate is that at least 71,000 people perished, of which 11,000 –12,000 were killed directly by the eruption. More

1827, April 22 - The first performance of Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125, takes place in Vienna.

1830, April 6 - The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is officially organized in Fayette, New York. More

1836, April 21 - The Battle of San Jacinto takes place, leading to the Texan victory over Mexico and the capture of General Santa Anna.

1841, April 4 - William Henry Harrison, 9th President of the United States, dies of pneumonia after only 32 days in office, the shortest tenure in U.S. presidential history.

1843, April 6 - Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter-day Saint movement, delivers a sermon in Kirtland, Ohio, introducing the Mormon Church's new doctrine of baptism for the dead.

1853, April 18 - The first train crosses the Indian Peninsula from Bombay to Thane.

1856, April 17 - American engineer and inventor William R. Johnson patents the bicycle.

1859, April 25 - The Groundbreaking of the Suez Canal takes place and the Digging Process begins. Ten years later, on August 18th, after digging out 74 million m3 of soil and spending 433 million Francs, double the original estimate, the water of the the Red Sea and the Mediterranean seas meet and a new world navigation path is established. More

Water of the two seas met  ten years later on August 18th, creating an invaluable artery for world navigation. 74 million m3 of soil was dug out, and the execution cost reached 433 million Francs (17320000 Egyptian Pounds); which was double the cost calculated initially.

1860, April 3 - The Pony Express begins service. From St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California . Covering mMore than 1,800 miles in 10 days and delivering a letter faster than ever before. It operated for only 18 months, but the Pony express became synonymous with the Old West. About ten weeks after the Pony Express began operations, Congress authorized a bill to subsidize the building of a transcontinental telegraph line to connect the Missouri River and the Pacific Coast. On October 26, 1861, San Francisco was in direct contact with New York City. On that day the Pony Express was officially terminated. More

1861, April 12 - The Confederate Forces attack Fort Sumter, South Carolina,  marking the official beginning of the The American Civil War. The war lasted four years, cost the lives of more than 620,000 Americans, and freed 3.9 million enslaved people from bondage. More

1865, April 9 - General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant, effectively ending the American Civil War. More

1865, April 14 - U.S. President Abraham Lincoln is shot at point-blank range on the back of the head as he watched a play at Ford’s Theater in Washington DC. The President was carried across the street to the Petersen House a private home, where he died early the following morning. The assassin, American actor. John Wilkes Booth escaped but was pursued by Union soldiers for twelve days through southern Maryland and Virginia, and died of a gunshot wound on April 26 after refusing to surrender to Federal troops. The murder of President Abraham Lincoln was part of a pre-planned, coordinated attack on the president, Vice President Andrew Johnson and the Secretary of State. More

1865, April 15 - U.S. President Abraham Lincoln dies at 7:22 a.m. At 11:00 a.m., Vice President Andrew Johnson took the oath of office as the 17th president. More

1866, April 9 - Ulysses S. Grant, still a Lieutenant General of the U.S. Army, is detained by two officers, on the one-year anniversary of General Lee’s surrender to Grant in Appomattox, Virginia, for fast driving on 14th Street while “exercising his fast gray nag”.  Grant offered to pay the fine, but “expressed his doubts of their authority to arrest him and drove off.” Several days later, Grant “acknowledge the service of a warrant for fast driving and appeared before the Justice of the Peace and paid the fine.” More  

1866, April 20 - The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is founded in New York City.

1867, April 1 - Singapore becomes a British crown colony.

1871, April 20 - The Civil Rights Act of 1871, also known as the Ku Klux Klan Act, is enacted in the United States.

1877, April 15 - The first telephone is installed in the White House during the presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes.

1882, April 20 - German scientist Robert Koch identifies the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis.

1888, April 4 - The first recorded sale of bottled Coca-Cola takes place in Vicksburg, Mississippi.

1891, April 15 - Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight: James J. Corbett defeats John L. Sullivan in the first heavyweight championship boxing match using boxing gloves.

1896, April 6 - The first modern Olympic Games open in Athens, Greece.

1897, April 1 - The Greco-Turkish War begins when Greece declares war on the Ottoman Empire.

1898, April 25 - The United States declares war on Spain, beginning the Spanish-American War.

1899, April 17 - The Treaty of Paris ends the Spanish-American War, ceding Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the United States.

1900, April 4 - The Boxer Rebellion begins in China with the killing of foreign diplomats and civilians in Beijing.

1901, April 3 - The first recorded game of what would become ice hockey in the United States takes place in Baltimore, Maryland.

1902, April 5 - Danish author Hans Christian Andersen dies in Copenhagen.

1906, April 18 - The devastating San Francisco earthquake strikes, causing widespread destruction and fires. More than 3,000 people died, and over 80% of the city was destroyed. The death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California's history and high on the lists of American disasters. More

1912, April 15 - The RMS Titanic sinks after hitting an iceberg in the North Atlantic Ocean. More

1915, April 24 - The Armenian Genocide begins in the Ottoman Empire, resulting in the mass killing of Armenians.

1916, April 24 - The Easter Rising begins in Ireland against British rule as Members of the Irish Citizen Army and Irish Volunteers seized strategic points in Dublin. Although quickly suppressed by the British Army, the rising herald the end of British power in Ireland paving the way to the nation's independence in 1922. More

1917, April 6 - The United States enters World War I as the U.S Congress voted to declare war on Germany and to enter what optimistically was called the “Great War. More

1923, April 18 - The Yankee Stadium, one of the most iconic sports venues, opens in the Bronx, New York City.

1924, The first successful flight around the world takes off from Seattle's Sand Point Naval Air Station. Eight U.S. Army Air Service pilots and mechanics in four airplanes left to carry out the first circumnavigation of the globe by air. They completed their mission 175 days later. More

1933,
April 7 - Prohibition in the United States ends with the repeal of the 18th Amendment.

1935. April 14 - “The Dust Bowl”, in what came to be known as “Black Sunday,” a mountain of blackness swept across the High Plains and instantly turned a warm, sunny afternoon into a horrible blackness that was darker than the darkest night. High winds kicked up clouds of millions of tons of dirt and dust so dense and dark that some eyewitnesses believed the world was coming to an end. More

1940, April 9 - Germany invades Denmark and Norway during World War II. The German invasion of Denmark and Norway begins. Known as Operation Weseruebung, it heralded a new stage in warfare in which cooperation of air, land, and sea forces was essential for successful offensive operations.

1942, April 9 - The largest surrender of American troops since the American Civil War's Battle of Harpers Ferry takes place as 12,000 Americans soldiers and 66,000 Filipinos surrender to the Japanese at Bataan in the Philippines. Soon afterwards, U.S. and Filipino prisoners of war were forced into the Bataan Death March. More

1945, April 1 - The Battle of Okinawa starts as more than 60,000 soldiers and US Marines of the US Tenth Army stormed ashore at Okinawa. Savage fighting erupted at the island’s southern end as the US forces encountered a network of Japanese inland defenses. The land, sea, and air battle raged for nearly three months. About 12,000 American and 90,000 Japanese combatants died in the fighting, but deaths among Okinawan civilians may have reached 150,000. More

1945, April 12 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies; Vice President Harry S. Truman becomes president.

1945, April 30 - Adolf Hitler, chancellor and dictator of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, commits suicide in the Führerbunker via a self inflicted gunshot to the head after it became clear that Germany would lose the Battle of Berlin. Eva Braun, his longtime mistress, who he had married the prior day, also committed suicide by cyanide poisoning. In accordance with Hitler's prior written and verbal instructions, their remains were carried up the stairs and through the bunker's emergency exit to the Reich Chancellery garden, where they were doused in petrol and burned. The news of Hitler's death was announced on German radio the next day, May 1. More

1945, April 25 - American and Soviet troops meet on the Elbe in the vicinity of Torgau signaling that the end of the Second World War in Europe was within reach. More

1946, April 1 - A t.8 magnitude earthquake occurs in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Near the source of the earthquake, at Unimak Island, huge tsunami waves reached more than 100 feet above sea level and destroyed completely the newly built steel-reinforced concrete U.S. Coast Guard's Scotch Cap lighthouse. killing al 5 crew members. The tsunami arrived 4.9 hours later in Hilo, causing $26 million (1946 dollars) in damages and killing 96 people. More

1947, April 15 - Jackie Robinson breaks the color barrier in Major League Baseball, making his debut for the Brooklyn Dodgers.

1948, April 3 - President Truman signs the Economic Recovery Act of 1948 which became known as the Marshall Plan, named for Secretary of State George Marshall, who had proposed that the United States provide economic assistance to restore the economic infrastructure of postwar Europe which  was devastated making the Western European countries vulnerable to Soviet expansionism heightened the sense of crisis. More 

1951, April 5 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg (née Greenglass) are sentenced to death after being convicted of spying and passing secret information about the atomic bomb and other military information to the Soviet Union. They were executed in June, 1953. President Eisenhower declined to grant executive clemency to the Rosenbergs, stating: "The nature of the crime for which they have been found guilty and sentenced far exceeds that of the taking of the life of another citizen; it involves the deliberate betrayal of the entire nation and could very well result in the death of many, many thousands of innocent citizens…" More

1951, April 11 - U.S. president Harry S. Truman relieves General of the Army Douglas MacArthur of his commands after MacArthur made public statements that contradicted the administration's policies. In relieving MacArthur for failing to "respect the authority of the President" by privately communicating with Congress, Truman upheld the president's role as preeminent and emphasized the U.S. policy of  civilian control of the military.

1954, April 12 - Bill Haley and His Comets record "Rock Around The Clock" It may not have been the first rock’n’roll record but it is an event often referred to as marking the beginning of the Rock and Roll era. Bill Haley, a square-looking country singer from the suburbs of Philadelphia, nearly 30 years old at the time, was an unlikely hero of the Rock era.

1955, April 5 - Winston Churchill resigns as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

1956, April 18 - American actress Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier III of Monaco.

1961, April 17 - The Bay of Pigs (Bahía de Cochinos) Invasion on the southwestern coast of Cuba begins. The CIA trained forces consisting of about 1,500 Cuban exiles assembled and launched from Guatemala and Nicaragua by boat with the objective to ignite an uprising that would overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. The Cuban military crushed the incursion by the third day. The invasion was a U.S. foreign policy failure. The Cuban government's victory solidified Castro's role as a national hero and pushed Cuba closer to the Soviet Union, setting the stage for the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. More

1961, April 12 - Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human to travel into space and orbit the Earth. More

1963. April 7 - Josip Broz (Tito), is named President of Yugoslavia for life. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was created in 1945 and Tito became Prime Minister. He became the first president of Yugoslavia in 1953 and successfully led Yugoslavia on its his own path, refusing to join the East European Communist bloc and pursuing his own policies including nonalignment, alliances with countries which were not aligned in the East West conflict.

1963, April 10 - The nuclear submarine USS Thresher (SSN-593) sinks in the Atlantic Ocean during deep-diving tests off the coast of New England. The entire crew of 129 was lost. It was the first nuclear submarine to be lost—and the worst disaster in terms of people lost. More

1963, April 16 - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. pens his famous "Letter from Birmingham Jail" advocating for civil rights.

1965, April 28 - President Lyndon B. Johnson sends more than 22,000 U.S. troops to the Dominican Republic, Ultimately, 42,000 American armed forces were deployed and remained there until September 1966. The  U.S, military intervention, purportedly to prevent the establishment of a  Communist government in the Central American Nation was followed by protests in Latin America. More than 3,000 Dominicans and 31 American servicemembers lost their lives. This was the second time that the U.S. invaded the Dominican Republic. The first time was in 1916, lasting over 8 years and resulting in the establishment of an American-sponsored puppet government in the Dominican Republic. More

1967
, April 23 - Soviet cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov is killed when the  Soyuz 1spacecraft became entangled in its main parachute at an altitude of several miles and fell back to Earth. 

1968, April 3 - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his Mountaintop Speech.

1968, April 4 - Civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is shot and mortally wounded as he stood on the second-floor balcony outside his room at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tenn. He was pronounced dead at 7:05 p.m. at St. Joseph Hospital. More

1968, April 8 - Los Angeles - Borrego Mountain Earthquake. With a magnitude  of 6.5,  It was the largest and most damaging quake to have hit southern California since the Kern County earthquake, 16 years earlier. It was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Fresno, and even Yosemite Valley. More

1969, April 4 - Dr. Denton Cooley implants the first temporary artificial heart in a human.

1969, April 7- This date is often cited as the symbolic birth date of the net because the RFC memoranda contain research, proposals and methodologies applicable to internet technology. There is also support for Jan. 1, 1983, as the birth of the net, which was the date, the National Science Foundation’s university network backbone, a precursor to the World Wide Web, became operational utilizing the TCP/IP communication standard. More 

1970, April 13 -  The Apollo 13 oxygen tank explodes at almost 56 hours into the mission. - Oxygen tank no. 2 exploded, damaging oxygen tank no. 1 and the interior of the service module, blowing off the bay no. 4 cover. With the oxygen stores depleted, the command module was unusable, the mission had to be aborted, and the crew transferred to the lunar module and powered down the command module. More

1970, April 22 - The first Earth Day is celebrated in the United States to promote environmental awareness.

1971, April 29 - The US space probe Mariner 9 is launched toward Mars, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet.

1973, April 4 - The World Trade Center "Twin Towers" in New York City officially open becoming the world’s tallest building at the time and a dominant feature of the city’s skyline. They were destroyed in a terrorist attack in 2001.

1974, April 8 - Hank Aaron breaks Babe Ruth's home run record in Major League Baseball.

1975, April 30 - The Vietnam War officially ends with the fall of Saigon and the reunification of Vietnam.

1980, April 18 - Zimbabwe gains independence from Britain, ending white minority rule.

1980, April 24 - "Eagle Claw" The ill-fated military operation to rescue the 66 American hostages held in Tehran ended with eight U.S. servicemen dead and no hostages rescued. More 

1980, April 25 - Dan-Air Flight 1008,was a fatal accident involving A Boeing 727-46 jet aircraft operated by Dan Air Services Limited  a charter flight from Manchester to Tenerife on the Canary Islands crashes on La Esperanza Mountain killing all 146 on board. More

1981, April 12 - The space shuttle Columbia lifts off from Cape Canaveral, Florida and becomes the first reusable manned spacecraft to travel into space. Carrying the two-person crew of John Young and Robert Crippen., Columbia proved the operational concept of a winged, reusable spaceship. The flight lasted 54 hours in space, with 36 orbits before successfully touching down at California’s Edwards Air Force Base on April 14. Columbia went on to have a total of 27 successful flights. On 2/1/2003, on its 28th flight, Columbia and Crew were lost During reentry More

1986, April 26 - The worst nuclear accident in history occurs at the Chernobyl nuclear site in Ukraine.  The accident was the result of a flawed reactor design that was operated with inadequately trained personnel who were running a poorly designed test. About 350,000 people were evacuated as a result of the accident. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation has concluded that, apart from some 5000 thyroid cancers (resulting in 15 fatalities), "there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure 20 years after the accident."  More

1988, April 14 - The Geneva Accords to settle the situation relating in Afghanistan, were signed at the Geneva headquarters of the United Nations, between Afghanistan and Pakistan, with the United States and the Soviet Union serving as guarantors. The Afghan resistance, or mujahideen, were neither party to the negotiations nor to the Geneva accords and so refused to accept the terms of the agreement. After the signing of the Geneva accords, the 40th Soviet Army conducted a well-planned and executed nine-month withdrawal. The last Soviet soldier crossed the Freedom Bridge on 15 February 1989. More

1988, April 28 -  Aloha Flight 243, 737 aircraft lands safely after Losing Its Roof at 24,000 feet. The explosive decompression, which tore off the cockpit door and over 18 feet of the aircraft's roof between the cockpit and the wings. The violent rush of air sadly caused flight attendant Clarabelle Lansing to be swept from the aircraft. She was the only fatality, with all passengers seated and belted at the time. Neither her body or the piece of the fuselage blown off the aircraft were ever found. The Investigation by the U. S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) concluded that the accident was caused by metal fatigue exacerbated by crevice corrosion.

More

1989, April 15 - The tragedy at Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England, results in the deaths of 96 football fans due to overcrowding.

1990, April 25 - The Hubble Space Telescope, launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on the STS-31 mission. is placed in orbitMore 

1991, April 29 - A deadly tropical cyclone hits Bangladesh, making landfall in the Chittagong district of southeastern Bangladesh with winds of around 155 mph (250 km/h). The tropical cyclone caused a 20 feet 6.1 m (20 ft) storm surge, which inundated the coastline, causing at about 140,000 deaths and US $1.7 billion in damage. More

1992, April 29 - The Los Angeles riots erupt following the acquittal of police officers in the beating of Rodney King. 

1993, April 30 - The World Wide Web (WWW) goes public as CERN makes the source code of the  World Wide Web available on a royalty-free basis, making it free software. By late 1993 there were over 500 known web servers, and the WWW accounted for 1% of internet traffic, which seemed a lot in those days (the rest was remote access, e-mail and file transfer) More

1994, April 6 - The Rwandan Genocide erupts, leading to the mass slaughter of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutus, with neighbors turning on neighbors and family turning on family. Up to 1 million people on some accounts — were brutally slaughtered in just 100 days, leaving the once-beautiful country in ruins as the International community failed to intervine. Against all odds, Rwanda has made remarkable strides in the years since, showing resilience and determination. Despite the lasting scars, Rwanda’s journey of healing, reconciliation, and development stands as an inspiring testament to the unyielding spirit of its people. More

1994, April 27 - South Africa's first multi-racial general election with full enfranchisement is held. The African National Congress won a 63 percent share of the vote at the election, and Mandela, as leader of the ANC, was inaugurated on 10 May 1994 as the country's first Black President, with the National Party's F.W. de Klerk as his first deputy and Thabo Mbeki as the second in the Government of National Unity. More

1995, April 19 - The Oklahoma City bombing takes place at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, killing 168 people. More

1996, April 3 - The infamous "Unabomber," Theodore Kaczynski, is arrested at his Montana cabin. The FBI had spent nearly two decades hunting him down. More 

1997, April 22 - Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori orders an assault of the Japanese ambassador’s residence to rescue the 72 hostages remaining of the 490 taken during a party celebrating Emperor Akihito’s birthday, by armed terrorists from the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, a Marxist-Leninist organization, All the rebels, including their leader, were killed during the rescue operation. Only one hostage, Supreme Court Justice, Carlos Giusti, was killed in the attack Two soldiers wounded during the rescue operation died later from their injuries.

1998, April 10 - The Belfast Agreement, also known as the Good Friday Agreement, is signed after three decades of conflict known as the Troubles. The agreement set up a power-sharing arrangement and also restored self-government to Northern Ireland. it was approved by voters on May 22, 1998, and came into force on December 2, 1999.The Agreement still survives today. 

1999, April 20 - The Columbine High School massacre occurs in Colorado, resulting in the deaths of 15 individuals, including the perpetrators.

2000, April 22 - In a symbolic move, Elián González, a Cuban boy at the center of an international custody dispute, is seized by federal agents in Miami.

2001, April 1 - The Netherlands legalizes same-sex marriage, becoming the first country to do so.

2001, April 10 - The Netherlands passed a bill permitting euthanasia, the first such national law in the world. More

2002, April 8 - The International Criminal Court is established to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and aggression.

2003, April 9 - U.S. forces capture Baghdad, effectively toppling Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq.

2004, April 8 - The United States lifts economic sanctions on Libya after the country agrees to eliminate its weapons of mass destruction.

2005, April 2 - Pope John Paul II dies, leading to the election of Pope Benedict XVI.

2006, April 6 - A massive immigration reform protest, known as the "Great American Boycott," takes place across the United States.

2007, April 16 - The Virginia Tech shooting occurs, resulting in the deaths of 32 people in the deadliest school shooting in U.S. history at the time.

2008, April 7 - Prime Minister Kevin Rudd of Australia formally apologizes to the Indigenous Australians for the Stolen Generations policies.

2009, April 7 - The G20 summit is held in London to address the global financial crisis.

2010, April 20 - An explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico leads to a massive oil spill.

2011, April 29 - Prince William and Catherine Middleton marry at Westminster Abbey in London.

2012, April 6 - The discovery of the Higgs boson particle is announced by scientists at CERN.

2013, April 15 - The Boston Marathon bombing occurs, killing three people and injuring hundreds.

2014, April 14 - The extremist group Boko Haram abducts 276 schoolgirls from Chibok, Nigeria, leading to international outrage and the #BringBackOurGirls campaign.

2015, April 25 - Nepal is hit by a devastating 7.8 earthquake, resulting in widespread destruction and more than eight thousand deaths. More

2016, April 22 - The Paris Agreement on climate change is signed by 175 countries at the United Nations headquarters in New York City.

2017, April 13 - The United States drops the "Mother of All Bombs" (MOAB), the largest non-nuclear bomb, on ISIS targets in Afghanistan.

2018, April 27 - The leaders of North and South Korea meet for the first time in more than a decade, pledging to work toward peace and denuclearization.

2019, April 15 - The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris suffers a devastating fire, causing significant damage to the iconic landmark.

2020,
April 22 - The COVID-19 pandemic prompts the cancellation of the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan, due to health concerns.

2021, April 20 - Derek Chauvin, a former Minneapolis police officer, is found guilty of murdering George Floyd, sparking global conversations about racial justice and police brutality.

Sources for the Historical Content shown, include research and reviews of relevant Online History Resources or printed material. When possible, we show a link to a source which provides additional or unique perspective about the event. We do our best to provide accurate information but would appreciate being notified if any incorrect information is found. You may do so by using this link: Feedback

These are some of many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of March, listed by year. Dates provided for earlier time events may be approximate.


900 BCE, March 12 - The approximate time when King Solomon is believed to have begun construction of the First Temple in Jerusalem.

950 BCE, March 5 - Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem is completed.

922 BCE, March 8 - Solomon's son Rehoboam ascends to the throne of the Kingdom of Judah after Solomon's death, leading to the division of the United Monarchy.

776 BCE, March 7 - The traditional founding date of the city of Rome by Romulus and Remus.

776 BCE, March 25 - The first recorded Olympic Games in ancient Greece take place in Olympia.

722 BCE, March 10 - Israel's northern kingdom, Samaria, falls to the Assyrians, leading to the exile of the Israelites.

597 BCE, March 16 - Babylonians capture Jerusalem and replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king.

586 BCE, March 16 - The Babylonian siege of Jerusalem begins, leading to the eventual destruction of the First Temple.

486-483 BCE,  Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, dies at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. More

324 BCE, March 21 - The Battle of Gaza occurs between Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia, leading to Alexander's victory and the collapse of Persian rule.

221 BCE, March 29 - The founding of the Qin Dynasty in China marks the beginning of Imperial China.

202 BCE, March 19 - The Battle of Zama takes place, where Roman general Scipio Africanus defeats Carthaginian leader Hannibal, ending the Second Punic War.

49 BCE, March 9 - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon River with his army, initiating a civil war in Rome.

44 BCE, March 15 - Julius Caesar is assassinated by a group of Roman senators, including Brutus and Cassius, in the Roman Senate.

1 CE, March 15 - Germanic tribes led by Arminius defeat the Roman legions at the Battle of Idistaviso.

14 CE, March 18 - Roman Emperor Tiberius dies, and Caligula becomes Emperor.

37 CE, March 18 - Caligula, Roman Emperor, is assassinated, and Claudius becomes the new Emperor.

45 CE, March 20 - Roman Emperor Claudius is poisoned, and Nero ascends to the throne.

51 CE, March 18 - Nero, Roman Emperor, is given the title of Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of the College of Pontiffs.

64 CE, March 19 - The Great Fire of Rome begins, lasting for six days and destroying a significant portion of the city.

69 CE, March 15 - Roman Emperor Galba is assassinated by the Praetorian Guard, leading to the Year of the Four Emperors.

81 CE, March 13 - Roman Emperor Titus, famous for completing the Colosseum, dies.

98 CE, March 18 - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva, starting the golden age of the Roman Empire.

117 CE, March 25 - Roman Emperor Trajan dies, and Hadrian becomes Emperor.

180 CE, March 17 - Commodus, Roman Emperor, makes his son Commodus co-emperor.

193 CE, March 28 - Pertinax, Roman Emperor, is assassinated by the Praetorian Guard, leading to the Year of the Five Emperors.

222 CE, March 11 - Roman Emperor Elagabalus is assassinated, and Alexander Severus becomes emperor.

268 CE, March 20 - Pope Dionysius declares March 25 as the official date of celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ (Christmas).

303 CE, March 7 - Roman Emperor Diocletian orders the persecution of Christians.

313 CE, March 1 - Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Licinius issue the Edict of Milan, granting religious tolerance in the Roman Empire.

363 CE, March 5 - Roman Emperor Julian orders the rebuilding of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.

410 CE, March 18 - The Visigoths, led by Alaric, plunder Rome, marking the first time the city falls to invaders in over 800 years.

451 CE, March 20 - The Council of Chalcedon declares Jesus Christ to have two natures—fully divine and fully human.

476 CE, March 23 - Romulus Augustulus, the last Roman Emperor, is deposed by Odoacer, marking the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

536 CE, March 24 - A mysterious atmospheric event causes a dense fog over Europe and the Middle East, believed to have been caused by a volcanic eruption.

589 CE, March 7 - Reccared I, Visigothic King of Hispania, converts to Catholicism from Arianism, leading to the conversion of the Visigothic nobility.

632 CE, March 8 - The Islamic prophet Muhammad’s last sermon is delivered during his Farewell Pilgrimage in Mecca.

711 CE, March 26 - Tariq ibn Ziyad, a Muslim commander, crosses the Strait of Gibraltar, beginning the Muslim conquest of Hispania.

732 CE, March 3 - Battle of Poitiers: Frankish leader Charles Martel defeats the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, halting the Muslim advance into Western Europe.

843 CE, March 14 - The Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian Empire among three grandsons of Charlemagne, marking the foundation of France, Germany, and the Middle Kingdom (Lotharingia).

871 CE, March 23 - King Æthelred I of Wessex dies, and his brother Alfred the Great becomes King of Wessex.

922 CE, March 8 - Solomon's son Rehoboam ascends to the throne of the Kingdom of Judah after Solomon's death, leading to the division of the United Monarchy.

950 CE, March 5 - Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem is completed.

999 CE, March 25 - King Olaf Tryggvason of Norway is killed in the Battle of Svolder.

1000, CE, March 11 - Emperor Otto III issues a document establishing the Bishopric of Gniezno, Poland, as an archbishopric. during the Congress of Gniezno which was an amicable meeting between the Polish Duke Bolesław I the Brave and Emperor Otto III. Scholars disagree over the details of others decisions made at the convention, especially whether the ruler of Poland was pledged the king's crown or not. 

1001, March 25 - Emperor Otto III of the Holy Roman Empire dies unexpectedly at the age of 22.

1009, March 13 - First known mention of Lithuania in historical chronicles.

1014, March 23 - Brian Boru, High King of Ireland, wins the Battle of Clontarf against the Vikings but dies in the battle.

1016, March 25 - Æthelred the Unready, King of England, dies and is succeeded by his son Edmund Ironside.

1027, March 12 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor.

1034, March 19 - King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland dies, leading to a period of instability.

1040, March 17 - Harald Hardrada becomes King of Norway after the death of Magnus I.

1043, March 23 - Edward the Confessor becomes the King of England.

1054, March 23 - Pope Leo IX issues a papal bull excommunicating Michael I Cerularius, leading to the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western Christian churches.

1067, March 20 - Battle at the Tigris: Seljuk Turks defeat the Abbasids near Baghdad.

1071, March 24 - The Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Empire, opening the door for Turkish conquest of Asia Minor.

1080, March 7 - King Harald III of Denmark dies at the Battle of St. Alban's Priory.

1085, March 15 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain, from the Moors after a siege.

1093, March 24 - Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, tries to take England but is repelled by King William II.

1095, March 12 - Bertha of Savoy, wife of Emperor Henry IV, is crowned Holy Roman Empress.

1098, March 12 - Crusaders capture the fortress of Arqa from the Fatimids in the First Crusade.

1099, March 7 - Crusaders begin the siege of Jerusalem, part of the First Crusade.

1100, March 24 - Anselm of Canterbury becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.

1100, March 25 - Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, is born in Cheapside, London.

1100, March 26 - Empress Matilda, future claimant to the English throne, is born.

1100, March 28 - Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, dies.

1100, March 29 - Baldwin I of Jerusalem is crowned as the first King of Jerusalem in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

1100, March 31 - The University of Bologna, the oldest university in the world, is founded.

1101, March 13 - Crusaders besiege Sidon but fail to capture it during the Crusade of 1101.

1103, March 23 - Crusaders lay siege to the city of Tripoli in modern-day Lebanon during the Crusade of 1101.

1105, March 16 - Maginulfo is elected as the Antipope Sylvester IV, challenging Pope Paschal II.

1107, March 8 - Edgar, King of Scotland, dies.

1107, March 17 - King Baldwin I of Jerusalem dies.

1111, March 7 - Pope Paschal II crowns Henry V as Holy Roman Emperor.

1113, March 11 - Baldwin II becomes the King of Jerusalem.

1118, March 19 - Pope Gelasius II excommunicates Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor.

1120, March 25 - The Council of Nablus is convened by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem.

1126, March 8 - Alfonso VII becomes the King of Galicia, Leon, and Castile.

1133, March 8 - King Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine.

1138, March 13 - Conrad III is crowned as the King of Germany.

1142, March 9 - Pierre Abélard, a French philosopher, dies.

1144, March 1 - The Second Crusade: Bernard of Clairvaux preaches in favour of a crusade at Vézelay.

1147, March 31 - The Second Crusade: Crusaders begin the Siege of Damascus.

1152, March 18 - Frederick I Barbarossa becomes the Holy Roman Emperor.

1153, March 7 - Stephen, King of England, agrees to the Treaty of Winchester, naming Henry Plantagenet as his heir.

1155, March 31 - Alfonso VII, Emperor of Spain, dies.

1158, March 23 - Vladislaus II becomes the King of Bohemia.

1160, March 25 - Victor IV is elected as Antipope by the Holy Roman Empire.

1164, March 20 - Thomas Becket is exiled from England by King Henry II.

1167, March 7 - Battle of El-Babein: A Crusader force led by King Amalric of Jerusalem defeats the Fatimids.

1173, March 15 - Pope Alexander III canonizes Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury.

1179, March 19 - The Third Lateran Council opens in Rome under Pope Alexander III.

1180, March 25 - Murasaki Shikibu, author of "The Tale of Genji," dies in Japan.

1181, March 9 - Emperor Takakura of Japan abdicates the throne in favor of his son, Emperor Antoku.

1188, March 29 - Emperor Antoku of Japan abdicates the throne and is succeeded by his mother, Taira no Tokuko.

1190, March 10 - Third Crusade: Crusaders massacre the Jewish population of York, England.

1199, March 6 - Richard I of England is wounded by a crossbow bolt while besieging the castle of Châlus-Chabrol and dies days later.

1201, March 15 - King Afonso II of Portugal is born.

1204, March 1 - Sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade: Crusaders breach the walls and take control of the city.

1205, March 27 - King Amalric II of Jerusalem dies.

1208, March 18 - Pope Innocent III places England under an interdict as part of the dispute with King John.

1212, March 16 - The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa: Christian forces decisively defeat the Almohads in Spain.

1217, March 19 - Pope Honorius III issues the papal bull Religiosam vitam initiating the Fifth Crusade.

1223, March 18 - Mongol invasion of Central Asia: The Battle of the Kalka River takes place between the Mongol Empire and Kievan Rus'.

1226, March 14 - King Louis IX of France becomes of age and begins to rule independently.

1227, March 18 - Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire, dies.

1238, March 18 - The Mongols under Batu Khan capture the city of Vladimir, Russia.

1241, March 30 - Battle of Liegnitz: Mongols defeat a Polish army under Henry II the Pious during their invasion of Poland.

1244, March 12 - Siege of Montségur during the Albigensian Crusade: The Cathar stronghold falls to the Crusaders.

1253, March 7 - William of Rubruck departs on his journey to the Mongol Empire.

1258, March 13 - The Mongols under Hulagu Khan capture and sack Baghdad, effectively ending the Abbasid Caliphate.

1260, March 3 - Hulagu Khan's Mongol army defeats the Mamluks at the Battle of Ain Jalut in Palestine, marking the first Mongol defeat.

1266, March 23 - Battle of Benevento: Charles of Anjou defeats Manfred, King of Sicily.

1270, March 30 - King Louis IX of France dies while on the Eighth Crusade, leading to his son, Philip III, becoming king.

1274, March 13 - The Second Council of Lyon opens under Pope Gregory X.

1279, March 19 - The Reign of the Song Dynasty which ruled parts of China ends after ruling for more than three centuries when a Mongol fleet defeated a Song fleet in the Battle of Yamen and completed its conquest of China. More

1282, March 30 - The Sicilian Vespers: A rebellion breaks out against the rule of Charles I of Naples in Sicily.

1286, March 28 - King Alexander III of Scotland dies, leading to a succession crisis.

1290, March 18 - Eleanor of Castile, wife of Edward I of England, dies.

1296, March 28 - Edward I of England sacks the Scottish town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, beginning the First War of Scottish Independence.

1297, March 26 - Robert the Bruce resigns as Guardian of Scotland.

1298, March 27 - Edward I of England issues the Edict of Expulsion, expelling Jews from England.

1300, March 19 - Edmund Crouchback, son of Henry III of England, is created Earl of Lancaster.

1302, March 18 - Battle of the Golden Spurs: Flemish militia decisively defeat the French knights near Kortrijk, Belgium.

1303, March 23 - Battle of Roslin: Scots under Sir Simon Fraser ambush and defeat an English force.

1305, March 18 - William Wallace, Scottish knight and leader of the resistance against England, is captured near Glasgow.

1306, March 20 - Robert the Bruce murders John Comyn, a rival claimant to the Scottish throne, at Greyfriars Church in Dumfries.

1306, March 27 - Robert the Bruce is crowned King of Scotland at Scone.

1309, March 26 - Pope Clement V moves the papal headquarters to Avignon, beginning the period known as the Avignon Papacy.

1314, March 24 - Jacques de Molay, the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, is burned at the stake.

1316, March 16 - Louis X becomes King of France upon the death of his father, King Philip IV.

1322, March 16 - Battle of Boroughbridge: Edward II of England defeats rebellious barons, capturing Thomas of Lancaster.

1323, March 20 - Treaty of Paris: England recognizes Scotland as an independent kingdom with Robert the Bruce as its king.

1328, March 23 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton: England recognizes Scottish independence and Robert the Bruce as King.

1330,
March 18 - King Edmund of Woodstock, son of Edward I of England, is executed by order of Roger Mortimer, the de facto ruler of England.

1337, March 6 - Edward, the Black Prince, son of Edward III of England, is created Duke of Cornwall, the first Duke in England.

1338, March 12 - Battle of Arnemuiden: The English defeat a French fleet near the coast of Holland during the Hundred Years' War.

1340, March 29 - Edward III of England is declared King of France, initiating the Hundred Years' War.

1345, March 29 - The Order of the Garter is founded by King Edward III of England.

1351, March 20 - Combat of the Thirty: Thirty Breton knights led by Robert Bemborough fight thirty English knights in Brittany.

1355, March 30 - The St. Scholastica Day riot in Oxford leads to a confrontation between students and townspeople, resulting in numerous deaths.

1360, March 8 - Treaty of Brétigny: End of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War between England and France.

1367, March 10 - Battle of Nájera: English forces under Edward the Black Prince defeat a Franco-Castilian army during the Hundred Years' War.

1371, March 17 - King Robert II of Scotland is crowned, beginning the Stuart dynasty.

1378
, March 27 - Gregory XI, the last French pope of the Avignon Papacy, is elected.

1382, March 17 - Siege of Falaise: English forces under Richard II fail to capture the town of Falaise in Normandy.

1385, March 14 - Battle of Aljubarrota: Portuguese forces under King John I defeat the Castilians, ensuring Portugal's independence.

1387, March 16 - Battle of Castagnaro: Verona is captured by Padua in a battle of the War of the Venetian Succession.

1393, March 18 - Treaty of Salynas: The Teutonic Order cedes Samogitia to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

1394, March 31 - King Charles VI of France announces the end of the Crusade against the Ottoman Empire.

1397, March 29 - Geoffrey Chaucer tells The Canterbury Tales for the first time at the court of Richard II.

1399, March 20 - King Richard II of England relinquishes the throne to Henry IV.

1400, March 20 - Rebellion against Henry IV: Welsh rebel leader Owain Glyndŵr is proclaimed Prince of Wales.

1401, March 31 - Turko-Mongol leader Tamerlane defeats the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I at the Battle of Ankara.

1405, March 10 - The Chinese admiral Zheng He sets sail on his first voyage to explore the Indian Ocean.

1401, March 20 - Turko-Mongol leader Tamerlane defeats the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I at the Battle of Ankara.

1402, March 17 - Tamerlane captures the city of Damascus, strengthening his influence in the region.

1403, March 23 - The Battle of Shrewsbury in England takes place between King Henry IV and rebellious forces led by Henry Percy, known as Hotspur.

1404, March 30 - King Henry IV of England grants the bishopric of Dorpat (Tartu) in Livonia to Margrave William of Meissen.

1405, March 10 - The Chinese admiral Zheng He sets sail on his first voyage to explore the Indian Ocean.

1406, March 14 - King James I of Scotland is captured by pirates led by Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney.

1407, March 27 - A rebellion in England led by the Earl of Northumberland against King Henry IV begins.

1408, March 20 - The Council of Pisa opens to discuss the Great Schism in the Catholic Church.

1409, March 6 - The Council of Pisa elects Alexander V as the new pope, further deepening the Great Schism.

1410, March 15 - A peace treaty between Poland and the Teutonic Knights ends the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.

1411, March 25 - The Battle of Harlaw takes place in Scotland between Highlanders and Lowlanders.

1412, March 23 - The Medici family is expelled from Florence, Italy, due to political conflicts.

1413, March 20 - King Henry IV of England dies, and his son becomes King Henry V.

1414, March 6 - The Council of Constance is convened by Pope John XXIII, aiming to resolve the Great Schism.

1415, March 19 - Preparations for Henry V's invasion of France begin in England.

1416, March 15 - The Council of Constance condemns the teachings of Jan Hus and orders his execution.

1417, March 11 - Pope Gregory XII resigns, ending the Western Schism in the Catholic Church.

1418, March 4 - The Council of Constance elects Pope Martin V, officially ending the Great Schism.

1419, March 20 - The Hussite Wars in Bohemia begin with the First Defenestration of Prague.

1420, March 9 - The Council of Basel is convened to address reforms within the Catholic Church.

1421, March 23 - The Siege of Domrémy in France occurs during the Hundred Years' War.

1422, March 21 - King Henry V of England dies, leaving his infant son, Henry VI, as king.

1423, March 25 - The Treaty of Amiens is signed between England and France, temporarily ending hostilities during the Hundred Years' War.

1424, March 28 - James I of Scotland returns to Scotland after 18 years of captivity in England.

1425, March 7 - The Siege of Stirling Castle in Scotland begins, part of the ongoing conflicts between England and Scotland.

1426, March 15 - The Council of Siena convenes to discuss church reforms and address corruption.

1427, March 19 - The Siege of Montargis in France takes place during the Hundred Years' War.

1428, March 23 - Joan of Arc arrives at the court of Charles VII of France, seeking support for her mission.

1429, March 12 - The city of Orléans in France is placed under siege by English forces during the Hundred Years' War.

1492, March 31 - Spain King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castille issue the Alhambra Decree, mandating that all Jews be expelled from the country. The decree came shortly freeing Spain from Muslim rule after nearly 800 years.

1501, March 15 - Michelangelo begins work on his famous statue of David.

1502, March 15 - Cesare Borgia captures Urbino after a long siege.

1503, March 11 - Pope Julius II is elected.

1504, March 13 - Christopher Columbus returns to Spain from his fourth and final voyage to the Americas.

1507, March 25 - The world map containing the name "America," by Martin Waldseemüller, is published.

1513, March 25 - Spaniard Juan Ponce de León sights Florida.

1516, March 10 - Duke Charles of Habsburg becomes Charles I of Spain.

1517, March 19 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, dies.

1519, March 13 - Cortés lands in Mexico.

1521, March 18 - Ferdinand Magellan sights the Philippines.

1522, March 14 - Magellan's expedition circumnavigates the globe, arriving in Spain.

1525, March 24 - Battle of Pavia: Charles V's Imperial army defeats the French, capturing King Francis I of France.

1528, March 3 - Treaty of Delft is signed, formalizing an alliance between the Holy Roman Empire and England against France.

1530, March 28 - English King Henry VIII's request for a divorce with Catherine of Aragon is denied by Pope Clement VII.

1531, March 9 - Henry VIII recognized as Supreme Head of the Church of England.

1534, March 3 - Pope Paul III opens the first session of the Council of Trent.

1535, March 10 - The Galapagos Islands are discovered by chance when the Bishop of Panama, Dominican friar Fray Tomas de Berlanga, was on his way to Peru by order of the Spanish monarch, Charles V, to arbitrate in a dispute between Francisco Pizarro and his subordinates after the conquest of the Inca empire. The combination of calm and strong currents dragged the ship of the Bishop to the Galapagos. 

1536, March 23 - The first English-language Bible, translated by William Tyndale, is printed in Antwerp.

1545, March 10 - The Council of Trent reconvenes, addressing the Church's need for reform.

1547, March 28 - Edward VI is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.

1556, March 10 - Thomas Cranmer, former Archbishop of Canterbury, is executed for treason under Mary I of England.

1558, March 17 - Ferdinand I succeeds his father, Charles V, as Holy Roman Emperor.

1561, March 13 - A transit of Venus occurs, observed by a small group of astronomers.

1568, March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France.

1571, March 24 - Queen Elizabeth I prohibits foreign vessels from fishing in English waters.

1578, March 25 - Death of Ivan the Terrible, Tsar of Russia.

1584, March 12 - King John II Casimir of Poland abdicates the throne.

1590, March 22 - John White, governor of the Roanoke Colony, returns to England and finds the settlement deserted.

1599, March 24 - Miguel de Cervantes is released after five years as a captive in Algiers.

1600,
March 15 - Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake for heresy in Rome.

1601, March 15 - The first recorded St. Patrick’s Day parade in the U.S. takes place on the Catholic Feast Day of St. Patrick, in the Spanish colony of modern-day St. Augustine, Florida. More than a century later, Irish soldiers serving in the English military marched in Boston in in 1737 and in New York City in 1762. #History">More

1601, March 24 - Treaty of Lyons: France, Savoy, and Spain agree to end hostilities.

1603, March 24 - Queen Elizabeth I of England dies; James VI of Scotland ascends to the English throne as James I.

1607, March 14 - English colonists in Jamestown, Virginia, are attacked by Powhatan warriors, leading to the beginning of the First Anglo-Powhatan War.

1611, March 13 - Johannes Fabricius discovers sunspots.

1617, March 15 - Sweden and Russia sign the Treaty of Stolbovo, ending the Ingrian War.

1621, March 22 - Native American leader Samoset walks into the settlement of Plymouth Colony and greets the Pilgrims in English.

1629, March 4 -The Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal Charter.

1634, March 29 - The first settlers arrive in Maryland, landing at St. Clements Island in today's St. Mary’s County. On this island, the first Roman Catholic Mass in the English-speaking colonies was celebrated. The colony of Maryland was founded so that the English Catholics could have a place to live where they could escape the intolerance of the English monarchy. Officially the colony is said to be named in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria, the wife of King Charles I although some Catholic scholars believe that George Calvert, who was a publicly declared Catholic named the province after Mary, the mother of Jesus. The name in the charter was phrased Terra Mariae, anglice, Maryland. Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore never travelled to Maryland. More 

1638, March 1 - Scottish National Covenant is signed, opposing Charles I's religious policies.

1644,
March 29 - English Civil War: The Battle of Cheriton ends in Parliamentarian victory.

1649, March 17 - England's House of Commons passes an act abolishing the House of Lords.

1655, March 24 - Christiaan Huygens discovers Titan, Saturn's largest moon.

1658, March 7 - Louis XIV is crowned King of France.

1665, March 20 - English King Charles II announces a state of emergency due to the plague in London.

1669, March 11 - The largest - recorded eruption of Mount Etna erupts in Sicily takes place causing considerable damage. After several weeks of increasing seismic activity that damaged the town of Nicolosi and other settlements.  Several more fissures became active during 11 March, erupting pyroclastics and tephra that fell over Sicily and accumulated to form the Monti Rossi scoria cone. More

1671, March 29 - Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, is established by Charles II.

1675, March 19 - The rebuilt Greenwich Observatory is completed by Sir Christopher Wren.

1681, March 4 - England's King Charles II grants a charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania.

1687, March 20 - Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, explores the Mississippi River.

1692, March 1 - Salem witch trials: Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba are accused of witchcraft in Salem Village, Massachusetts.

1697, March 26 - Spanish King Charles II ratifies the Treaty of Ryswick, ending the Nine Years' War.

1700, March 8 - Swedish King Charles XII begins a campaign to conquer Russia during the Great Northern War.

1701, March 28 - France, Cologne, and Bavaria sign the Treaty of Rastatt, ending the War of Spanish Succession.

1702, March 8 - Queen Anne ascends to the throne of England after the death of William III.

1703, March 5 - The first regular English-language newspaper, "The Daily Courant," is published in London.

1706, March 2 - The first formal French-language newspaper, "Le Mercure Galant," is published in France.

1709, March 22 - The first edition of "Tatler" magazine is published by Richard Steele in London.

1712, March 16 - British privateers assault French and Spanish ships in Cartagena, Colombia, in the Battle of Cartagena.

1702, March 8 - Anne becomes the Queen of England following the death of William III.

1707, March 16 - The Acts of Union 1707 are passed, uniting the Kingdoms of England and Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1713, March 30 - Spain cedes Gibraltar to Britain under the Treaty of Utrecht.

1721, March 19 - Sir Robert Walpole becomes the first Prime Minister of Great Britain.

1727, March 20 - Sir Isaac Newton, English physicist and mathematician, dies.

1733, March 22 - Joseph Priestley, English scientist and clergyman, is born.

1739, March 10 - Treaty of Belgrade: Austria cedes Belgrade to the Ottoman Empire.

1746, March 10 - The Battle of Fort Prince George: British forces defeat the French during King George's War.

1753, March 25 - Voltaire's "Philosophical Letters" is banned in Paris.

1760, March 18 - British forces capture Montreal during the French and Indian War.

1766, March 18 - The British Parliament repeals the Stamp Act.

1770, March 5 - The Boston Massacre: British troops kill five civilians in Boston, Massachusetts.

1775, March 23 - During a speech before the second Virginia Convention, Patrick Henry responds to the increasingly oppressive British rule over the American Colonies by declaring, “I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!. Patrick Henry served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia. More

1776, March 17 - British forces evacuate Boston during the American Revolutionary War.

1776, March 31 - Abigail Adams writes a letter to her husband John Adams. saying in part  "...."I long to hear that you have declared an independency -- and by the way in the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you would Remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favourable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands. Remember all Men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention is not paid to the Ladies we are determined to foment a Rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation....." More

1781. March 1 - The Articles of Confederation came into force after being ratified by all 13 states.

1781, March 13 - Astronomer William Herschel Identifies Uranus as the Seventh Planet  More 

1781, March 15 - Battle of Guilford Courthouse: American forces under Nathanael Greene defeat the British in North Carolina.

1782, March 8 -  The Gnadenhutten Massacre takes place. Pennsylvania militiamen, led by Col. David Williamson, murdered 96 Christian Indians including 39 children, 29 women and 28 men. The unarmed, Native Americans, who by all accounts were pacifists and held no allegiance in the war and had played no role in any attack. More  

1783, March 20 - The USS Alliance defeats the HMS Sybil in the last naval action of the American Revolutionary War.

1789, March 4 - The first session of the U.S. Congress is held in New York City and the general government was replaced with the Federal government under the present Constitution. 

1791, March 4 - Vermont is admitted as the 14th U.S. state.

1792, March 16 - King Gustav III of Sweden is shot by Count Jacob Johan Anckarström during a masked ball at the Opera; he died on March 29'

1793, March 1 - French Revolutionary War: France declares war on Great Britain and the Netherlands.

1794, March 14 - Eli Whitney receives a patent for the cotton gin, revolutionizing the cotton industry.

1796, March 1 - Napoleon Bonaparte marries Josephine de Beauharnais.

1797, March 17 - Sir Ralph Abercromby lands in Egypt with British troops during the French Revolutionary Wars.

1798, March 22 - The British Royal Navy defeats the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile, led by Admiral Horatio Nelson.

1800, March 2 - The Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland is passed, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

1801, March 4 - Thomas Jefferson is inaugurated as the third President of the United States. 

1802, March 16 -  The U.S. Military Academy established by Congress at West Point, the site of a Revolutionary-era fort built to protect the Hudson River Valley from British attack.

1802, March 27 - The Treaty of Amiens is signed, temporarily ending hostilities between France and the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.

1803, March 1 - Ohio is admitted into the United States Union as the 17th State/

1804, March 1 - Napoleon Bonaparte becomes Emperor of the French.

1807, March 2 - The U.S. Congress passes the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves, banning the importation of slaves into the United States.

1807, March 25 - The British Parliament abolishes the slave trade throughout the British Empire; establishing a penalty of £120 per slave for ship captains violating the law. However, slaves in the colonies (excluding areas ruled by the East India Company) were not freed until 1838 – and only after slave-owners, rather than the slaves themselves, received compensation. More

1808, March 29 - Charles IV of Spain abdicates in favor of his son Ferdinand VII.

1809, March 17 - The Kingdom of Bavaria becomes the first German state to adopt a constitution.

1811, March 1 - Percy Bysshe Shelley is expelled from the University of Oxford for publishing "The Necessity of Atheism."

1812, A massive 7.7 earthquake on the Richter scale hits Caracas, Venezuela, destroying 90% of Caracas and killing an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 people.

1815, March 1 - Napoleon Bonaparte escapes from Elba and begins his "Hundred Days" rule.

1817, March 5 - The New York Stock Exchange is founded.

1820, March 6 - The Missouri Compromise is enacted, allowing Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free State. so as not to upset the balance between slave and free states in the nation. It also outlawed slavery above the 36º 30' latitude line in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory. In 1857, the Supreme Court ruled in its Dred Scott v. Sandford decision that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and upheld slavery in United States territories, denied the legality of black citizenship in America.

1820. March 15 - Maine is admitted into the United States Union as the 23rd State.

1824, March 4 - James Monroe is inaugurated for his second term as President of the United States.

1836, March 2 - The Republic of Texas formally declares independence from Mexico at the convention of Washington-on-the-Brazos which was attended by 45 delegates, representing 21 municipalities. Over the next ten days, delegates prepared a constitution for the Republic of Texas; David G. Burnet was elected president. The new constitution  explicitly legalized slavery which Mexico had officially abolished slavery in Texas in 1829. Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and became the 28th state on December 29, 1845. On March 2, 1861, Texas becomes the seventh state to secede from the Union. More

1837, March 4 - Martin Van Buren is inaugurated as the eighth President of the United States.

1839. March 23 - The initials OK came into the lime light when they were published by the Boston Morning Post as part of a joke. The initials stood for "oll korrect." Just as todays teenagers, younger, educated circles during the late 1830s intentionally misspelled words and then abbreviate them to use them as slang. However ,the term has also been attributed to the Native American Indian tribe known as the Choctaw. The Choctaw word okeh means the same as the American word okay. Experts say early explorers in the American West spoke the Choctaw language and spread the term. More

1841, March 4 - William Henry Harrison is inaugurated as the ninth President of the United States.

1845, March 1 - U.S. President John Tyler signs a resolution to annex the Republic of Texas.

1845, March 3 - Florida is admitted into the United States Union as the 27th State

1848, March 13 - The German composer Richard Strauss is born.

1852, March 18 - Henry Wells and William George Fargo found the Wells, Fargo & Company to handle  the  banking and transportation business prompted by the nescient California Gold Rush.  After several mergers and acquisitions,  Wells Fargo is now a major multinational financial services company. 

1854, March 30 - The Crimean War begins with Britain and France declaring war on Russia.

1854, March 31 - The treaty of Kanagawa. between Japan and the United States is signed. Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry, representing the U.S. on an elaborately planned mission to open Japan and an unwavering policy by Japan's government of forbidding commerce with foreign nations found a way to reach agreement. More

1857, March 6 - The Supreme Court delivers its decision in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case, ruling against Dred Scott's freedom.

1861, March 4 - Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States.

1864, March 10 - President Abraham Lincoln promotes Ulysses S. Grant, to lieutenant-general and assigns him to the command of the Armies of the United States. He relieved General-in-Chief Henry Halleck.

1865, March 4 - Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated for his second term as President of the United States. - 

1867, March 1 - Nebraska is admitted into the United States Union as the thirty seven State.

1867, March 16 - The "Lancet" publishes an article by Doctor Joseph Lister which outlined the discovery of antiseptic surgery. Lister was a prominent British surgeon and medical scientist who established the study of antisepsis. Applying Louis Pasteur's germ theory of fermentation on wound putrefaction. He promoted the idea of sterilization in surgery using carbolic acid (phenol) as an antiseptic. Lister performed the first antiseptic surgery  on August 12, 1865 More

1867, March 30 - The United States purchases Alaska from Russia in what is known as the Alaska Purchase. More

1871, March 4 - President Ulysses S. Grant takes office for his first term.

1872, March 1 - President Grant signs the bill creating the first U.S. national park at Yellowstone. The 2.2 Million acres National Park offers unique hydrothermal and geologic features, the opportunity to observe wildlife in an intact ecosystem. It also contains about half the world’s active geysers and the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River. More

1876, March 10 - Alexander Graham Bell makes the first transmission of intelligible speech over electrical wires . He called out to his assistant Thomas Watson, “Mr. Watson, come here! I want to see you.” This transmission took place in their attic laboratory located in a near here at 5 Exeter Place. Alexander Graham Bell transmitted the first words by telephone, to his assistant in another room.  Bell had received his patent for for the telephone, three days earlier on 7 March 1876,  More

1877, March 5 - Rutherford B. Hayes is inaugurated as the 19th President of the United States.

1881, March 4 - James A. Garfield is inaugurated as the 20th President of the United States.

1881, March 13 - Alexander II, the Emperor of Russia, is assassinated in Saint Petersburg, Russia on his way back to the Winter Palace from Mikhailovsky Manège. The assassination was planned and executed by the Narodnaya Volya ("People's Will") organization. The assassination is popularly considered to be the most successful action by the Russian nihilist movement of the 19th century. 

1882, March 24 - Robert Koch publishes his findings on Tuberculosis, stating that the disease was infectious and caused by a bacterium. The believe at the time was that tuberculosis was an inherited disease. He presented his findings before the German Physiological Society at Berlin, that the causative agent of the disease was the slow-growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. More

1885, March 4 - Grover Cleveland is inaugurated as the 22nd President of the United States.

1888, March 12 - The Great Blizzard of 1888, one of the most severe snowstorms in U.S. history reaches the East Coast of the United States. More

1889, March 31 -  The main structural work of the Eiffel Tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.is completed in time for the opening of the  1889 world's fair (Exposition Universelle), Gustave Eiffel celebrated by leading a group of government officials, accompanied by representatives of the press, to the top of the tower. More

1894, March 12 - Coca-Cola is sold in bottles for the first time.

1896, March 1 - Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity.

1897, March 4 - William McKinley is inaugurated as the 25th President of the United States.

1899, March 4 - President William McKinley signs a bill authorizing the U.S. flag to have 45 stars for Utah's admission to the Union.

1899, March 6 - Aspirin, probably the best known brand in medicine is entered in the trademark register of the Kaiserliches Patentamt (Imperial Patent Office) in Berlin by the German company Bayer, after being first successfully synthesized. Salicin, which is converted into salicylic acid in the body, is found in the bark of willows. Its therapeutic effect has been known since time immemorial. The progenitor of all physicians, Hippocrates of Kos, described it around 400 B.C. as a medicine against fever and pain; Teutons and Celts cooked a broth from willow bark as medicine. More

1900, March 14 - Gold is discovered in Nome, Alaska, leading to a gold rush.

1901, March 4 - Theodore Roosevelt is inaugurated as the 26th President of the United States following the assassination of William McKinley.

1905, March 3 - Tsar Nicholas II of Russia grants civil liberties and forms a legislative assembly called the Duma in response to the Russian Revolution of 1905.

1912, March 10 - China becomes a republic after the abdication of the last Emperor, Puyi.

1912. March 27 - The U.S. first lady Helen Herron Taft and the Viscountess Iwa Chinda, wife of the Japanese ambassador, plant the first two cherry trees from a gift of 3,020 trees from Mayor Yukio Ozaki of Tokyo to Washington, D.C. The two first trees were planted on the northern bank of the Potomac River Tidal Basin. The ceremonial event is now commemorated  at the annual Washington’s National Cherry Blossom Festival.  After the end of the 2024 spring’s National Cherry Blossom Festival, the National Park Service will cut down 158 cherry trees from the nearly 3,700 total to reconstruct a seawall around the Tidal Basin, fortifying the area against sea level rise and extreme precipitation events. More

1913, March 4 - Woodrow Wilson is inaugurated as the 28th President of the United States.

1917, March 15 - Tsar Nicholas II of Russia abdicates the throne, leading to the end of the Romanov dynasty. More

1920, March 18 - The United States Senate rejects the Treaty of Versailles for the second time, preventing U.S. entry into the League of Nations.

1921, March 4 - Warren G. Harding is inaugurated as the 29th President of the United States.

1926, March 16 - Physicist Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fueled rocket.

1929, March 4 - Herbert Hoover is inaugurated as the 31st President of the United States.

1931, March 3 - President Herbert Hoover signed a Public Law that made the "Star-Spangled Banner” the official U.S. national anthem of the United states. The words are from a poem written by Francis Scott Key in 1814. During the War of 1812, on September 13, 1814, Key watched a night-time battle between Great Britain and America that took place in Baltimore, Maryland at Fort McHenry. When he saw the American flag still flying in the morning, he wrote a poem that tells the story of his experience. More

1932, March 1 - Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., the 20-month-old son of the famous aviator and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, was kidnapped from the nursery on the second floor of the Lindbergh home near Hopewell, New Jersey. More

1933, March 4 - Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated as the 32nd President of the United States and delivers his famous "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself" speech.

1935, March 16 - Adolf Hitler orders the rearmament of Germany including military conscription in violation of The Treaty of Versailles. More

1936, March 7 German troops re-occupied the Rhineland, a de-militarized zone in Germany according to the Treaty of Versailles that bordered on France. This action was directly against the terms which Germany had accepted after the First World War. Hitler argue that it was done in response to France and the USSR signing a treaty of friendship and mutual support, saying it was a hostile move against Germany, and the area of the Rhineland could in turn be used by France to invade Germany. More

1938, March 12 - Hitler orders the invasion of Austria to begin and German soldiers in tanks and armored vehicles crossed the border into Austria, encountering no resistance. Hitler joined the invaded forces as they rushed towards Viena and in Linz, where he had attended school, he called for an immediate Anschluss (Annexation). The next day, Austria’s parliament formally approved the annexation and Austria, no longer a nation became a province of Germany. More

1939, March 28 - The three year Spanish Civil War comes to an end as the Republican defenders of Madrid surrender and the victorious Nationalists entered the capital city. It is estimated that up million lives were lost in the most devastating conflict in Spanish history. General Francisco Franco went on to rule Spain as a ruthless dictator until his death in 1975 when Spain finally became a democracy, More

1941, March 11 - U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act, to provide military aid to Allied nations during World War II.

1945, March 7 - U.S. troops capture the strategic bridge of Remagen in Germany during World War II.

1945, March 9 - More than three hundred American bombers drop incendiary bombs on Tokyo during a three-hour raid  A firestorm greater than that in Dresden erupts, killing 130,000 and displacing a million people. The raid was one of over a hundred such raids that eventually laid waste to sixty percent of the city's total area. More

1947, March 12 - President Harry S. Truman outlines the U.S. policy to contain Soviet expansion. n a speech to a joint session of Congress, The announcement is referred to as the "Truman Doctrine" and is considered to be the official start of the Cold War. More 

1951, March 29 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg (née Greenglass) are convicted of spying and passing secret information about the atomic bomb and other military information to the Soviet Union during and after World War II, The husband and wife were later sentenced to death and were executed in 1953 at the Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York. President Eisenhower had declined to grant executive clemency to the Rosenbergs, stating: "The nature of the crime for which they have been found guilty and sentenced far exceeds that of the taking of the life of another citizen; it involves the deliberate betrayal of the entire nation and could very well result in the death of many, many thousands of innocent citizens…" More

1952, March 20 - The United States Senate ratifies the peace treaty with Japan, officially ending World War II.

1953, March 26 - Dr. Jonas Salk announces on a U.S. national radio show that he has successfully tested a vaccine against poliomyelitis, the virus that causes the crippling disease of polio which is known as “infant paralysis” because it mainly affects children, The first Polio epidemic in the U.S, took place in Vermont in the summer of 1894 and thousands being affected annually by the 20th century. The number of cases is 1952 were 58,000. A massive Polio Vaccine Trial Begins in U.S. More

1955, March 6 - The Supreme Court rules that segregation on buses in Alabama is unconstitutional in the case of Browder v. Gayle.

1957, March 25 - The EEC is created by the signing of the Treaties of Rome. France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg . building on the success of the Coal and Steel Treaty, expand their cooperation to other economic sectors by signing two treaties, creating the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). These bodies come into being on January 1, 1958. More

1959 May 10 - Tibetans rebel in Lhasa against the Chinese government which had invaded Tibet in1950. Chinese troops launched a counter-offensive against the Tibetans ,capturing Lhasa and resulting in the deaths of some 2,000 Tibetan rebels. The Chinese government dissolved the Tibetan government headed by the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama assumed control of the Tibetan government on April 5, 1959. The Dalai Lama and some 80 supporters fled into exile to India. Some 87,000 Tibetans and 2,000 Chinese government troops were killed, and some 100,000 Tibetans fled as refugees to India, Nepal, and Bhutan during the conflict.

1960, March 21 - The Sharpeville massacre in South Africa occurs as police open fire on a demonstration against apartheid, resulting in numerous deaths.

1962, March 18, The French - Algerian war or the the War of Algerian independence comes to an end with the signing of a peace agreement to end the seven-year Algerian War and bringing an end to 130 years of colonial French rule in Algeria. Between 500,000 and a million Algerians had been killed, out of an estimated population of just three million before the war. French losses were also high; between 150,000 and 200,000 French soldiers lost their lives, with the vast majority of them dying in hospitals. #War_chronology">More

1963, March 21 - Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary in San Francisco Bay closes.

1965, March 7 - Civil rights marchers, including John Lewis and Martin Luther King Jr., are attacked by police on the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, in what becomes known as "Bloody Sunday."

1965, March 8 -  The first American combat troops arrive in Vietnam -  3,500 Marines of the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade arrived in Da Nang to protect the U.S. airbase and to allow the Vietnamese troops then guarding the base from Viet Cong attacks to return to combat. More

1965, March 20 - President Lyndon B. Johnson places the Alabama National Guard under federal control to protect a civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery to the state capital. 2,500 U.S. Army troops and 1,900 Alabama National Guard troops, along with FBI agents and U.S. Marshals were dispatched to provide protection for the marchers. On March 7, demonstrators sought to march there to protest the death of Jimmie Lee Jackson, a black man shot by a state trooper. State and local police had attacked them with billy clubs and tear gas. Televised scenes of “Bloody Sunday” outraged many Americans. More

1967, March 25 - Martin Luther King Jr. leads his first anti-war march in Chicago. Reinforcing the connection between war abroad and injustice at home: “The bombs in Vietnam explode at home—they destroy the dream and possibility for a decent America” the dream and possibility for a decent America” More

1968, March 12 - Mauritius achieves independence from British rule.

1968, March 16 - Vietnamese villagers killed by U.S. soldiers in My Lai Massacre. More

1971, March 29 - Lt. William Calley is convicted of murder in the My Lai Massacre during the Vietnam War.

1972,  March 2 - Pioneer 10 is launched to study Jupiter.  It was NASA's first mission to the outer planets. The mission was a spectacular success and the spacecraft notched a series of firsts unmatched by any other robotic spacecraft to date. More 

1974, March 3 - All 346 occupants of a Turkish Airlines McDonnell Douglas DC 10 were killed after the plane  suffered an explosive decompression when an improperly secured hold door detached passing 12000ft in the climb shortly after departing Paris Orly airport. A similar DC10 explosive decompression in Canada two years earlier, had identified an identical fault in the door closure mechanism which had allowed it to indicate and appear secured. Non-mandated corrective actions promulgated after that investigation had not been completed on the aircraft at the time of the accident. More

1974, March 4 - The "People Power" revolution in Portugal ends 48 years of dictatorship and leads to democracy.

1979, March 26 - A peace treaty is signed between Israel and Egypt at the White House, ending 31 years of conflict between the two countries. The historic peace treaty between Israel and Egypt, was agreed to by Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat and was based on the Camp David Accords mediated by U.S. President Jimmy Carter.

1979, March 28 - The Three Mile Island Unit 2 nuclear reactor, near Middletown, Pa., partially melts down. This was the most serious accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history. A combination of equipment malfunctions, design-related problems and worker errors led to TMI-2’s partial meltdown and very small off site releases of radioactivity. More

1981, March 30 - President Ronald Reagan is shot and wounded in an assassination attempt in Washington, D.C. More

1985, March 11 - Mikhail Gorbachev becomes the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1989, March 24 - The oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling 11 million gallons of oil and causing one of the largest environmental disasters in U.S. history. More

1990, March 15 - Mikhail Gorbachev is elected as the first President of the Soviet Union. He had served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 and additionally as head of state beginning in 1988 and as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1989. He was awarded the 1990 Nobel Peace Prize 1990. Gorbachev resigned form the presidency on December 25, 1991 when the Soviet Union disintegrated. More

1995, March 20 - Aum Shinrikyo, a Japanese doomsday cult, carries out a sarin gas attack by releasing several packages on the Tokyo subway system, killing 13 and injuring over 5000. The odorless, colorless, and highly toxic nerve gas was invented by the Nazis and is one of the most lethal nerve gases known to man. 

1999, March 24 - NATO begins airstrikes against Yugoslavia, marking the start of the Kosovo War.

2001, March 20 - The Taliban destroy two ancient statues of Buddha in Afghanistan's Bamiyan Valley.

2003, March 20 - The United States and its allies invade Iraq, initiating the Iraq War.

2004, March 11 - Coordinated bombings in Madrid's commuter train system kill 191 people and wounding around 2,000 others. More

2005,
March 16 - Israel officially withdraws from the Gaza Strip after 38 years of occupation.

2008, March 14 - The riohttps://admiralcloudberg.mediu...ts and protests in Tibet against Chinese rule and for independence begin.

2011, March 11 - A massive earthquake and tsunami strike Japan, causing the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

2013, March 13 - Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio becomes Pope Francis, the first Jesuit pope and the first from the Americas.

2014,
March 8 - Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 disappears en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, sparking one of the most extensive searches in aviation history.

2014, March 24 - The co-pilot of a German airliner deliberately flies the plane into the French Alps, killing himself and the other 149 people onboard. The Germanwings flight 9525 had been traveling from Barcelona, Spain, to Dusseldorf, Germany. More

2016, March 22 - Suicide bombings in Brussels, Belgium, at the airport and a metro station kill 32 people and injure more than 300 others.

2017, March 22 - A terrorist attack near the UK Parliament in London leaves five people dead, including the attacker.

2018, March 14 - Students worldwide participate in the "March for Our Lives" protest advocating for stricter gun control laws in the United States.

2019, March 15 - A terrorist attack on two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, results in 51 deaths and dozens of injuries.

2020, March 11 - The World Health Organization declares COVID-19 a global pandemic due to its rapid spread worldwide.

2021, March 16 - A gunman attacks massage parlors in the Atlanta area, killing eight people, including six Asian women.

2000, March 10 - NASDAQ Composite stock market index peaks at 5,048.62 during the dot-com bubble.

2001, March 4 - The BBC airs the first episode of "The Office," a British mockumentary sitcom created by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant.

2002, March 1 - The International Criminal Court (ICC) is established to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes of aggression.

2003, March 19 - President George W. Bush announces that U.S. forces have begun a military operation into Iraq. U.S. forces invaded Iraq vowing to destroy Iraqi weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and end the dictatorial rule of Saddam Hussein. When WMD intelligence proved illusory and a violent insurgency arose, the war lost public support. 4,700 U.S. and allied troop deaths, and more than one hundred thousand Iraqi civilians were killed and 31,994 U.S. troops wounded in action (WIA). More

2004, March 14 - The first episode of the social media platform Facebook is launched by Mark Zuckerberg and his college roommates.

2005, March 14 - The People's Republic of China passes an anti-secession law, authorizing the use of force against Taiwan if it moves towards formal independence.

2006, March 24 - The UN Human Rights Council holds its first session in Geneva, replacing the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.

2007, March 12 - The seventh and final book in the Harry Potter series, "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows," is announced by J.K. Rowling.

2008, March 14 - A nationwide protest in Tibet against Chinese rule and for independence begins.

2009, March 9 - The Kepler space observatory, designed to discover Earth-like planets orbiting other stars, is launched by NASA.

2010, March 11 - A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami strike in Japan causing the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and considerable damage in the region. The tsunami inundated about 560 km2 and resulted in a human death toll of about 19,500 and much damage to coastal ports and towns, with over a million buildings destroyed or partly collapsed. It was a rare and complex double quake giving a severe duration of about 3 minutes. An area of the seafloor extending 650 km north-south moved typically 10-20 meters horizontally. Japan moved a few metres east and the local coastline subsided half a meter.  More

2011, March 15 - Civil unrest and protests erupt in Syria against President Bashar al-Assad's regime, marking the start of the Syrian Civil War.

2012, March 9 - "The Hunger Games" film adaptation, based on Suzanne Collins' novel, is released in theaters, becoming a box office success.

2013, March 13 - Pope Francis is elected as the 266th pope of the Catholic Church, becoming the first Jesuit pope and the first from the Americas.

2014, March 8 - Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 disappears in route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, sparking a large-scale international search effort. More

2015, March 20 - A total solar eclipse, visible across parts of Northern Europe and the Arctic occurs. 

2016, March 22 - Terrorist attacks in Brussels, Belgium, at the airport and a metro station kill 32 people and injure more than 300 others.

2017, March 22 - A terrorist attack near the UK Parliament in London leaves five people dead, including the attacker.

2018, March 14 - Students worldwide participate in the "March for Our Lives" protest advocating for stricter gun control laws in the United States.

2019, March 15 - A terrorist attack on two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, results in 51 deaths and dozens of injuries.

2020, March 11 - The World Health Organization declares COVID-19 a global pandemic due to its rapid spread worldwide.

2021, March 16 - A gunman attacks massage parlors in the Atlanta area, killing eight people, including six Asian women.

Sources for the Historical Content shown, include research and reviews of relevant Online History Resources or printed material. When possible, we show a link to a source which provides additional or unique perspective about the event. We do our best to provide accurate information but would appreciate being notified if any incorrect information is found. You may do so by using this link: Feedback

These are some of many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of February, listed by year. Dates provided for earlier time events may be approximate.

747 BCE, February 11 - Traditional founding date of Rome by Romulus.

660 BCE, February - Traditional accession of Emperor Jimmu, the legendary first Emperor of Japan.

509 BCE, February - Roman Republic established after the overthrow of the Roman monarchy.

490 BCE, February 12-13 - Battle of Marathon, where the Athenians defeated the Persians during the first Persian invasion of Greece.

356 BCE, February 7 - Birth of Alexander the Great in Macedonia.

338 BCE, February - Philip II of Macedon defeats Greek city-states, asserting Macedonian dominance.

310 BCE, February - Birth of the Indian Emperor Ashoka, one of the most influential rulers in history.

272 BCE, February 4 - Death of Pyrrhus of Epirus, a skilled military leader known for the Pyrrhic victories.

218 BCE, February - Hannibal begins his journey across the Alps with his army and elephants during the Second Punic War.

215 BCE, February - The Roman general Fabius Maximus begins his strategy of attrition against Hannibal during the Second Punic War.

207 BCE, February - Scipio Africanus wins the Battle of Metaurus against Carthaginians in Italy.

202 BCE, February - Battle of Zama, where Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal, ending the Second Punic War.

202 BCE, February - Liu Bang becomes Emperor Gaozu of Han, founding the Han Dynasty in China.

190 BCE, February - The Battle of Magnesia, where the Roman Republic and Pergamon defeated the Seleucid Empire.

176 BCE, February 5 - The third and final Punic War, between Rome and Carthage, comes to an end. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BCE, fought between Rome and Carthage lasting more than 100 years of fighting on land and sea across the western Mediterranean region with immense materiel and human losses on both sides. It ended in 146 BCE with a total Roman victory. More

168 BCE, February - The Roman Senate sends an embassy to Macedonia, leading to the beginning of the Third Macedonian War.

133 BCE, February 15 - Death of Tiberius Gracchus, Roman politician and reformer.

133 BCE, February - Attalus III, King of Pergamon, bequeaths his kingdom to the Roman Republic, marking the beginning of Roman rule in Asia Minor.

45 BCE, February - Julius Caesar abolishes the Roman Republic and becomes dictator perpetuo (dictator in perpetuity).

44 BCE, February 15 - Lupercalia festival during which Julius Caesar was assassinated in Rome.

31 BCE, February - Battle of Actium, where Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra, establishing himself as the undisputed ruler of Rome.

8 BCE, February - Dedication of the Ara Pacis Augustae, the Altar of Augustan Peace in Rome, commissioned by Emperor Augustus.

2 BCE, February - Dedication of the Temple of Concordia in Rome by Emperor Augustus.

62 CE, February - Earthquake in Pompeii, Italy, causing significant damage.

303 CE, February 23 - Martyrdom of Saint Polycarp in Smyrna, an important figure in early Christian history.

313 CE, February 27 - Edict of Milan, issued by Constantine the Great and Licinius, granting religious tolerance in the Roman Empire.

380 CE, February 27 - Edict of Thessalonica, Emperor Theodosius I declares Nicene Christianity as the official state religion of the Roman Empire.

395 CE, February 17 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I dies, leading to the division of the Roman Empire between his sons Arcadius and Honorius.

423 CE, February 17 - Emperor Theodosius II is born, becoming one of the longest-reigning emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire.

476 CE, February 28 - Deposition of the last Roman Emperor Romulus Augustulus by Odoacer, marking the end of the Western Roman Empire.

541 CE, February - The first recording of the Justinian Plague, an outbreak of bubonic plague during the reign of Emperor Justinian I.

628 CE, February 11 - Battle of Nineveh, Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Sassanid Persian Empire, marking a turning point in the Byzantine-Sassanid wars.

628 CE, February 22 - Byzantine Emperor Heraclius issues the Ecthesis, an attempt to reconcile monophysite Christians with the Chalcedonian Church.

740 CE, February 25 - Battle of Bagdoura, Berber forces under Uqba ibn Al-Hajjaj defeat the Berghouata tribe in North Africa.

869 CE, February 28 - Fourth Council of Constantinople concludes, condemning Photius and reconciling the East-West Schism temporarily.

869 CE, February 28 - Eighth Ecumenical Council, the Fourth Council of Constantinople, concludes with decisions against Photius and reaffirming Nicene Christianity.

962 CE, February 2 - Otto I is crowned Holy Roman Emperor, initiating the Ottonian dynasty in Germany.

962 CE, February 14 - Pope John XII crowns Otto I as Holy Roman Emperor.

962 CE, February 15 - Benedict V becomes Pope.

962 CE, February 23 - Pope John XII crowns Otto I's son Otto II as co-emperor.

962 CE, February 26 - Otto I's wife Adelaide is crowned empress by Pope John XII.

964 CE, February 8 - Pope Leo VIII dies, ending the only reign by a layman in papal history.

969 CE, February 13 - Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas is murdered by his wife Theophano and her lover John I Tzimiskes, leading to Tzimiskes' ascent to the throne.

983 CE, February 14 - Pope Benedict VII dies after a reign marked by the struggle between the papacy and the Roman nobility.

987 CE, February 2 - Hugh Capet is crowned King of France, founding the Capetian dynasty.

987 CE, February 6 - Accession of Pope John XV, succeeding Pope John XIV.

987 CE, February 10 - Hugh Capet is crowned King of France in Noyon.

992 CE, February 8 - Otto III becomes Holy Roman Emperor at the age of 16.

998 CE, February 13 - Death of Emperor Taizong of Song, a significant ruler in Chinese history.

999 CE, February 14 - Gerbert of Aurillac becomes Pope Sylvester II.

999 CE, February 28 - Death of Pope Gregory V, the first German Pope.

1001, February - Stephen I becomes King of Hungary.

1004, February 4 - King Sweyn I of Denmark reconquers England.

1009, February 14 - First known mention of the city of Gundelfingen, Germany.

1014, February - Byzantine Emperor Basil II conquers Bulgaria after a long campaign.

1016, February - Cnut the Great becomes King of England after the death of Edmund II.

1027, February 22 - Death of Romanos III Argyros, Byzantine Emperor, possibly murdered by his wife Zoe.

1033, February 3 - Death of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor.

1043, February - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England.

1045, February 19 - Pope Gregory VI resigns as pope amid the scandal of simony (selling of church offices).

1054, February 15 - The Great Schism: Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople is excommunicated by Pope Leo IX, leading to the East-West Schism.

1055, February 10 - Abdication of Empress Theodora, ending the Macedonian dynasty in the Byzantine Empire.

1066, February 10 - The death of Edward the Confessor triggers the struggle for the English throne, eventually leading to the Battle of Hastings.

1067, February - The first stone of the Tower of London is thought to have been laid.

1071, February 23 - Battle of Manzikert: Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Empire, leading to the loss of Anatolia.

1076, February 14 - Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV during the Investiture Controversy.

1079, February 22 - Construction of Rochester Castle in England begins.

1081, February 28 - Alexios I Komnenos becomes Byzantine Emperor after the death of Nikephoros III.

1085, February - Alfonso VI of Castile captures the city of Toledo, Spain, from the Moors.

1086, February - The compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey of England initiated by William the Conqueror, begins.

1087, February 9 - Death of William the Conqueror, King of England.

1091, February 13 - The Barbary Crusade: Norman forces under Roger I of Sicily capture the city of Palermo.

1095, February 14 - Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.

1098, February - Crusaders under Bohemond I of Antioch defeat the Fatimid Egyptians at Antioch.

1100, February 2 - Death of King William II of England in a hunting accident, leading to the accession of Henry I.

1100, February 9 - Anselm of Canterbury becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.

1100, February 14 - First known reference to the village of Potten End, England.

1100, February 18 - Henry I of England marries Matilda of Scotland, securing a crucial alliance.

1100, February 23 - Duke Welf I is assassinated, possibly on orders from Emperor Henry IV.

1101, February - King Baldwin I of Jerusalem captures Acre from the Fatimids.

1103, February - Magnus III of Norway becomes King of Norway.

1106, February 6 - Death of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor.

1107, February 10 - Death of Edgar, King of Scotland.

1107, February 16 - Death of Edgar Ætheling, the last male member of the Anglo-Saxon royal family of England.

1111, February 13 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

1113, February - Baldwin II becomes King of Jerusalem upon the death of his cousin Baldwin I.

1119, February - The Order of the Knights Templar is officially established.

1120, February 2 - The White Ship sinks in the English Channel, resulting in the death of William Adelin, heir to King Henry I of England.

1126, February 14 - Death of William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, and troubadour poet.

1128, February 24 - Assassination of Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, in the Church of St. Donatian in Bruges.

1130, February 14 - Roger II is crowned King of Sicily.

1130, February 22 - Antipope Anacletus II crowns Roger II of Sicily as King of Sicily.

1135, February 1 - Death of Henry I of England, leading to a period of civil war known as The Anarchy.

1138, February - Battle of the Standard: Scottish forces under King David I are defeated by the English near Northallerton in Yorkshire.

1141, February 2 - Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I, is declared the Lady of the English.

1144, February - The siege of Edessa: Zengi, Atabeg of Mosul, captures Edessa, sparking the Second Crusade.

1153, February - The Treaty of Winchester: Stephen of Blois recognizes Henry Plantagenet as his heir in exchange for peace.

1154, February - Henry II becomes King of England after the death of King Stephen.

1158, February - Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa grants Lübeck city rights, leading to the establishment of the Hanseatic League.

1162, February - Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, returns to England from exile.

1164, February - The Council of Clarendon: King Henry II of England attempts to assert control over the church and clergy.

1173, February - Revolt of 1173–1174: Henry the Young King rebels against his father, Henry II of England, with the support of King Louis VII of France and other allies.

1177, February - Treaty of Venice: Pope Alexander III and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa reach an agreement, ending the papal-imperial conflict.

1185, February - The Uprising of Asen and Peter: Asen and Peter declare independence from the Byzantine Empire, establishing the Second Bulgarian Empire.

1189,
February - Richard the Lionheart is crowned Duke of Normandy.

1192, February 4 - The Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Richard the Lionheart and Saladin, ending the Third Crusade.

1199, February 6 - Death of King Alfonso II of Aragon.

1204, February - The Fourth Crusade begins the siege of Constantinople.

1208, February 22 - The Papal bull "Ad abolendam" is issued by Pope Innocent III, sanctioning the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars.

1214, February 27 - Battle of La Roche-aux-Moines: English forces under William Marshal defeat the French.

1215, February 3 - King John of England offers his kingdom to the Pope, making England a papal fief.

1215, February 19 - The Fourth Lateran Council, convened by Pope Innocent III, begins in Rome.

1229, February - Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, crowns himself King of Jerusalem in Jerusalem.

1238, February - The Mongols begin their siege of the city of Ryazan in Russia.

1242, February 5 - Battle of Taillebourg: King Louis IX of France defeats Henry III of England.

1244, February 18 - The Sixth Crusade ends with the surrender of the Egyptian city of Damietta to the crusaders.

1258, February 10 - The Mongols under Hulagu Khan capture and sack Baghdad, bringing an end to the Abbasid Caliphate.

1260,
February 10 - Hulagu Khan, Mongol ruler, is defeated at the Battle of Ain Jalut in present-day Israel by the Mamluks, halting Mongol expansion into the Middle East.

1261, February 5 - Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos recaptures Constantinople, ending the Latin Empire.

1266, February 26 - Battle of Benevento: Charles of Anjou defeats the Hohenstaufen Frederick II.

1276, February 22 - Pope Innocent V becomes the head of the Catholic Church.

1284, February 23 - Statute of Rhuddlan: King Edward I of England creates laws for Wales.

1288, February - The Battle of Worringen: Duke John I of Brabant defeats Duke Henry VI of Limburg, leading to the collapse of the Duchy of Limburg.

1291, February 19 - Ghazan, the Mongol ruler of the Ilkhanate, converts to Islam, marking a significant shift in the Mongol Empire.

1296, February 10 - First War of Scottish Independence: King Edward I of England sacks Berwick-upon-Tweed during his invasion of Scotland.

1297, February 14 - Battle of Stirling Bridge: William Wallace defeats the English forces under John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey.

1300, February 8 - King Edward of England calls for a parliamentary assembly to discuss taxation and other issues.

1301, February - Edward I of England captures William Wallace, a prominent Scottish rebel, near Glasgow.

1302, February 18 - Battle of the Golden Spurs: Flemish militia defeat French knights in Kortrijk, Belgium.

1303, February 17 - The French Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull "Unam Sanctam," asserting papal supremacy over secular rulers.

1303, February 18 - Battle of Roslin: Scots under John Comyn and Simon Fraser defeat English forces.

1304, February 22 - Scottish independence leader William Wallace is captured by English forces near Glasgow.

1306, February 10 - Robert the Bruce kills John Comyn, his rival for the Scottish crown, in Dumfries.

1307, July 7 - Edward II becomes King of England after the death of his father, Edward I.

1310, February - Dante Alighieri becomes a prior of Florence, Italy.

1312, February 1 - King Edward II of England marries Isabella of France.

1308, February 8 - King Edward II of England marries Isabella of France.1

1310, February - Dante Alighieri becomes a prior of Florence, Italy.

1312, February 1 - King Edward II of England marries Isabella of France.

1314, February - Construction begins on the Notre-Dame de Paris Cathedral in France.

1315, February 23 - Battle of Monte Catini: Forces loyal to Florence defeat those of Pisa in Italy

1317, February 4 - Pope John XXII issues the papal bull "Quia vir reprobus," condemning the teachings of Marsilius of Padua.

1322, February - King Edward II of England suppresses the rebellion of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, at the Battle of Boroughbridge.

1327, February 1 - Edward III becomes King of England after the abdication of his father, Edward II.

1330, February 8 - Birth of William of Ockham, a prominent philosopher and theologian known for Occam's Razor.

1336, February 24 - Battle of Buçaco: Portuguese forces defeat the Castilians during the 14th-century Portuguese Crisis.

1343, February 26 - Pope Clement VI issues the papal bull "Unigenitus," condemning the ideas of the Franciscan Spirituals.

1349, February - Strasbourg Massacre: Jews in Strasbourg, accused of causing the Black Death, are burned at the stake.

1355, February - St. Scholastica Day riot: A confrontation between Oxford University students and townsfolk leads to a two-day riot resulting in numerous deaths.

1360, February 8 - Treaty of Brétigny: A peace treaty ends the first phase of the Hundred Years' War between England and France.

1361, February 1 - Edward III of England proclaims himself King of France, escalating the Hundred Years' War.

1367, February 19 - Battle of Nájera: English forces under Edward, the Black Prince, defeat the Franco-Castilian forces of Henry of Trastámara during the Hundred Years' War.

1377, February 21 - Pope Gregory XI moves the Papal See back to Rome from Avignon, ending the Avignon Papacy.

1386, February 28 - Union of Krewo: Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, converts to Christianity and agrees to marry the Queen of Poland, Jadwiga, forming a dynastic union.

1389, February 28 - Battle of Kosovo: Ottoman Empire defeats Serbian forces, resulting in heavy casualties on both sides and solidifying Ottoman control in the Balkans.

1397, February 17 - Battle of Rudau: Teutonic Knights defeat the Lithuanians under Grand Duke Vytautas.

1400, February 18 - Richard II of England orders the execution of Henry Percy, sparking the rebellion known as the Percy Rebellion.

1400, February 20 - Battle of Erquelinnes: Armies of the County of Hainaut and the Duchy of Brabant engage in conflict, marking the start of the Brabant Revolution.

1400, February 21 - Rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr: Welsh forces under Owain Glyndŵr revolt against English rule in Wales.

1400, February 23 - Battle of Kassel: German mercenaries under Enguerrand VII of Coucy defeat Hainaut forces during the Brabant Revolution.

1403, February 1 - Henry IV of England's forces defeat rebel forces led by Henry "Hotspur" Percy at the Battle of Shrewsbury.

1405, February 22 - The Hongxi Emperor ascends to the throne of China following the death of his father, the Yongle Emperor.

1408, February 4 - Death of Roman Catholic theologian and philosopher William of Ockham.

1413, February 20 - Henry V becomes King of England upon the death of his father, Henry IV.

1416, February 17 - Duke John the Fearless of Burgundy orders the assassination of his cousin, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, leading to a civil war in France known as the Armagnac-Burgundian Civil War.

1420, February 10 - Treaty of Troyes: Henry V of England and Charles VI of France sign an agreement declaring Henry as heir to the French throne and marrying him to Charles's daughter Catherine of Valois.

1429, February 12 - Joan of Arc arrives in the city of Orléans during the Hundred Years' War, eventually leading French forces to victory.

1431, February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc begins in Rouen, France, led by a pro-English ecclesiastical court.

1435, February 17 - The Congress of Arras is convened to negotiate peace between Burgundy and France during the Hundred Years' War.

1440, February 7 - The Prussian Confederation is established to oppose the Teutonic Knights and seek autonomy within the Kingdom of Poland.

1447, February 23 - Vlad the Impaler (Dracula) becomes the ruler of Wallachia for the first time, starting his legacy.

1450, February - Jack Cade leads a rebellion against King Henry VI of England in the Kent region, known as Cade's Rebellion.

1451, February 3 - Mehmed II, inherits the throne to the Ottoman Empire when his father Murad II dies.  Mehmed II also known as The Conqueror is one of the famous sultans of Ottoman Empire. He had ruled the Ottoman for a brief time, from 1444 to 1446, after his father. After that time Sultan Murad II renounced the throne. Mehmed II ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1451 to 1481. More

1455, February 22 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first book, the Gutenberg Bible, using movable type in Mainz, Germany.

1459, February 17 - The Battle of Rovine: Vlad the Impaler defeats a large Ottoman army, temporarily halting Ottoman expansion into Wallachia.

1461, February 29 - The Battle of Towton: Edward IV defeats Henry VI during the Wars of the Roses, becoming the King of England.

1466, February 19 - The Second Peace of Thorn is signed, ending the Thirteen Years' War between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order.

1478, February 23 - George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, is executed for treason against his brother, King Edward IV of England.

1483, February 11 - King Edward IV of England dies, and his son, Edward V, ascends to the throne, initiating the brief reign known as the Princes in the Tower.

1484, February 12 - Pope Innocent VIII issues the papal bull "Summis desiderantes affectibus," authorizing the Inquisition to prosecute witchcraft.

1488, February 28 - Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer, reaches the Cape of Good Hope in his attempt to establish a sea route to India.

1492, February 18 - Pope Innocent VIII launches the Spanish Inquisition to combat heresy, contributing to the persecution of Jews and Muslims in Spain.

1493, February 20 - Explorer Christopher Columbus arrives back in Lisbon, Portugal, following his first voyage to the Americas.

1497, February 11 - Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci leaves Cadiz, Spain, on his first voyage to the New World.

1498, February 20 - Vasco da Gama's fleet reaches Mozambique during his voyage to India, exploring the East African coast.

1500, February 29 - Spanish explorer Vicente Yáñez Pinzón discovers Brazil while captaining a ship in a fleet led by Pedro Álvares Cabral.

1502, February 17 - Vasco da Gama sets sail on his second voyage to India, aiming to secure Portugal's trade interests.

1503, February 18 - Pope Julius II issues a papal bull against slavery, condemning the enslavement of indigenous peoples in the Americas.

1504, February 29 - Christopher Columbus uses a lunar eclipse to secure provisions during his stranded stay in Jamaica.

1503, February 8 - Construction begins on the Holy Trinity Bridge in Paris, France.

1509, February 3 - The naval Battle of Diu takes place in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese and the Ottoman Empires. The Portuguese prevailed establishing control of the trade. More

1509, February 21 - Henry VIII becomes King of England following the death of his father, Henry VII.

1512, February 29 - Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci arrives back in Spain after his final voyage to the New World.

1513, February 24 - Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León sets foot in Florida, the first known European arrival in what is now the United States.

1516, February 23 - The Fifth Council of the Lateran, an important council of the Roman Catholic Church, is convened by Pope Leo X in Rome.

1525, February 24 - Battle of Pavia: Spanish and Imperial forces defeat the French, capturing King Francis I of France during the Italian Wars.

1533, February 23 - King Henry VIII secretly marries Anne Boleyn, leading to the English Reformation and the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church.

1542, February 14 - Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII, is executed for adultery and treason.

1547, February 28 - King Edward VI of England is crowned at Westminster Abbey at the age of nine following the death of Henry VIII.

1554, February 12 - Lady Jane Grey, who briefly ruled as Queen of England, is executed for treason.

1559, February 15 - Queen Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey.

1564, February 15 - Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist, is born in Pisa, Italy.

1570, February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the papal bull "Regnans in Excelsis."

1575, February 24 - Université de Reims is founded in France by a bull of Pope Gregory XIII.

1582, February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII issues the papal bull "Inter gravissimas," reforming the calendar and introducing the Gregorian calendar.

1587, February 8 - Mary, Queen of Scots, was executed at Fotheringhay Castle, in Northamptonshire. After nineteen years in captivity, she was found guilty of plotting the assassination of her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I. More

1590, February 8 - The first recorded performance of Shakespeare's play "Henry VI, Part 1" takes place.

1594, February 5 - Flemish painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder dies in Brussels, Belgium.

1597, February 28 - Irish rebel Hugh O'Neill signs the Second Treaty of Dungannon, effectively ending the Nine Years' War in Ireland.

1600, February 8 - Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher and astronomer, is burned at the stake for heresy by the Roman Inquisition in Rome.

1600, February 19 - The stratovolcano Huaynaputina,  located on the southern Peruvian Andes range, explodes in the most violent eruption in South American recorded history and one of the largest volcanic eruptions in world history over the past 2000 years. eruptions and earth tremors continue until the first week in March. It has been reported that this event dramatically affected the weather and environment in China and the Korean Peninsula. More

1613, February 21 - The Zemsky Sobor elects Michael Romanov, the 16-year-old son of Patriarch Filaret of Moscow, tsar of Russia. He was was crowned on 21 July becoming the founder of the Romanov dynasty, which ruled Russia until 1917. More

1653, February 2 -  New Amsterdam is given municipal rights and becomes a city. In 1664, the English took over New Amsterdamand renamed it New York after the Duke of York (later James II & VII).

1700. February 12 - The Great Northern War begins between Sweden and the coalition of Russia, Saxony, Poland, and Denmark-Norway, during the reign of Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great), who wanted to gain access to the Black Sea. In 1715 Prussia and Hannover joined the war against Sweden. The King of Hannover was also King George II of Great Britain. Many battles were fought over the 21 years, but Russia finally defeated Sweden at the Battle of Poltava in 1709, although a formal peace treaty was not signed until 1721. More

1703, February 16 - The Tsar of Russia, Peter the Great, founds St. Petersburg, later established as the capital of Russia.

1709, February 11 - Alexander Selkirk is rescued by Woodes Rogers after being marooned on a desert island, inspiring Daniel Defoe's novel "Robinson Crusoe."

1713, February 13 - The Treaty of Utrecht is signed, ending the War of the Spanish Succession and reshaping European alliances.

1725, February 8 - Peter I,  also known as Peter the Great dies from bladder gangrene at he age of 52. He was a very controversial and absolute monarch that managed to expand and westernize Russia's culture and to establish it as a major European power and an empire. Peter the Great moved the capital of Russia from Moscow to St. Petersburg. where it remained the capital of Russia until the communist revolution in 1918. More

1726, February 8 - The Supreme Privy Council is established in Russia, streamlining administrative processes.

1732, February 22 - The first president of the United States, George Washington, is born in Westmoreland County, Virginia.

1744, February 22 - War of the Austrian Succession: The French fleet bombards Plymouth, England.

1757, February 8 - The British recapture Calcutta when Robert Clive led forces defeat  Siraj-ud-daullah on the battlefield of Plassey. More

1757, February 23 - The Battle of Chandannagar takes place, leading to the capture of the French fort by the British during the Seven Years' War.

1763, February 10 - The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Seven Years' War and transferring Canada from France to Britain.

1768, February 6 - The first American chartered fire insurance company, the Philadelphia Contributionship, is founded.

1778, February 6 - France recognizes American independence and signs the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the United States during the American Revolutionary War.

1783, February 4 - Britain formally declares an end to hostilities with its former colonies, recognizing the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.

1787, February 21 - The Confederation Congress convenes to put the United States' newly written Constitution into effect.

1793, February 1 - France declares war on Great Britain and the Netherlands, marking the beginning of the War of the First Coalition.

1796, February 9 - Napoleon Bonaparte marries Josephine de Beauharnais, marking the beginning of their tumultuous relationship.

1789, February 4 - The State electors under the Constitution unanimously elect George Washington, the first president of the United States by all 69 presidential electors who cast their votes. John Adams of Massachusetts, who received 34 votes, was elected vice president. More

1799, February 9 - The USS Constellation, the first American warship under the Constitution, is launched in Baltimore, Maryland.

1800, February 9 - The Treaty of San Ildefonso is signed between France and Spain, leading to the retrocession of Louisiana from Spain to France.

1801, February 3 - John Marshall is appointed as Chief Justice of the United States.

1803, February 24 - The United States Supreme Court establishes its power of judicial review in the landmark case of Marbury v. Madison.

1806, February 11 - A British expeditionary force captures the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch during the Napoleonic Wars.

1815, February 26 - Napoleon's escapes from Elba where he was exiled after his forced abdication as French emperor in 1814. 
Napoleon gathered support e route to Paris, retook power on March 20 as ruler of France and wage war against the English and Prussian armies. All ending in his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo on June 18 1815. More

1818, February 12 - Chile formally declares independence from Spain, on the first anniversary of the pivotal victory over the Spanish at Chacabuco by the forces of Argentinian Jose San Martin and Chilean Bernardo O'Higgins, Although the decisive victory over the Spanish did not come until April 1818 at the Battle of Maipú. Chile's independence was formally recognized by Spain in 1844, when full diplomatic relations were established.

1819, February 22 - Spain cedes Florida to the United States via the Adams–Onís Treaty whereby Spain ceded East Florida to the United States and renounced all claim to West Florida. Spain received no direct compensation, but the United States agreed to assume liability for $5 million in damage done by American citizens who rebelled against Spain. The Treaty (also called the Transcontinental Treaty and ratified in 1821) also defined the western limits of the Louisiana Purchase and Spain surrendered its claims to the Pacific Northwest. In return, the United States recognized Spanish sovereignty over Texas.

1824, February 9 - The United States adopts a new flag, featuring 24 stars to represent the number of states in the union after Missouri's admission.

1827, February 27 - The city’s new Mardi Gras (Fat Tuesday in French), tradition began in 1827 when the group of students,  donned masks and costumes and staged their own Fat Tuesday festivities. Over time, Mardi Gras grew into a more formal event, one now deeply embedded in New Orleans culture. Mardi Gras is followed by Ash Wednesday, a solemn day in Christian tradition, which denotes the beginning of Lent, a 40 day season of prayer, fasting, and almsgiving that ends at sundown on Holy Thursday. It's a period of preparation to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus at Easter.

the six weeks of Lent, preparation to mark the crucifixion and then, on Easter Sunday, the resurrection of Christ. Lent is a 40 day

1828, February 12 - George Washington's birthday is declared a federal holiday in the United States, later becoming Presidents' Day.

1836, February 23 - The Battle of the Alamo begins in San Antonio, Texas, between Texan rebels and Mexican forces during the Texas Revolution.

1841, February 24 - John Quincy Adams begins arguments in Amistad case - The U.S. Supreme Court case of the 53 Africans captured in the Spanish ship Amistad opens and  John Quincy Adams begins his oral arguments for the defense., speaking for four hours and a half. More

1844, February 27 - The Dominican Republic declares independence from the Republic of Haiti. The War of Independence (Spanish: Guerra de Independencia Dominicana)  ended twelve years later on January 24, 1856. Before the war, the island of Hispaniola had been united for 22 years when the newly independent nation, previously known as the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, was unified with the Republic of Haiti in 1822. The criollo class within the country overthrew the Spanish crown in 1821 before unifying with Haiti a year later. More

1848, February 2 - The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought an official end to the Mexican-American War (1846-48), is signed at Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city to which the Mexican government had fled with the advance of U.S. forces. By its terms, Mexico ceded 55 percent of its territory, including the present-day states California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, most of Arizona and Colorado, and parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Wyoming. Mexico also relinquished all claims to Texas, and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern boundary with the United States.
 
1848, February 21 - Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish "The Communist Manifesto." More

1852, February 11 - The first British public toilets for women are opened in Bedford Street, London.

1855, February 22 - The Pennsylvania State University is founded as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania.

1858, February 11 - Fourteen-year-old Bernadette Soubirous (Later St. Bernadette) claims to have seen the Virgin Mary in a small town located near Lourdes in the foothills of the Pyrenee mountains. in southern France. This was the first of 18 reported encounters, the last one took place on July 16, 1858. More

1859, February 14 - Oregon is admitted as the 33rd state of the United States.

1861, February 4 - Seven seceding states  — South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas  meet in Montgomery, Alabama, and create the Confederate Constitution, a document similar to the United States Constitution, but with greater stress on the autonomy of each state. Jefferson Davis was named provisional president of the Confederacy until elections could be held. Four more States followed the secession path — Virginia (April 17, 1861), Arkansas (May 6, 1861), North Carolina (May 20, 1861), and Tennessee (June 8, 1861). These eleven states eventually formed the Confederate States of America. More 

1863, June 20 - West Virginia Is Born. Residents of the western counties of Virginia did not wish to secede along with the rest of the state. This section of Virginia was admitted into the Union as the state of West Virginia on June 20, 1863.

1865, February 1 - Abraham Lincoln approves the 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, abolishing slavery.

1867, February 1 - The United States Congress passes the Reconstruction Act, targeting the South for reconstruction after the Civil War.

1870, February 3 - The 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Voting Rights, is ratified allowing suffrage for all races and colors. More 

1870, February 25 - Hiram Rhodes Revels, a Republican from Mississippi, becomes the first African American to serve in the United States Senate. Revel was sworn in to fill the Senate seat once held by Jefferson Davis, two days after Mississippi was granted representation in Congress for the first time since it seceded in 1861. More

1873, February 20 - University College London becomes the first university in England to admit women.

1878, February 19 - The patent for the phonograph is issued to Thomas Edison. More 

1883, February 27 - Oscar Wilde's play "Salomé" is premiered in Paris.

1885, February 21 -  The Washington monument is formally dedicated one day before George Washington's birthday (which fell on a Sunday that year).. More

1891, February 15 - All-time high temperatures are recorded in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia.

1896, February 15 - The Western Australian gold rush begins, leading to significant gold discoveries in Kalgoorlie.

1897, February 2 - Alfred L. Cralle, is granted a patent for the first ice cream scoop, Cralle was an African American businessman and inventor who noticed ice cream servers having difficulty getting the popular confection desired by the customer into the cone they were usually holding. The ice cream tended to stick to spoons and ladles, requiring the server to use two hands and at least two separate implements to serve customers. The invention solved a real problem and spread so quickly that people soon forgot or never knew ,Cralle as the inventor, so he never profited from his invention. More

1897. February 9 - The British invasion of the Kingdom of Benin begins. The operation was named the Benin Punitive Expedition and part of its objectives was to capture the Benin Oba. The British invasion force of about 1,200 Royal Marines, sailors and Niger Coast Protectorate Forces. Eventually, Benin City was captured by the expedition, looted and set ablaze including the Palace building itself. The British occupied Benin, which was absorbed into the British Niger Coast Protectorate and eventually into British colonial Nigeria. More

1898, February 15 - The USS Maine explodes and sinks in Havana Harbor, leading to the start of the Spanish-American War. More

1901, February 25 - J.P. Morgan incorporates the United States Steel Corporation, the first billion-dollar corporation.

1903, February 15 -  The first "Teddy bear" goes on sale. Named after President Theodore Roosevelt, the stuffed bear was designed by Rose Michtom, wife of Morris Michtom, a Brooklyn, New York, resident who owned a candy shop where the first Teddy bear went on sale. More 

1903, February 18 - The first successful powered airplane flight is made by the Wright brothers in North Carolina.

1904, February 8 - Japan launches a surprise attack against the Russian-held Port Arthur, along the coast of Manchuria, beginning the Russo-Japanese War. Russia faced many defeats as it battled Japan while also fighting a revolution on the home front. In September 1905, President Teddy Roosevelt negotiates peace between the two countries, earning him the Nobel Peace Prize. More

1909, February 12 - The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded. More

1912, February 12 - Pu Yi, the last Qing dynasty Emperor of China, is forced to abdicate, ending 267 years of Manchu rule in China and 2,000 years of imperial rule. The former emperor, only six years old at the time, was allowed to keep up his residence in Beijing’s Forbidden City, and he took the name of Henry Pu Yi. More

1913, February 2 - The Grand Central Terminal officially opened to great fanfare at 12:01am on Sunday, February 2, 1913. Although construction was not yet entirely complete, more than 150,000 visited on opening day. New York City would never be the same. More

1913, February 3 - The 16th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, establishing the federal income tax. More

1917, February 7 - The Scottish ship, SS California , homeward-bound and approaching Ireland at full steam, was attacked by the German U-boat SM U-85 and sank in nine minutes, 38 miles off the coast of Ireland. More

1918, February 3 - The Twin Peaks Tunnel in San Francisco begins service as the world's longest streetcar tunnel.

1922, February 6 - The Washington Naval Treaty is signed, limiting the naval armaments of major world powers.

1923, February 16 -  The burial chamber of King Tutankhamun is unsealed and British archaeologist Howard Carter enters the ancient tomb. The tomb had been discovered  in the Valley of the Kings the previous year on November 22, more than 3,300 years after Tutankhamun's death and burial. Most pharaohs were plundered by graverobbers in ancient times, however Tutankhamun's tomb was hidden by debris for most of its existence and became the first known largely intact royal burial from ancient Egypt.

1929, February 14 - The St. Valentine's Day Massacre occurs in Chicago, involving a gang-related shooting that left seven dead.

1930, February 18 - The dwarf planet Pluto is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. Tombaugh, was  24-year-s old at the time and had no formal training in astronomy.

1933, February 15 -  President-Elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt narrowly escapes an assassination attempt shortly after giving a speech at Bayfront Park in Miami. The would-be assassin, Guiseppe Zangara, an unemployed bricklayer, fired 5 shots towards Roosevelt who was standing on stage, fatally wounding the Mayor of Chicago Anton Cermak and injuring four others. Zangara, was arrested, found guilty of murder , received the death penalty and was electrocuted on March 20, 1933. More

1933, February 27 - The Reichstag fire in Berlin allows Adolf Hitler to seize emergency powers, ultimately leading to Nazi dictatorship in Germany.

1937, February 6 - The Flint sit-down strike ends with a General Motors agreement recognizing the United Auto Workers union.

1939. February 20 - A Nazi rally with more than 20,000 people was held at the Madison Square Garden. It was sponsored by the German American Bund, an organization with headquarters in Manhattan and thousands of members across the United States. The stage had a large image of Washington hung between American flags — and swastikas. Their vision for America was a combination of white supremacy, fascist ideology and American patriotism. More

1942, February 19 - 10 weeks after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, authorizing the forced removal of all persons deemed a threat to national security from the West Coast to "relocation centers" further inland – resulting in the incarceration of more than 110, 000 Japanese Americans, Two thirds of those incarcerated were U.S. citizens. For the next two and a half years, they endured extremely difficult living conditions and poor treatment by their military guards. During the course of World War II, 10 Americans were convicted of spying for Japan, but not one of them was of Japanese ancestry. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill to recompense each surviving internee with a tax-free check for $20,000 and an apology from the U.S. government. More

1942, February 27 - USS Langley the U.S. Navy's first aircraft carrier is attacked by Japanese aircraft while transporting U.S. Army P-40's to the Netherlands East Indies. The damaged carrier was scuttled by her escorting destroyers. More 

1943, February 2 - The battle of Stalingrad ends as the German 6th Army surrenders in a major turning point in World War II

1945, February 4 - The Yalta Conference starts. Attended by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin to discuss post-World War II plans. The Yalta Conference took place in a Russian resort town in the Crimea from February 4–11, 1945, during World War Two. Important decisions were made regarding the future progress of the war and the postwar world. More

1945, February 19 - The U.S. Marines begin the invasion of Iwo Jima during the final phases of World War II. The Japanese put up fierce resistance. About 21,000 Japanese troops were killed and some 1,000 captured. U.S. casualties totaled about 28,000, including about 6,800 killed. Iwo Jima and the other Volcano Islands were administered by the United States from 1945 until they were returned to Japan in 1968.

1945, February 23 - The raising of the U.S. flag over Mount Suribach is photographed by Joe Rosenthal of the Associated Press, The iconic photograph went on to become one of the best-known photographic images of the Pacific war.

1948, February 25 - The 1948 Czechoslovak Coup D'état takes place as the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia assumes undisputed control over the government and beginning four decades of Communist rule. More

1952, February 6 - Elizabeth II becomes queen of the United Kingdom following the death of her father, King George VI. The coronation was held more than a year later on June 2, 1953.  because of the tradition of allowing an appropriate length of time to pass after a monarch dies. It also gave the planning committees adequate time to make preparations for the ceremony. More

1953, February 28 - Cambridge University scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick determined the structure of the double helix, the twisted-ladder structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Their work was aided by use of Rosalind Franklin's X-ray photographic work showing crystallographic evidence of the structure of DNA, which was shown to them, without her knowledge. Watson and Crick were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1962. More

1959, February 3 - The music album "Music from Big Pink" by The Band is released, influencing the Americana music genre.

1959, February 16 - Fidel Castro becomes prime minister of Cuba, replacing José Miró Cardona who was the head of the country's new provisional government. Fidel Castro had led the guerrilla campaign that forced right-wing dictator Fulgencio Batista into exile. Castro, had become commander in chief of Cuba’s armed forces after Batista was ousted on January 1, 1959. More

1960, February 1 - Four African American students at North Carolina, Agricultural and Technical College, stage a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, sparking similar protests. The “Greensboro Four,” were Ezell Blair Jr. (now known as Jibreel Khazan), David Richmond, Franklin McCain, and Joseph McNeil. Their protest led to the Woolworth Department Store chain ending its policy of racial segregation in its stores in the southern United States. More

1962, February 7 - President John F. Kennedy proclaimed an embargo on trade between the United States and Cuba, in response to certain actions taken by the Cuban Government, and directed the Departments of Commerce and the Treasury to implement the embargo, which remains in place today. More

1962, February 20 - John H. Glenn, Jr., one of NASA’s original seven Mercury astronauts, becomes the first American to orbit Earth, circling it three times. Glenn went on to become a U.S. Senator in 1974. More 

1964, February 7 - The Beatles arrive in the United States for the first time, starting the "British Invasion" of music.

1965, February 15 -  Canada adopts a new National flag. The new maple leaf flag originally proposed by George Stanley was made official was inaugurated in a public ceremony on Parliament Hill.  More 

1965, February 21 - Malcolm X is assassinated in New York City. More

1966, February 3 - The Soviet Union's Luna 9 (Lunik 9) makes the first soft landing on the moon and transmits photographic data from the Moon's surface to Earth. It was the first spacecraft to achieve a soft lunar landing, preceding the U.S. Surveyor 1 soft lander by about 4 months. The probe also proved that the lunar surface could support the weight of a lander and that an object would not sink into a loose layer of dust as some models predicted. Luna 9 launched on 31 January 1966 at 11:41 UT (14:41 Moscow time) from Baikonur Cosmodrome and reached the Moon on 3 February. More

1968, February 1 - The Viet Cong launch the Tet Offensive during the Vietnam War, marking a turning point in the conflict.

1970, February 11 - Japan launches Ohsumi , it first man-made satellite, making Japan the fourth country in the world (after the former Soviet Union, the United States and France) to have launched a satellite without aid from outside sources. More

1971, February 5 -  Apollo 14's  Lunar module with astronauts, Alan B. Shepard Jr. (Commander) and Edgar D. Mitchell (Lunar Module Pilot) descends to the lunar surface on the third U.S. moon landing. The 3rd Apollo 14 astronaut was Stuart A. Roosa, (Command Module Pilot). The astronauts returned to earth on Feb. 9, 1971 Landing on the Pacific Ocean.  More

1971, February 9 - The Sylmar earthquake strikes Los Angeles, registering a magnitude of 6.6 and causing significant damage.

1974, February 8 - The U.S. Senate votes to confirm Nelson Rockefeller as Vice President of the United States under President Gerald Ford.

1977, February 18 - The first 10 episodes of "Roots," a groundbreaking TV miniseries about slavery, air in the United States.

1978, February 22 - The first NAVSTAR satellite, Navstar 1, was launched. The U.S. Department of Defense previously launched the first experimental Block-I GPS satellite in February, 1977, which later also became part of the NAVSTAR GPS (Navigation Digital Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System. 

1980, February 22 - The United States Olympic hockey team pulls off the "Miracle on Ice," defeating the Soviet team during the Winter Olympics in Lake Placid.

1983, February 11 - The "MAS*H" finale becomes the most-watched television episode in history at the time.

1984, February 7 - Navy captain Bruce McCandless II, on the Space Shuttle Challenger’s STS 41-B mission, becomes the first human being to do a spacewalk without a safety tether linked to a spacecraft. McCandless donned a backpack mobility device—the Manned Maneuvering Unit—and ventured about 320 ft (98 m) away from the vehicle, becoming the first human satellite. His solo ride lasted 1 hour and 22 minutes. More 

1986, February 25 - Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos, leaves his country with his family for Hawaii after a fraudulent electoral victory over Corazon Aquino. After Ferdinand Marcos's death1989, the remaining members of the family were allowed to return to the Philippines to face various corruption charges in 1992. However, they were able to return to political power that same year, to the dismay of many Filipino people, with the election of Bongbong Marcos (Son of Ferdinand E. Marcos) as congressman for the second district of Ilocos Norte. He was elected to president of the Philippines in June 30, 2022.

1986, February 28 - Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme is gunned down in the street outside a cinema in Stockholm. His killer was never found.

1989, February 14 - Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini calls for the execution of British author Salman Rushdie over his novel "The Satanic Verses."

1990, February 11 - Nelson Mandela is released from Victor Verster Prison in South Africa after 27 years in captivity as South African President F.W. de Klerk lifts the 30-year ban on the African National Congress, and other black liberation parties, allowing freedom of the press, and releasing political prisoners marking the beginning of the end of apartheid. More

1992, February 7 - The Treaty of the European Union, also known as Treaty of Maastricht is signed in Maastricht. In accordance with that Treaty, the Union is founded on the European Communities (first pillar), with two additional areas of cooperation (second and third pillars): the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CSFP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). Upon entry into force of the Treaty on European Union, the EEC becomes the European Community(EC). More

1993, February 26 - A bomb planted by terrorists explodes beneath the World Trade Center in New York City, killing six and injuring over 1,000 people. The World Trade Center building suffered more than $500 million in damage. The attack was carried out by Ramzi Yousef and 6 conspirators. One of them was never captured. More 

1995, February 3 - American astronaut Eileen Collins becomes, the first woman to pilot a Space shuttle as she pilots the Discovery in what was the first flight of the new joint Russian- American Space Program. In July 1999, Collins went on to be the first woman to be a Shuttle commander on the STS-93 Columbia. More

1996, February 9 - The Irish Republican Army (IRA) declares an end to its 18-month ceasefire in Northern Ireland.

1998, February 10-26 - The 1998 Winter Olympics are held in Nagano, Japan.

2000, February 1 - Malaysia Airlines Flight 363 is hijacked, but the attempt is foiled by passengers and crew.

2000, February 5 - The World Health Organization (WHO) declares the measles virus eliminated in the United States.

2001, February 18 - FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested for spying for Russia for more than 15 years.

2002, February 12 - The trial of Slobodan Milošević begins at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague.

2003, February 1 - Space Shuttle Columbia breaks apart upon re-entry, tragically killing all seven crew members. Columbia lifted off on time on the first shuttle mission of the year on Jan. 16, 2003, at 10:39 a.m. EST, It carried seven crew members, on a marathon international scientific research flight. More

2003, February 15 - Millions protest the impending invasion of Iraq. A coordinated day of protests was held across the world in which people in more than 600 cities expressed opposition to the imminent Iraq War. The demonstrations were believed to be the largest single day of anti-war protest in history. It was part of a series of protests and political events that had begun in 2002 and continued as the invasion, war, and occupation took place. More

2004, February 1 - The social networking website Facebook is launched by Mark Zuckerberg and his college roommates.

2005, February 14 - Former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri is assassinated in Beirut, sparking the Cedar Revolution.

2006, February 10 - The Winter Olympics open in Turin, Italy.

2007, February 17 - Kosovo formally declares independence from Serbia.

2008, February 10 - The British film "Slumdog Millionaire" wins eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture.

2009, February 1 - Australian wildfires, known as "Black Saturday," claim the lives of 173 people and destroy thousands of homes.

2010, February 12 - The 2010 Winter Olympics open in Vancouver, Canada.

2010, February 16 - The Web site WikiLeaks begins posting classified U.S. government documents provided by army intelligence analyst Bradley (later Chelsea) Manning. The release of information is believed to be the largest unauthorized release of state secrets in U.S. history.

2011, February 11 - Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak resigns amidst widespread protests in Cairo's Tahrir Square.

2012, February 11 - Singer Whitney Houston dies at the age of 48.

2013, February 15 - A meteor explodes over Chelyabinsk, Russia, injuring over 1,000 people from its shockwave.

2014, February 7-23 - The 2014 Winter Olympics are held in Sochi, Russia.

2015, February 16 - "Birdman" wins the Academy Award for Best Picture at the 87th Academy Awards.

2016, February 12 - Pope Francis meets Patriarch Kirill in Havana at the first meeting between Catholic and Russian Orthodox church heads for nearly 1,000 years

2016, February 13 - Justice Antonin Scalia of the U.S. Supreme Court dies at the age of 79.

2017, February 5 - Super Bowl LI sees the New England Patriots come back from a 28-3 deficit to defeat the Atlanta Falcons.

2018, February 9-25 - The 2018 Winter Olympics are held in Pyeongchang, South Korea.

2019, February 5 - The U.S. Senate acquits President Donald Trump of impeachment charges.

2020, February 2 - Super Bowl LIV sees the Kansas City Chiefs defeat the San Francisco 49ers.

2020, February 11 - The World Health Organization names officially names the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it.  The first case of COVID -19 had been confirmed On January 20, 2020, a day after  35-year-old man presented to an urgent care clinic in Snohomish County, Washington, with a 4-day history of cough and subjective fever. He disclosed that he had returned to Washington State on January 15 after traveling to visit family in Wuhan, China. More 

2021, February 18 - NASA's Perseverance rover successfully lands on Mars, beginning its mission to explore the planet's surface.

Sources for the Historical Content shown, include research and reviews of relevant Online History Resources or printed material. When possible, we show a link to a source which provides additional or unique perspective about the event. We do our best to provide accurate information but would appreciate being notified if any incorrect information is found. You may do so by using this link: Feedback

These are some of many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of January, listed by year.  Dates provided for earlier time events may be approximate.

753 BCE, January 1Traditional date of the founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus.

753 BCE, January 11 According to Roman tradition, Romulus dedicates the Temple of Jupiter Stator on the Capitoline Hill.

535 BCE, January 18 - Thales of Miletus, a Greek philosopher often considered the first Western philosopher, dies in Greece.

509 BCE, January 1 - The Roman Republic is established after the overthrow of the Roman monarchy.

509 BCE, January 24 - The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Rome's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of January.

480 BCE, January 1 - Leonidas I, King of Sparta, is born.

475 BCE, January 19 -  The Greek city-state of Argos defeats Sparta at the Battle of Tiryns.

460 BCE, January 21Greek playwright Aeschylus dies in Gela, Sicily.

450 BCE, January 29 - Birth of the historian and philosopher, Herodotus, often called the "Father of History."

431 BCE, January 1 The Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta officially begins.

429 BCE, January 8Pericles, influential Athenian statesman and general, dies during the Plague of Athens.

396 BCE, January 1The Romans celebrate a triumph for their victory over the Etruscans.

323 BCE, January 1Death of Alexander the Great, leaving his empire to be divided among his generals after his passing.

73 BCE, January 1The Roman Senate recognizes the legal validity of the will of the wealthy Roman merchant Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus.

68 BCE, January 9 - Birth of Roman statesman and orator, Publius Clodius Pulcher.

49 BCE, January 10 - Julius Caesar, defying the order of the Roman Senate not to so, crosses the Rubicon River with his legion, famously uttering "alea iacta est" meaning "the die has been cast and leading to the Roman Civil War. He was assassinated in 44 BCE

48 BCE, January 4 - Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus.

47 BCE, January 10 - Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion with her.

45 BCE, January 1 - The Julian Calendar takes effect replacing the traditional Roman calendar which had been introduced around the seventh century B.C. which followed the lunar cycle.

44 BCE, January 14 -  Assassination of Julius Caesar by a group of Roman senators led by Brutus and Cassius.

44 BCE, January 15 - Birth of the Roman historian and politician, Gaius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust).

40 BCE, January 15 - Birth of the Roman poet and philosopher, Gaius Maecenas.

31 BCE, January 16 - Octavian (later known as Augustus) celebrates a triple triumph in Rome for his victories in the Battle of Actium.

27 BCE, January 16 - Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus is granted the title "Augustus" by the Roman Senate, marking the beginning of the Roman Empire.

9 BCE, January 12 - The Roman general Drusus completes the conquest of Raetia (modern-day Switzerland and Bavaria).

4 BCE, January 1 - The day considered by some scholars as the possible date of the birth of Jesus Christ.

6 BCE, January 2 - Jesus is presented at the Temple in Jerusalem in accordance with Jewish law.

2 BCE, January 25 - Emperor Augustus renews the law against bachelors and childless marriages in Rome.

1 BCE, January 16 - Herod the Great dies in Jericho, according to historical calculations by some scholars.

1 BCE, January 1 - The Roman Senate and people honor Caesar Augustus with the title "Pater Patriae" (Father of the Country).

1 CE, January 1 - The first day of the Julian calendar in the Roman Empire, inaugurated by Emperor Augustus.

5 CE, January 17 - Birth of the Roman historian Tacitus.

29 CE, January 6 - According to some Christian traditions, the Baptism of Jesus Christ in the Jordan River occurs.

49 CE, January 24 - The Roman Senate confers upon Claudius the title "Pater Patriae" (Father of the Country).

64 CE, January 18 - The Roman Emperor Nero orders the construction of the Domus Aurea (Golden House) after the Great Fire of Rome.

69 CE, January 15: Roman legions in Germania Superior proclaim their commander, Vitellius, as emperor.

95 CE, January 14 - Birth of the Roman historian and senator, Gaius Cornelius Tacitus.

98 CE, January 27 - Trajan becomes Roman emperor following the death of Nerva.

167 CE, January 24 - The Roman Empire defeats the Marcomanni in the Battle of Sirmium under the reign of Marcus Aurelius.

212 CE, January 19 - Emperor Caracalla grants Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the Roman Empire.

225 CE, January 16 -  The Roman Emperor Severus Alexander is born.

303 CE, January 23 - Saint Emerentiana, a Christian martyr, is stoned to death in Rome during the Diocletianic Persecution.

378 CE, January 19 - The Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius I defeats the Western Roman usurper Magnus Maximus at the Battle of Siscia.

395 CE, January 17 - The Roman Empire is permanently divided into Eastern and Western halves upon the death of Emperor Theodosius I.

418 CE, January 10 - Theodosius II becomes co-emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire at the age of 7.

457 CE, January 27 - Leo I becomes the Byzantine Emperor following the death of his predecessor Marcian.

532 CE, January 18 - The Byzantine general Belisarius enters Rome during the Gothic War.

565 CE, January 2 - Justin II succeeds his uncle Justinian I as Eastern Roman Emperor.

632 CE, January 23 - The Rashidun Caliphate is established following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

681 CE, January 4 - The Bulgarian Khan Asparukh defeats the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV at the Battle of Ongal.

742 CE, January 26 - Charlemagne, King of the Franks, is born in modern-day Belgium.

814 CE, January 28 - Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pious, succeeds him as Holy Roman Emperor.

861 CE, January 20 - The Byzantine Empire defeats the Abbasid Caliphate at the Battle of Lalakaon.

871 CE, January 6 - Alfred the Great leads the West Saxon army to repel a Danish invasion at the Battle of Ashdown.

899 CE, January 26 - Arnulf of Carinthia, King of East Francia, dies, leading to a period of instability in the Carolingian Empire.

919 CE, January 14: The coronation of Henry the Fowler as King of East Francia (Germany) marks the beginning of the Saxon Dynasty.

949 CE, January 7 - The caliphate of Abd al-Rahman III in Al-Andalus is recognized by the Fatimid Caliphate in North Africa.

962 CE, January 6 - Otto I is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII in Rome.

988 CE, January 1 - Baptism of Kievan Rus' ruler Vladimir the Great, leading to the Christianization of the region.

999 CE, January 1 - Gregory V becomes Pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

1000, January 1 - Stephen I becomes the first Christian king of Hungary following his coronation.

1001, January 1 - Vikings led by Leif Erikson land in present-day Canada, possibly becoming the first Europeans to reach North America.

1002, January 23 - Emperor Otto III, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, dies unexpectedly at the age of 22.

1007, January 5 - Henry II becomes King of Germany after the death of his father, Henry the Quarrelsome.

1014, January 30 - King Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark dies, and his son, Cnut the Great, becomes king of Denmark.

1016, January 6 - Edmund Ironside, King of England, dies, solidifying Cnut the Great's rule over England.

1028, January 20 - Constantine VIII, Byzantine Emperor, dies, ending the Macedonian dynasty.

1035, January 5 - King Canute the Great of England and Denmark dies, leading to disputes over succession.

1046, January 28 - Pope Clement II, who had been installed by Emperor Henry III, dies suddenly.

1066, January 5 - Edward the Confessor, King of England, dies, leading to a succession crisis and the events of the Norman Conquest.

1066, January 6 - Harold Godwineson, head of the most powerful noble family in England, is crowned King Harold II, following the death of Edward the Confessor, leading to a war of succession involving Tostig, brother of Harold, King Harald III Hardraade of Norway and William, duke of Normandy. King Harold managed to fight and kill Tostig and King Harald III at the Battle of Stamford Bridge near York but was himself soon defeated and killed by William at the Battle of Hastings. Almost a year after Edward the Confessor's death, on Christmas Day, 1066, William the Conqueror was crowned the first Norman king of England. More

1077, January 27 - Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV arrives at the fortress of Canossa, beginning the famous Walk to Canossa to seek forgiveness from Pope Gregory VII.

1078, January 9 - Sultan Malik Shah I, ruler of the Seljuk Empire, dies, leading to a period of internal strife.

1086, January 14 - The Domesday Book, a comprehensive survey of landholdings in England, is completed by order of William the Conqueror.

1092, January 8 - Prince Vsevolod I becomes Grand Prince of Kiev, marking a significant period in Kievan Rus' history.

1094, January 22 - Alfonso VI of León and Castile conquers the city of Valencia from the Moors.

1095, January 10 - The Council of Clermont begins, where Pope Urban II delivers a sermon urging Christians to reclaim the Holy Land, sparking the First Crusade.

1097, January 13 - Crusaders led by Bohemond I of Antioch begin the siege of Antioch during the First Crusade.

1098, January 13 - Crusaders under Raymond IV of Toulouse capture Ma'arrat al-Numan in Syria during the First Crusade.

1098, January 31 - The Crusaders, besieged in Antioch, capture a tower, gaining a strategic advantage in the ongoing siege.

1099, January 12 - Crusaders start constructing siege engines for the siege of Arqa during the First Crusade.

1099, January 13 - Raymond IV of Toulouse leads Crusaders in capturing the town of Arqa, Lebanon, during the First Crusade.

1099, January 20 - The Crusaders besiege the city of Arqa, an important strategic point in Lebanon, during the First Crusade.

1099, January 31 -  Crusaders begin constructing siege engines for the siege of Tripoli during the First Crusade.

1100, January 6 - Henry I of England marries Matilda of Scotland, consolidating his rule after the turmoil following his brother's death.

1100, January 7 - Henry I is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey, succeeding his brother William II.

1100, January 8 - Archbishop Anselm is consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury, restoring ecclesiastical authority in England.

1100, January 27 -  Grand Prince Sviatopolk II of Kiev is murdered, leading to political unrest in Kievan Rus'.

1100, January 31 - William II of England's courtier and rumored successor, William de Warenne, dies, furthering uncertainties over succession.

1100, January 31 -  Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester, a prominent Norman magnate in England, dies, impacting the power dynamics of the time.

1107, January 24 - Edgar the Ætheling, the last male member of the House of Wessex, dies in England.

1110, January 13 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome by Pope Paschal II.

1118, January 29 - Pope Gelasius II succeeds Pope Paschal II as the 161st pope.

1124, January 14 - Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor, is crowned King of Italy.

1129, January 13 - The Council of Troyes, convened by Bernard of Clairvaux, acting as a Legate of Pope Honorius II, grants official sanction from the papacy to the Templar Order (Knights Templar) which had been founded in 1119 by some French noblemen. The order and the rules were subsequently approved by Pope Honorius II. The Templar Order gradually increase it size,  power and gaining considerable influence. It was eventually abolished by Pope Clement V who disbanded the order in 1312. More

1131, January 13 - King Sigurd I of Norway dies, and his son Magnus IV becomes king at the age of 11.

1138, January 24 - The Treaty of Durham between Scotland and England recognizes the River Tees as the boundary between the two countries.

1141, January 2 - Pope Innocent II is elected.

1143, January 15 - The Kingdom of Portugal is recognized by the Kingdom of León.

1145, January 19 -  The archbishopric of Uppsala in Sweden is established.

1152, January 29 - King Stephen of England and Empress Matilda sign the Treaty of Wallingford, recognizing Stephen as king while allowing Matilda's son to inherit the throne.

1158, January 1 - Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia, is crowned.

1169, January 14 - A severe earthquake strikes the Levant, causing significant damage and loss of life in Palestine.

1170, January 8 - Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, is assassinated in Canterbury Cathedral.

1173, January 1 - Pope Alexander III canonizes Saint Thomas Becket.

1177, January 10 - Pope Alexander III issues the papal bull "Manifestis Probatum," recognizing Portugal as an independent kingdom.

1189, January 6 - Richard I (Richard the Lionheart) of England is crowned at Westminster Abbey.

1192, January 1 - Emperor Henry VI is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Celestine III in Rome.

1198, January 8 - Lotario dei Conti di Segni is elected Pope Innocent III.

1199, January 13 - King Richard I of England is wounded while besieging the castle of Châlus-Chabrol in France and dies shortly after.

1199, January 20 - King Richard I's brother, John, becomes King of England after Richard's death.

1200, January 15 - King Philip II of France and King John of England sign the Treaty of Le Goulet, marking the end of a conflict.

1200,
January 20 - King Philip II of France marries Agnes of Merania.

1200, January 24 - King John of England marries Isabella of Angoulême, causing tensions in the region.

1201, January 21 - The Fourth Crusade begins with a call for a crusade against Alexios III Angelos, the Byzantine Emperor.

1202, January 1 - The Fourth Crusade reaches Venice, negotiating with the Venetians for transport to Egypt.

1202, January 28 - Alexios IV Angelos is crowned co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire, following the Fourth Crusade's arrival in Constantinople.

1204, January 17 - Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade capture the Byzantine city of Thessalonica.

1204, January 26 - Crusaders sack the city of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, leading to the fall of the Byzantine Empire.

1205, January 7 - Theodosius III is proclaimed Byzantine Emperor after the deposition of Alexios V.

1205, January 24 - Pope Innocent III excommunicates Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, for supporting the antipope.

1208, January 15 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of Germany.

1215, January 6 - King John of England marries Isabella of Angoulême.

1215, January 17 - King John of England appoints Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury.

1215, January 27 - The Fourth Lateran Council is convened by Pope Innocent III, addressing church reform and promulgating decrees.

1225, January 6 - Louis VIII of France enters into negotiations with Henry III of England for the release of English lands in France.

1236, January 28 - The city of Ryazan in Russia is captured and burned by Mongol forces under Batu Khan.

1248, January 7 - Construction of the Cologne Cathedral in Germany begins.

1259, January 18 - Michael VIII Palaiologos is proclaimed co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire.

1264, January 16 - The Parliament of Ireland meets at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first Irish parliament on record.

1265, January 20 - The first English Parliament summoned by Simon de Montfort meets in London.

1272, January 20 - Alfonso X is crowned King of Castile and León.

1274, January 18 - The Second Council of Lyon is convened by Pope Gregory X, focusing on church reunification and crusade plans.

1277, January 22 - The University of Paris condemns the teachings of philosopher and theologian Peter Abelard.

1283, January 22 - War breaks out between England and Wales as King Edward I launches a campaign against Llywelyn ap Gruffudd.

1284, January 13 - The Principality of Wales becomes united with England following the Statute of Rhuddlan.

1287, January 14 - A massive flood known as the "Saint Lucia's flood" strikes the Netherlands, causing widespread destruction.

1290, January 18 - King Edward I of England issues the Edict of Expulsion, ordering the expulsion of Jews from England.

1291, January 18: The Council of Acre ends, marking the collapse of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.

1292, January 20 - John Balliol is crowned King of Scotland.

1293, January 10 - King Rudolf I of Germany grants the Privilegium Majus, a document asserting the independence of Austria.

1297, January 8 - François Grimaldi, disguised as a monk, captures the fortress of Monaco, establishing the Grimaldi family's rule.

1298, January 26 - Duke Albert I of Austria defeats King Adolf of Germany at the Battle of Göllheim.

1299, January 1 - Ottoman Turks led by Osman I begin the Ottoman Empire's expansion from their base in Anatolia.

1299, January 25 - The Mongols under Ghazan Khan capture the Syrian Citadel of Aleppo, marking Mongol expansion into the region.

1299, January 26 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the papal bull "Super Cathedram," affirming papal supremacy over temporal rulers.

1299, January 31 - Edward I of England summons Parliament, instructing on measures to raise funds for military campaigns.

1299, January - The Mamluks capture the city of Jaffa, ending Crusader control in the Holy Land.

1299, January - Serbian King Stefan Milutin conquers the city of Skopje from the Byzantine Empire.

1299, January - The city of Pamplona in Spain becomes a part of the Kingdom of Navarre.

1299, January - Scottish forces under William Wallace achieve victory against English troops at the Battle of Scone Moor.

1300, January 1 - Dante Alighieri becomes one of the six priors of Florence, Italy.

1301, January 27 - Andrew III of Hungary dies, leading to succession disputes and internal conflicts in Hungary.

1302, January 18 - The Pope confirms the Knights Templar's privileges despite ongoing controversies surrounding the order.

1302, January 27 - Dante  Alighieri is accused of corruption in political office like others from the White Guelphs political party (supporters independence for the city-state who were not aligned with the Pope). Dante's sentence was a hefty fine  and banishment for two years from Florence and permanent exclusion from public office. Dante refused any pardon that required him to admit guilt against the city he loved and later that year, he was banned for life and threatened with execution if he returned. The poet never returned to Florence and died of malaria 20 years later in Ravenna on the Adriatic coast. 

1303, January 16 - The papal fortress of Castel Sant'Angelo in Rome is seized by forces loyal to Pope Boniface VIII.

1304, January 3 - The town of Helsingborg in Sweden receives its city rights.

1305, January 5 - Pope Clement V is elected, beginning the Avignon Papacy.

1306, January 5 - Robert the Bruce renounces his allegiance to England's King Edward I, beginning his campaign for the Scottish throne.

1307, January 12 - Marriage negotiations between King Edward II of England and Isabella of France, daughter of King Philip IV, begin.

1308, January 19 - Edward II of England marries Isabella of France at Boulogne-sur-Mer.

1309, January 7 - The papal court moves from Rome to Avignon, beginning the Avignon Papacy.

1310, January 27 - The Knights Templar's leadership is condemned by the Council of Vienne, leading to their suppression.

1311, January 6 - The Council of Vienne begins, discussing various church matters including the Templar Order.

1312, January 23 - Pope Clement V officially dissolves the Knights Templar by papal decree.

1313, January 20 - Emperor Henry VII is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement V in Rome.

1314, January 2 - Pope Clement V sends a letter to King Philip IV of France regarding the suppression of the Templars.

1315, January 23 - The Council of Ten established in Venice to safeguard internal security and stability.

1316, January 4 - Louis X of France dies, leading to a succession crisis in France.

1317, January 16 - The first Treaty of Leake is signed between England and Scotland, temporarily ending hostilities.

1318, January 24 - The Council of Ravenna convenes to address church reform and discipline.

1319, January 30 - A peace treaty is signed between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England.

1320, January 25 - King Władysław I of Poland issues the formal establishment of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Union with the coronation of his son.

1321, January 1 - Marsilius of Padua presents his political treatise "Defensor Pacis" to the Archbishop of Mainz.

1322, January 16 - The Battle of Burton Bridge takes place during the Despenser War in England.

1323, January 23 - Treaty of Paris between England and Scotland recognizes Scottish independence.

1324, January 24 - Louis IV becomes King of Germany, later Holy Roman Emperor.

1325, January 16 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Aragon after the death of his father, James II.

1326, January 24 - Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer invade England, starting the downfall of Edward II.

1327, January 25 - Edward II of England is formally deposed, and his son, Edward III, becomes king.

1328, January 6 - The Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton is signed, recognizing Scottish independence from England.

1329, January 13 - King Casimir III of Poland begins his reign, focusing on domestic reforms and strengthening the kingdom.

1330, January 8 - Emperor Frederick III of Sicily dies, leading to a succession crisis.

1331, January 10 - The Battle of Emesa takes place during the Byzantine civil war between factions led by Andronikos III and John Kantakouzenos.

1332, January 10 - A truce is agreed upon between England and Scotland during the Second War of Scottish Independence.

1333, January 19 - The English capture the town of Dunbar in Scotland during the Second War of Scottish Independence.

1334, January 13 - King Edward III of England convenes Parliament at York, establishing the principle of the northern host.

1335, January 30 - A peace treaty is signed between England and Scotland in the midst of the Second War of Scottish
Independence.

1336, January 7 - Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, confirms the city rights of Bern, Switzerland.

1337, January 24 - King Edward III of England proclaims himself rightful heir to the French throne, initiating the Hundred Years' War.

1338, January 13 - The English Parliament grants funds for King Edward III's war against France.

1339, January 10 - Philip VI of France creates a naval blockade against English wool exports in retaliation for the Hundred Years' War.

1340, January 22 - Pope Benedict XII is consecrated as Pope in Avignon.

1341, January 25 - King David II of Scotland holds a Parliament at Scone, attempting to raise funds for the ransom to free himself from English captivity.

1342, January 5 - King Edward III of England creates the Knights of the Garter, an elite chivalric order.

1343, January 26 - King Edward III of England establishes the Truce of Malestroit with France, temporarily halting hostilities.

1344, January 20 - The Scots under Sir Andrew Murray defeat the English at the Battle of Happrew, part of the Second War of Scottish Independence.

1345, January 8 - Pope Clement VI confirms the privileges of the University of Prague, Bohemia.

1346, January 6 - The House of Commons convenes for the first time in England.

1347,
January 12 - Henry, Duke of Lancaster, arrives in Calais to aid King Edward III during the Hundred Years' War.

1348, January 13 - Charles IV of Luxembourg is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Bonn.

1349, January 17 - An earthquake strikes the region of Huesca, Spain, causing significant damage.

1350, January 17 - King John II of France, a prisoner in England, agrees to the Treaty of London, promising to pay a large ransom.

1351, January 18 - The Cortes of Leiria in Portugal is convened by King Afonso IV to address various issues in the kingdom.

1352, January 18 - The Golden Bull of Emperor Charles IV establishes the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.

1353, January 5 - A peace treaty is signed between Sweden and Denmark, known as the Treaty of Gottorp.

1354, January 7 - Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, issues the Golden Bull of 1354, formalizing the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.

1355, January 10 - The St. Scholastica Day riot occurs in Oxford, England, resulting in significant violence between town and gown.

1356, January 1 - Edward Balliol, supported by England, is crowned King of Scotland in Scone.

1357, January 25 - King Edward III of England establishes the Order of the Garter, England's highest chivalric order.

1358, January 17 - The Jacquerie peasant revolt begins in France, triggered by social and economic grievances.

1359, January 30 - The Battle of Saintes takes place during the Hundred Years' War between England and France, resulting in an English victory.

1360, January 6 - The Treaty of Calais is signed, ending the first phase of the Hundred Years' War between England and France.

1361, January 9 - King Henry of Trastámara becomes King Henry II of Castile after defeating his half-brother, King Peter, at the Battle of Campo de Montiel.

1362, January 11 - A truce is agreed upon between England and Scotland, temporarily halting hostilities during the Hundred Years' War.

1363, January 27 - King Charles V of France creates the first franc coin, a new currency for France.

1364, January 22 - Charles V is crowned King of France at Reims Cathedral after the death of his father, King John II.

1365, January 19 - The Parliament of Ireland meets in Dublin, strengthening English control over Ireland.

1366, January 9 - King Peter I of Portugal leads a successful expedition to conquer the city of Badajoz in Spain.

1367, January 6 - Richard II of England begins his reign as king at the age of 10 following the death of his grandfather, Edward III.

1368, January 23 - The Ming Dynasty officially begins in China with the ascension of Zhu Yuanzhang as the Hongwu Emperor.

1369, January 12 - King Peter I of Portugal dies, succeeded by his daughter, Beatrice, and her husband, John I of Castile.

1370, January 25 - Pope Gregory XI publishes five papal bulls condemning the doctrines of John Wycliffe.

1371, January 22 - King Robert II of Scotland defeats a much smaller English force at the Battle of Invernahavon.

1372, January 9 - The Treaty of Calais is renewed, extending the truce between England and France.

1373, January 23 - Pope Gregory XI sends a letter to England denouncing the teachings of John Wycliffe.

1374, January 6 - An earthquake strikes Cyprus, causing significant damage and loss of life.

1375, January 9 - The Parliament of England convenes in Westminster, focusing on financial matters and reforms.

1376, January 23 - The Great Schism in the Catholic Church begins when Pope Gregory XI dies, leading to rival papal claimants.

1377, January 28 - Richard II of England marries Anne of Bohemia, daughter of Emperor Charles IV.

1378, January 17 - Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch), Italian poet and scholar, dies in Arquà Petrarca, Italy.

1379, January 9 - The Treaty of Neuberg is signed, ending a war between Austria and Bavaria.

1380, January 20 - King Charles VI of France is crowned at Reims Cathedral at the age of 11 following the death of his father, Charles V.

1381, January 7 - John Wycliffe presents his views on church reform to Parliament in England.

1382, January 9 - The Golden Horde under Tokhtamysh attacks Moscow, leading to the Battle of Kulikovo.

1383, January 19 - King Richard II of England marries Anne of Bohemia at Westminster Abbey.

1384, January 25 - Louis I of Anjou is crowned King of Naples, initiating the Angevin dynasty's rule in southern Italy.

1385, January 10 - Portuguese forces under Nuno Álvares Pereira defeat Castilian forces at the Battle of Trancoso.

1386, January 8 - King John I of Castile marries Beatrice of Portugal, sealing the Treaty of Windsor.

1387, January 23 - King Charles III of Naples is crowned King of Hungary in Naples, beginning a personal union between the two kingdoms.

1388, January 23 - Ming forces under Zhu Yuanzhang defeat the Mongol army at the Battle of Yongtai, consolidating Ming control in China.

1399, January 22 - King Richard II of England meets with Henry Bolingbroke, later Henry IV, leading to his eventual deposition.

1400, January 7 - John Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, and Thomas Holland, Duke of Surrey, are executed for their involvement in a plot against King Henry IV of England.

1401, January 10 - The Welsh rebel leader, Owain Glyndŵr, proclaims himself Prince of Wales, initiating a revolt against English rule.

1402, January 6 - King Henry IV of England declares Owain Glyndŵr a traitor and offers a reward for his capture.

1403, January 21 - King Henry IV of England grants a royal charter to the Guild of Tailors in London.

1404, January 4 - The English Parliament passes the Act of Multipliers, addressing economic issues by controlling wages and prices.

1405, January 3 - French forces under Louis, Duke of Orléans, capture the city of Bordeaux, a significant English stronghold.

1406, January 3 - The Treaty of Windsor is signed between England and Scotland, establishing peace and a marriage alliance between the two kingdoms.

1407, January 6 - Pope Gregory XII issues a papal bull against the Avignon Pope, Benedict XIII, as part of efforts to end the Western Schism.

1408, January 13 - The Council of Pisa is announced, aiming to resolve the Western Schism by deposing both Pope Gregory XII and Antipope Benedict XIII.

1409, January 3 - The Council of Pisa officially opens, attempting to resolve the Western Schism by electing a new pope, Alexander V.

1410, January 8 - The Peace of Bicêtre is signed, temporarily halting the Armagnac-Burgundian civil war in France.

1411, January 26 - The University of St. Andrews in Scotland is chartered by a papal bull from Pope Benedict XIII.

1412, January 6 - The Medici family gains power in Florence as Giovanni de' Medici becomes head of the family's bank.

1413, January 4 - King Henry IV of England dies, and his son becomes King Henry V.

1414, January 11 - Pope Gregory XII resigns from the papacy as part of efforts to resolve the Western Schism.

1415, January 20 - The Council of Constance is convened, aiming to resolve the Western Schism and address church reform.

1416, January 6 - The Council of Constance condemns the teachings of Jan Hus, leading to his trial for heresy.

1417, January 6 - The Council of Constance elects Cardinal Oddone Colonna as Pope Martin V, effectively ending the Western Schism.

1418, January 4 - The Hussite Wars in Bohemia intensify as followers of Jan Hus take control of Prague and overthrow King Wenceslaus IV's regents.

1419, January 9 - Jan Žižka leads the Hussites in the Battle of Sudoměř, defeating King Wenceslaus IV's forces.

1420, January 14 - The Treaty of Troyes is signed, establishing Henry V of England as heir to the French throne.

1421, January 23 - The University of St. Andrews in Scotland receives its papal bull of confirmation from Pope Martin V.

1422, January 11 - King Henry V of England dies, and his infant son becomes King Henry VI.

1423, January 15 - The Council of Siena is convened by Pope Martin V to discuss church reforms and the Crusades.

1424, January 2 - The Treaty of Melun is signed, temporarily ending hostilities between France and England.

1425, January 17 - The reign of King Henry VI of England officially begins with his coronation at Westminster Abbey.

1426, January 7 - The Medici Bank in Florence suffers a financial crisis, leading to its restructuring.

1427, January 6 - The University of Basel is founded in Switzerland.

1428, January 6 - King Alfonso V of Aragon establishes the University of Barcelona.

1429, January 8 - The Siege of Orléans by the English during the Hundred Years' War begins, marking a turning point in the conflict.

1431, January 9  - The trial of Joan of Arc begins in Rouen, France, presided over by an ecclesiastical court.

1432, January 10 - The Battle of San Romano takes place between Florence and Siena, a conflict depicted in famous Renaissance artworks.

1433, January 1 - Pope Eugenius IV succeeds Pope Martin V as the 207th pope.

1434, January 15 - Pope Eugenius IV grants the privileges of the University of Leuven in Belgium.

1435, January 6 - The Congress of Arras opens, aiming to negotiate peace between Burgundy and France.

1436, January 1 - The Council of Basel suspends Pope Eugene IV, beginning a period of tension between the Council and the papacy.

1437, January 21 - James I of Scotland is assassinated in Perth, Scotland.

1438, January 9 - Albert II of Habsburg is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome.

1439, January 18 - The Union of Florence is signed, aiming to reconcile the Eastern and Western churches.

1440, January 15 - Gilles de Rais, a companion-in-arms of Joan of Arc, is condemned and executed for crimes including murder and heresy.

1441, January 17 - Afonso V becomes King of Portugal at the age of six following the death of his father, Edward of Portugal.

1442, January 10 - Alfonso V of Aragon reconquers Naples from the Angevins, establishing Aragonese rule in southern Italy.

1443, January 5 - Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, dies, leaving Frederick III as his successor.

1444, January 2 - The Peace of Szeged is signed, ending the 1443-1444 Crusade of Varna between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
1445, January 6 - Alfonso V of Aragon is crowned King of Sicily, consolidating his control over the Italian peninsula.

1446, January 17 - The Treaty of Ragusa is signed, establishing peace between Venice and the Kingdom of Hungary.

1447, January 21: The Eton College Foundation Charter is signed, establishing Eton College near Windsor, England.

1448, January 2 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, dies.

1449, January 23 - The siege of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire begins, leading to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453.

1450, January 1 - The University of Barcelona is established by King Alfonso V of Aragon.

1451, January 3 - Sultan Murad II of the Ottoman Empire abdicates the throne in favor of his son, Mehmed II.

1452, January 23 - The Gutenberg Bible, the first major book printed with movable type in the West, begins production in Mainz, Germany.

1453, January 6 - Mehmed II ascends the throne as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire after the death of his father, Murad II.

1454, January 28 - The Treaty of Prenzlau is signed, ending the war between the Teutonic Order and Poland.

1455, January 2 - The Gutenberg Bible is completed, marking a pivotal moment in the history of printing.

1456, January 6 - The Siege of Belgrade begins, with Hungarian and Serbian forces defending the city against the Ottomans.

1457, January 28 - King Henry VII of England is born, later becoming the first Tudor monarch.

1458, January 6 - Alfonso V of Aragon takes control of the Kingdom of Naples after his victory over René of Anjou.

1459, January 28 - The Treaty of Olomouc is signed, establishing a peace settlement between Hungary and Austria.

1460, January 10 - Richard, Duke of York, is proclaimed King of England, challenging the reign of King Henry VI during the Wars of the Roses.

1461, January 14 - The Battle of Mortimer's Cross takes place during the Wars of the Roses in England, where Yorkists defeat Lancastrians.

1462, January 2 - The Ottomans capture Constantinople's strategically important region, the Morea, completing their conquest of the Byzantine Empire.

1463, January 13 - Completion of the Trondheim Cathedral in Norway after several decades of construction.

1464, January 10 - The Treaty of Westminster is signed between England and Scotland, securing peace between the two kingdoms.

1465, January 15 - Charles the Bold of Burgundy marries Margaret of York, sister of Edward IV of England, solidifying an alliance.

1466, January 27 - The Second Peace of Thorn is signed, ending the Thirteen Years' War between the Teutonic Order and Poland.

1467, January 21 - The Battle of Nancy takes place, resulting in the death of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, at the hands of the Swiss.

1468, January 5 - During the Wars of the Roses, the Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV, is executed for treason.

1469, January 19 - Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella I of Castile, leading to the unification of Spain.

1470, January 7 - The Battle of Tewkesbury is fought during the Wars of the Roses, resulting in a decisive Yorkist victory.

1471, January 10 - The Battle of Harlaw in Scotland sees the victory of the Scottish over the Highland clans.

1472, January 4 - Florentine painter Sandro Botticelli is commissioned to paint "Adoration of the Magi."

1473, January 6 - Nicolaus Copernicus, the astronomer who proposed a heliocentric model of the universe, is born in Poland.

1474, January 5 - The University of Copenhagen is founded in Denmark.

1475, January 17 - Battle of Vaslui between the Moldavian Prince Stephen the Great and the Ottoman Empire.

1476, January 5 - Birth of Anne of Brittany, future queen consort of France and duchess of Brittany.

1477, January 5 - The Battle of Nancy takes place, where Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy is killed.

1478, January 7 - The Grand Duke of Muscovy, Ivan III, marries Zoe Palaiologina, niece of the last Byzantine Emperor.

1479, January 17 - Treaty of Alcáçovas is signed, ending the War of Castilian Succession between Portugal and Castile.

1480, January 6 - Ivan III of Russia launches the Great Stand on the Ugra River, halting the advance of the Golden Horde.

1481, January 26 - King Afonso V of Portugal dies, and his son, John II, becomes king.

1482, January 8 - The inauguration of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican takes place.

1483, January 26 - King Richard III of England convenes the first Parliament of his reign.

1484, January 18 - The first printed edition of the Vulgate Bible is published by Johann von Speyer in Rome.

1485, January 7 - The reign of King Henry VII of England begins after his victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field.

1486, January 18 - The Treaty of Bagnolo is signed, ending the War of Ferrara between Venice and the Papal States.

1487, January 6 - The funeral of Henry VI of England takes place in Windsor.

1488, January 4 - Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer, anchors near the mouth of the Congo River during his expedition.

1492, January 2 - Granada, the last stronghold of the Moorish kingdom in Spain surrenders to Spain ending the Reconquest led by the Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II and Isabella I

1497, January 2 - Vasco da Gama departs from Lisbon on his first voyage to India.

1498, January 25 - During his third voyage, Christopher Columbus discovers the island of Isla de Margarita off the coast of Venezuela.

1501, January 1 - The Battle of Vedrosha is fought between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Grand Duchy of Moscow.

1502, January 6 - Portuguese explorer Gaspar de Lemos reaches the Bay of Guanabara in Brazil.

1503, January 26 - The Treaty of Lyons is signed, establishing peace between France and Spain.

1504, January 2 - King Ferdinand II of Aragon abandons the Kingdom of Naples, leaving it under the control of Louis XII of France.

1505, January 13 - The University of Copenhagen is officially inaugurated in Denmark.

1506, January 8 - The construction of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome begins under Pope Julius II.

1507, January 16 - Leonardo da Vinci is commissioned to paint the Mona Lisa by Francesco del Giocondo.

1508,
January 23 - Construction of the Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican City begins.

1509, January 28 - The accession of Henry VIII to the throne of England after the death of his father, Henry VII.

1510, January 2 - King Henry VIII of England orders the burning of all Lutheran books.

1511, January 3 - The Swiss Confederation defeats the Holy League at the Battle of Ravenna in Italy.

1512, January 6 - The cornerstone of the Sistine Chapel's ceiling is laid in the Vatican City.

1513, January 25 - Spanish conquistador Vasco Núñez de Balboa reaches the Pacific Ocean after crossing the Isthmus of Panama.

1514, January 4 - The Treaty of Maline is signed, forming an alliance between King Henry VIII of England and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I.

1515, January 14 - François I of France is crowned king in Reims.

1516, January 23 - The Habsburg Charles I of Spain becomes the ruler of the Spanish Empire after the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon.

1517, January 29 - The Ottoman Sultan Selim I occupies Egypt, marking the end of the Mamluk Sultanate.

1518, January 3 - Cardinal Wolsey becomes Lord Chancellor of England under Henry VIII.

1519, January 22 - Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I dies, and his grandson Charles V becomes the new emperor.

1520, January 28 - The Diet of Worms begins in Germany, where Martin Luther defends his religious beliefs.

1521, January 9 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther from the Catholic Church.

1522, January 11 - The Treaty of Brussels is signed, ending the Anglo-French War of 1522–1526.

1523, January 6 - Christian II is crowned King of Denmark and Norway.

1524, January 22 - The French troops under King Francis I capture the city of Milan from the Holy Roman Empire.

1525, January 17 - The Swiss Confederation defeats the French at the Battle of Pavia during the Italian War of 1521–1526.

1526, January 26 - King Charles V's troops sack Rome, capturing Pope Clement VII.

1527, January 28 - The Anabaptist movement starts in Zurich, Switzerland, with the first adult baptism by Conrad Grebel.

1528, January 23 - England and France sign the Treaty of Westminster, establishing peace between the two nations.

1529, January 26 - The Spanish defeat the French at the Battle of Landriano during the War of the League of Cognac.

1530, January 3 - Cardinal Thomas Wolsey is arrested for high treason in England.

1531, January 5 - Pope Clement VII  forbids  Henry VIII from remarrying until his first marriage is resolved and forbidding the clergy in England from trying the case. More

 forbidding Henry from remarrying until his first marriage is resolved and forbidding the clergy in England from trying the case.

1531, January 21 - The Protestant city of Zürich declares independence from the Catholic cantons, leading to the First War of Kappel in Switzerland.

1532, January 26 - The English parliament bans payments to Rome, marking a step towards the English Reformation.

1533, January 25 - King Henry VIII of England secretly marries Anne Boleyn.

1534, January 6 - French explorer Jacques Cartier lands in Newfoundland, marking the beginning of French exploration in North America.

1535, January 10 - Henry VIII declares himself head of the Church in England, formally separating from the Roman Catholic Church.

1535, January 18 - The city of Lima, Peru, is founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on the central coast of Peru.  Founded on the then Julian Calendar's Catholic holiday of Epiphany, when the Three Kings visited the baby Jesus, and was therefore known as Ciudad de los Reyes or City of the Kings.

1536, January 25 - Henry VIII of England marries his third wife, Jane Seymour, following the execution of Anne Boleyn.

1537, January 14 - The first complete English-language Bible, the Matthew Bible, is printed.

1538, January 1 - King Francis I of France issues the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, making French the official language of legal documents.

1539, January 27 - Spain annexes Cuba.

1540, January 6 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves, a marriage that will be annulled after a few months.

1541, January 18 - Santiago, Chile, is founded by Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia.

1542, January  - King James V of Scotland dies, leaving his daughter Mary, Queen of Scots, as his heir.

1543, January 9 - England and Scotland sign the Treaty of Greenwich, aiming to unite the two kingdoms through the marriage of King Henry VIII's son, Edward, to Mary, Queen of Scots.

1544, January 12 - King Henry VIII of England leads an invasion of France during the Italian War of 1542–1546.

1545, January 10 - The Council of Trent reconvenes in Trento, Italy, to discuss reforms in response to the Protestant Reformation.

1546, January 18 - Protestant reformer Martin Luther dies in Eisleben, Germany.

1547, January 28 - King Henry VIII of England dies, and his nine-year-old son Edward VI succeeds him as king.

1548, January 7- The city of Nuestra Señora de La Paz (La Paz) is founded in Bolivia by Spanish conquistadors.

1549, January 22 - The execution of Thomas Seymour, brother of Jane Seymour and uncle of King Edward VI, takes place for treason.

1550, January 1 - The first version of the Gutenberg Bible is auctioned in London. More

1552, January 15 -  The German cities of Würzburg and Bamberg surrender to the forces of Albert Alcibiades, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.

1554, January 18 - A French army led by Henry II of France and the Duke of Guise capture the city of Siena, Italy, during the Italian War of 1551–1559.

1554. January 25 -  The City of São Paulo is founded in Brazil. The city’s name derives from its having been founded by Jesuit missionaries on the anniversary of the conversion of St. Paul.

1555, January 5 - The election of Pope Julius III takes place, succeeding Pope Paul IV.

1556, January 24 - The Shaanxi earthquake, believed to be the deadliest earthquake ever recorded, strikes China's Shaanxi and neighboring Shanxi province, killing or injuring and estimated 830,000 people. Although the quake lasted only seconds, it leveled mountains, altered the path of rivers, ignited fires that burned for days and caused massive flooding. More

1557, January 17 - England declares war on France during the Italian War of 1551–1559.

1558, January 7 - Calais, the last English possession on mainland France, falls to the French, ending English territorial claims in France.

1559, January 6 - The Council of Trent concludes its discussions on the Counter-Reformation.

1559, January 15 - Elizabeth I is crowned Queen of England. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn and succeeded to the throne on the death of her half-sister Mary I .1558. Elizabeth's 45-year reign is generally considered one of the most glorious in English history. During it, a secure Church of England was established. Its doctrines were laid down in the 39 Articles of 1563, a compromise between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. More

1560, January 20 - The Treaty of Berwick is signed, ending hostilities between England and Scotland.

1562, January 1 - The Edict of Saint-Germain is signed, granting French Protestants limited religious freedoms.

1563, January 2 - The Council of Trent concludes its meetings, marking the end of the Council's discussions on church reform.

1564, January 14 - The Council of Trent formally adopts the Tridentine Creed as the official doctrine of the Catholic Church.

1565, January 18 - Battle of Talikota in India sees the defeat of the Vijayanagara Empire by a coalition of Deccan Sultanates.

1566, January 5 - Antonio de Espinosa, Spanish viceroy of Peru, issues an ordinance banning foreign silver coins in the Americas.

1567, January 17 - The Battle of Rio de Janeiro takes place between the Portuguese and French, resulting in a Portuguese victory.

1568, January 18 - The Netherlands' Duke of Alva sets the penalty for treason at confiscation of property and death.

1569, January 4 - The Union of Lublin establishes the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, uniting the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

1570, January 1 - Tsar Ivan the Terrible suppresses a rebellion in Novgorod, Russia, executing thousands.

1571, January 22 - The Royal Exchange opens in London, designed by Sir Thomas Gresham as a center for commerce.

1572, January 23 - The stipulations of the 1571 Marriage Act in England are published, requiring approval from the Queen or Privy Council for marriages of nobles.

1573, January 13 - English astronomer Thomas Digges publishes a work promoting the Copernican system of astronomy.

1574, January 31 - Louis de Nogaret de La Valette becomes the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller after the death of Jean Parisot de Valette.

1575, January 6 - King Frederick II of Denmark establishes a Lutheran state church in Norway.

1576, January 1 - The Union of Arras is signed, reconciling the Catholic southern provinces of the Netherlands with King Philip II of Spain.

1577, January 4 - The Truce of Bergerac is signed, temporarily halting the French Wars of Religion.

1578, January 23 - The Battle of Gembloux sees Spanish forces defeat the rebel States Army during the Eighty Years' War.

1579, January 6 - The Union of Arras unites Catholic provinces in the southern Netherlands against the Calvinist Dutch Revolt.

1580, January 25 - The assassination of Henry I, Duke of Guise, takes place during the French Wars of Religion.

1581, January 23 - The States-General of the Netherlands declare independence from Spain with the Act of Abjuration.

1582, January 1 - The Gregorian calendar is adopted in Catholic countries, adjusting the calendar by 10 days to correct discrepancies.

1583, January 25 - Geneva expels Catholic residents, following the escalation of religious tensions.

1584, January 10 - Spain's King Philip II revokes William the Silent's amnesty, renewing hostilities in the Dutch Revolt.

1585, January 5 - The Treaty of Nonsuch is signed between England and the Dutch rebels, formalizing their alliance against Spain.

1586, January 6 - Sir Francis Drake takes the fort at Santo Domingo in the Caribbean, capturing it briefly.

1587, January 25 - Elizabeth I of England signs the death warrant for Mary, Queen of Scots, who is executed three days later.

1588, January 7 - A document detailing the Spanish Armada's preparations for invasion is discovered in Madrid.

1591, January 18 - King Naresuan of Siam kills the Crown Prince of Burma in single combat, leading to Siamese independence.

1600, January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1 as the start of the new year, aligning with the Gregorian calendar but only in part. More

1601, January 7 - The Long Parliament of England is convened, marking a significant period in English history.

1602, January 1 - The Dutch East India Company is chartered by the Netherlands government, beginning its trade dominance in Asia.

1603, January 7 - Queen Elizabeth I of England dies, and James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England, uniting the crowns.

1604, January 19 - Tsar Boris Godunov of Russia grants trading privileges to the English Muscovy Company.

1605, January 16 - Miguel de Cervantes’s masterpiece Don Quixote ("The Ingenious Nobleman Don Quixote of La Mancha")  is published. The second portion of the book was published in 1615. More
  
1605, January 25 - A document detailing the Gunpowder Plot is anonymously delivered to English authorities, leading to the plot's exposure.

1606, January 1 - The Union Flag, combining the flags of England and Scotland, is adopted for the first time.

1607, January 21 - San Agustin Church in Manila, the oldest stone church in the Philippines, is completed.

1608, January 4 - Fire destroys a significant portion of Edo (modern-day Tokyo), leading to the rebuilding of the city.

1609, January 5 - The publication of Galileo Galilei's "Sidereus Nuncius" announces the discovery of Jupiter's moons.

1610, January 14 - Galileo Galilei discovers Callisto, the fourth moon of Jupiter.

1611, January 7 - Johannes Fabricius observes sunspots through a telescope, contributing to early astronomy studies.

1612, January 5 - Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei observes Neptune but mistakes it for a fixed star.

1613, January 21- Michael Romanov is elected as the Tsar of Russia, founding the Romanov dynasty.

1614, January 4 - The University of Groningen is established in the Netherlands.

1615, January 7 - The New River, an artificial waterway supplying London with fresh water, is opened.

1616, January 15 - French explorer Samuel de Champlain discovers Lake Champlain in North America.

1617, January 16 - The Treaty of Stolbovo ends the Ingrian War between Sweden and Russia.

1618, January 23 -  The Thirty Years' War begins with the Defenestration of Prague, where Protestant officials are thrown from a window.

1619, January 1 - The first recorded African slaves arrive in North America at Jamestown, Virginia.

1620, January 21 - The Mayflower Compact is signed by Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower, establishing a self-governing colony in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

1621, January 1 - The Old Burying Ground, the oldest cemetery in North America, is established in Massachusetts.

1622, January 26 - The Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (later New York City) is incorporated.

1623, January 22 - William Shakespeare's "First Folio" is published, compiling his plays.

1624, January 19 - The first submarine is tested in London's River Thames by its inventor, Cornelius Drebbel.

1625, January 4 - England's King James I dies, and his son Charles I ascends to the throne.

1626, January 2 - The Dutch buy Manhattan Island from Native Americans for trinkets and tools, founding New Amsterdam.

1627,
January 6 - The Spanish galleon "Nuestra Señora de Atocha" sinks off the coast of Florida with a significant cargo of treasure.

1628, January 19 - The Petition of Right is accepted by England's King Charles I, limiting his power.

1629, January 26 - Charles I dissolves the English Parliament, initiating the period known as the Eleven Years' Tyranny.

1631, January 16 - The Treaty of Bärwalde is signed between Sweden and the Electorate of Brandenburg during the Thirty Years' War.

1632, January 23 - Galileo Galilei publishes "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems," defending the Copernican theory of heliocentrism.

1633, January 8 - The Dutch East India Company retakes the city of Quilon in India from the Portuguese.

1634, January 27 - The first recorded sighting of Maryland is made by English settlers.

1635, January 16 - France establishes the Académie Française, a council for matters related to the French language and literature.

1636, January 16 - The Papal States release Galileo Galilei from house arrest after his trial for heresy.

1637, January 24 - The Dutch attempt to capture the Portuguese fort at Elmina in West Africa but fail.

1638, January 2 - The Scottish National Covenant is signed in Edinburgh, opposing religious reforms imposed by King Charles I of England.

1639, January 14 - The Puritan political leaders in Connecticut, representing the populations of Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield, approved and adopt a set of written laws agreed upon by the colonists, known as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut  which stated the powers and limits of government. This document became the first complete, written constitution in the history of the world.

1639, January 28 - The Treaty of Madras is signed between the English East India Company and the Maratha Empire.

1640, January 13 - Cardinal Richelieu lays the foundation stone for the Church of the Sorbonne in Paris.

1641, January 3 - The United East India Company (VOC) conquers Malacca from the Portuguese.

1642, January 4 - King Charles I of England attempts to arrest five members of the Parliament, leading to tension between the king and parliamentarians.

1643, January 24 - Abel Tasman's expedition reaches Tongatapu, the main island of Tonga.

1644, January 20 - The Ming dynasty in China falls as Beijing is captured by Li Zicheng's rebel forces.

1645, January 9 - Archbishop William Laud is executed in London for high treason during the English Civil War.

1646, January 12 - The Royalist stronghold of Bolesworth Castle surrenders to the Parliamentarians during the English Civil War.

1647, January 30 - King Charles I is handed over to the English Parliamentarians by the Scots, marking a pivotal moment in the English Civil War.

1648, January 25 - The Thirty Years' War ends with the Treaty of Westphalia which changed the map of Europe irrevocably. The peace was negotiated, from 1644, in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück. The Spanish-Dutch Peace of Münster treaty was signed on January 30, 1648. 

1649, January 30 - King Charles I of England is executed by beheading after being found guilty of treason. Thousands had perished during the seven years of fighting between Charles’ supporters and Oliver Cromwell’s Parliamentarians and finally the life of the King himself. #gs.4c0dnr">More

1651, January 20 - Charles II of England is crowned king of Scotland at Scone.

1652, January 3 - The Dutch East India Company's forces defeat the Portuguese at the Battle of Colombo in Sri Lanka.

1653, January 20 - Oliver Cromwell dissolves the English Parliament, leading to the establishment of the Protectorate.

1654, January 23 - The Dutch surrender Recife, Brazil, to the Portuguese after an unsuccessful attempt to regain control.

1655, January 1 - The Bishop's War between England and Scotland ends with the Treaty of Edinburgh.

1656, January 4 - The Portuguese defeat the Dutch at the Battle of São Jorge da Mina, leading to the recapture of Elmina Castle in West Africa.

1657, January 30 - The English Parliament passes the Humble Petition and Advice, seeking to reinstate a monarchy under Oliver Cromwell.

1658, January 9 - Swedish troops under Charles X Gustav invade Denmark during the Dano-Swedish War.

1659, January 19 - The Treaty of the Pyrenees is signed between France and Spain, ending the Franco-Spanish War.

1661, January 1 - Samuel Pepys completes his famous manuscript of "Diary of Samuel Pepys," documenting daily life in London which he had started a year before.

1662, January 18 - The first portrait of a reigning monarch, King Charles II of England, is painted by Sir Peter Lely.

1663, January 29 - The Ottoman Empire agrees to the Peace of Vasvar with Austria and Holy Roman Empire, ending the Fifteen Years' War.

1664, January 9 - England's King Charles II grants a trading charter to the Royal African Company to facilitate the Atlantic slave trade.

1665, January 30 - The colonial territory of New Jersey is established.

1666, January 7 - The first edition of French newspaper "Mercure Galant" is published in Paris.

1667, January 21 - The Treaty of Andrusovo ends the Russo-Polish War and establishes the Truce of Andrusovo between Russia and Poland.

1668, January 20 - England, the Dutch Republic, and Sweden sign the Triple Alliance against France.

1669, January 26 - The island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic is named after Saint Helena by the English East India Company.

1670, January 15 - Henry Morgan, a Welsh pirate, attacks Panama City, Panama, looting and causing destruction.

1671, January 1 - Pirate Henry Morgan is knighted by England's King Charles II for protecting Jamaica from French attacks.

1672, January 19 - France declares war on the Dutch Republic, initiating the Franco-Dutch War.

1673, January 31 - France's King Louis XIV suspends the Edict of Nantes, revoking the religious rights of Huguenots.

1674, January 4 - The Treaty of Westminster ends England's involvement in the Franco-Dutch War.

1675, January 30 - The Royal Greenwich Observatory in London is established by King Charles II.

1676, January 14 - King Charles II disbands the English Parliament due to conflicts over foreign policy and taxation.

1677, January 24 - King Charles II ratifies the Treaty of Middle Plantation, guaranteeing peace between the Virginia colonists and Native American tribes.

1678, January 30 - The Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Franco-Dutch War, resulting in territorial changes and peace in Europe.

1679, January 30 - King Charles II calls the English Parliament to session after a prolonged period of dissolution.

1680, January 4 - A great comet appears in the night sky, visible in the Americas, Europe, and Asia.

1681, January 28 - English Quaker William Penn receives a land grant from King Charles II, founding Pennsylvania.

1682, January 6 - Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the French minister of finance, creates the Académie Royale d'Architecture.

1683, January 31 - The Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England, the world's first university museum, opens to the public.

1684, January 8 - King Charles II grants a charter to the Massachusetts Bay Colony, reaffirming its rights.

1685, January 31 - King Charles II of England dies, and James II ascends to the throne.

1686, January 28 - The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb reopens the Hindu temple at Kashi Vishwanath in Varanasi, India.

1687, January 5 - Isaac Newton's "Principia Mathematica" is published, outlining the laws of motion and universal gravitation.

1688, January 11 - England's Glorious Revolution begins as William of Orange lands at Torbay to overthrow King James II.

1689, January 16 - The Convention Parliament declares that James II has abdicated the throne, leading to the crowning of William III and Mary II.

1690, January 26 - The Iroquois League signs the Treaty of Lachine, ending hostilities with the New France government.

1691, January 7 - The Williamite War in Ireland concludes with the Treaty of Limerick, granting religious freedom to Catholics under certain conditions.

1692, January 13 - The Massacre of Glencoe occurs in Scotland when government troops slaughter the MacDonald clan.

1693, January 26 - Mount Etna in Sicily erupts, causing significant destruction to nearby towns.

1694, January 25 - The Bank of England is chartered by the English Parliament, becoming the first national bank in the world.

1695, January 1 - The window tax, a property tax based on the number of windows in a house, is imposed in England.

1696, January 16 - The Bank of Scotland is established by an Act of the Scottish Parliament.

1697, January 26 - The Treaty of Ryswick ends the Nine Years' War (War of the Grand Alliance) between France and the Grand Alliance.

1698, January 16: Russia's Peter the Great imposes a tax on beards as part of his efforts to modernize the country.

1699, January 1 - A treaty is signed between Denmark and the Tsardom of Russia, ending the Russo-Swedish War.

1700, January 30 - Sweden introduces the Julian calendar, shifting from the old-style calendar to the Gregorian calendar.

1701, January 30 - Frederick I of Prussia crowns himself as King in Prussia.

1702, January 15 - The Palace of Versailles in France catches fire, causing substantial damage to the building.

1703, January 2 - Tsar Peter the Great founds Saint Petersburg, Russia, as the new Russian capital.

1704, January 24 - The Battle of Ayubale establishes Russian dominance in the Caucasus, securing territories.

1705, January 6 - The Spanish ship San Jose y las Animas sinks off the coast of Florida, becoming a subject of treasure hunting.

1707, January 16 - The Acts of Union between England and Scotland are ratified, forming the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1708, January 15 - James Francis Edward Stuart, known as the Old Pretender, declares himself King of England and Scotland.

1709, January 26 - The Great Northern War sees Swedish forces defeat a Russian army at the Battle of Poltava.

1710, January 6 - The first copyright legislation is enacted in Great Britain, known as the Statute of Anne.

1711, January 17 - The Ottoman Empire declares war on Venice, initiating the Ottoman-Venetian War.

1712, January 5 - The Duke of Marlborough is dismissed from his command by Queen Anne during the War of the Spanish Succession.

1713, January 11 - A peace conference begins in Utrecht, aiming to end the War of the Spanish Succession.

1714, January 22 - The German mathematician and physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury thermometer.

1715, January 17 - The Boston Riot of 1715 erupts in Boston, Massachusetts, protesting taxation without representation.

1716, January 6 - The Battle of Rio de Janeiro sees Portuguese forces repel a French attack during the War of the Spanish Succession.

1717, January 24 - The first Freemasons' Grand Lodge is founded in London, establishing modern Freemasonry.

1718, January 28 - France declares war on Spain, escalating the War of the Quadruple Alliance.

1719, January 25 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire.

1720, January 23 - The South Sea Bubble bursts, leading to a financial crisis in England and affecting the stock market.

1721, January 22 - Peter the Great of Russia establishes the city of Saint Petersburg as the new capital.

1722, January 15 - Czar Peter the Great begins a military campaign in Persia, capturing the Persian capital of Isfahan.

1723, January 28 - Christopher Wren, the English architect who designed St. Paul's Cathedral in London, dies at the age of 90.

1724, January 11 - Royal astronomer Edmond Halley presents his paper on the periodicity of his namesake comet to the Royal Society.

1725, January 14 - Alexander Selkirk, the inspiration for Daniel Defoe's "Robinson Crusoe," is rescued after being marooned on an island for four years.

1726, January 28 - The Grafton Estate in Virginia is established by the colonial governor, Sir William Gooch.

1727, January 28 - Sir Isaac Newton, renowned mathematician, physicist, and astronomer, dies in London at the age of 84.

1728, January 16 - The Chinese Emperor Yongzheng bans Christian missions in China.

1729, January 7 - Johann Beringer, a German scholar, discovers the controversial "Lügensteine" or "lying stones," later
revealed as a hoax.

1730, January 29 - The "Baltimore News-Letter," the first newspaper in the American colonies, is published.

1731, January 17 - Benjamin Franklin opens the first library in the United States in Philadelphia.

1732, January 7 - The Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, opens in London.

1733, January 12 - James Oglethorpe and 130 English colonists arrive at Charleston, South Carolina, establishing the colony of Georgia.

1734, January 29 - A fire destroys the Palace of Whitehall in London.

1739, January 15 - The British East India Company captures the city of Madras in India from the French.

1740, January 30 - Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, French philosopher, publishes "The Spirit of the Laws."

1741, January 16 - The city of Milan surrenders to Austrian forces during the War of the Austrian Succession.

1742, January 12 - Astronomer Edmond Halley observes the comet that bears his name.

1743, January 23 - The French defeat the Austrians at the Battle of Campo Santo during the War of the Austrian Succession.

1744, January 24 - Charles Edward Stuart, known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, arrives in France after his defeat in the Jacobite Rising.

1745, January 17 - The city of Prague surrenders to the Prussian army during the War of the Austrian Succession.

1746, January 31 - Bonnie Prince Charlie's Jacobite forces defeat government troops at the Battle of Falkirk Muir in Scotland.

1747, January 8 - The Austrian army secures a victory against the French at the Battle of Bergen in the Netherlands.

1748, January 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession, restoring territorial boundaries.

1750, January 30 - The publication of "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society" features Benjamin Franklin's account of his kite experiment to study electricity.

1751, January 1 - Sweden adopts the Gregorian calendar, moving from the Julian calendar.

1752, January 17 - The first hospital in the United States, the Pennsylvania Hospital, is founded in Philadelphia.

1753, January 11 - The first American professional librarian, Louis Timothee, is hired in Philadelphia.

1754, January 5 - Columbia University in New York City holds its first classes.

1755, January 9 - The British Museum opens its doors to the public in Montagu House, London.

1756, January 16 - The Treaty of Westminster between France and Great Britain marks the start of the Seven Years' War.

1758, January 9 - Charles Edward Stuart, known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, flees to France following his failed Jacobite Rising in Scotland.

1759, January 8 - George Washington marries Martha Dandridge Custis in Virginia.

1759, January 15 - The British Museum, established in 1753, opens to the public. The Elgin Marbles and the Rosetta Stone are among its world-renowned antiquities and archaeological holdings.

1760, January 5 - Afghani ruler Ahmad Shah Durrani defeats the Marathas in the Battle of Barari Ghat, consolidating power in India.

1761, January 22 - The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, the first African-American denomination in the United States, is founded in New York City.

1762, January 5 - Catherine the Great becomes Empress of Russia after a coup that deposes her husband, Peter III.

1763, January 10 - The Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Years' War, redistributing territories and marking significant colonial changes.

1764, January 14 - The English Parliament passes the American Revenue Act, which initiates the taxation of the American colonies.

1765, January 17 - The Leiden University Library, one of the oldest in the Netherlands, burns down with over 100,000 books lost.

1766, January 29 - The British Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, a major concession to the American colonies.

1768, January 17 - English explorer Captain James Cook anchors at Botany Bay in Australia during his first voyage.

1769, January 19 - The first institution dedicated to the study of volcanoes, the Osservatorio Vesuviano, is established in Naples, Italy.

1770, January 18 - The first shipment of rhubarb from the American colonies arrives in London.

1771, January 28 - The Spanish mission San Gabriel Arcángel is founded in California, becoming one of the oldest Catholic missions.

1772, January 5 - The first traveler's cheques are issued by the London Credit Exchange Company.

1773, January 6 - The Royal Colony of North Carolina issues a legislative act offering £1,000 for the capture of pirate Blackbeard.

1774, January 11 - The first session of the Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia.

1775, January 19 - The American Continental Army is established by the Continental Congress, with George Washington appointed as its commander-in-chief.

1776, January 10 - Thomas Paine publishes "Common Sense," advocating American independence from Britain. More

1777, January 2 - American forces defeat the British at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek in the American Revolutionary War.

1777, January 15 - Vermont declares independence from the British crown and from the Colony of New York. They called the territory New Connecticut but when they met in June to write a constitution, they changed the name to Vermont, loosely  based on the French term for “green mountain,” or “ montagne verte.” Vermont became the 14th State  when it was admitted into the Union on on March 4 1791. More 

1778, January 18 - English Captain James Cook, traveling aboard the 100-foot flagship HMS Resolution and its 90-foot companion HMS Discovery. sights O‘ahu and two days later steps ashore at Waimea on Kaua‘i, becoming the first European to travel to the Hawaiian Islands. After a short stay Capitan Cook went on to explore the west coast of North America, to continue his search for the Northwest Passage. A year later, he returned to Hawaii where he was killed by the Hawaiian natives at Kealakekua Bay on February 14, 1779 after he attempted to kidnap Kalaniʻōpuʻu, the ruling chief (aliʻi nui) of the island and hold him in exchange for the return of a small stolen cutter. A fatal error that led to his death. Cook's arrival in Hawaii eventually led to large migrations of Europeans and Americans to the islands resulting a century later in 1893, in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii by pro-American elements. More

1778, January 27 - The first state constitution of Georgia is adopted.

1779, January 16 - Spain declares war on Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War.

1780, January 17 - American forces win the Battle of Cowpens in South Carolina during the American Revolutionary War.

1781, January 17 - American forces under Daniel Morgan defeat the British at the Battle of Cowpens in South Carolina during the American Revolutionary War.

1782,
January 20 - The Siege of Gibraltar ends with the lifting of the Spanish and French blockade.

1783, January 14 - The signing of the Treaty of Paris formally ends the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States.

1784, January 14 -  The Continental Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris on January 14, 1784, officially establishing the United States as an independent and sovereign nation. The treaty, signed in Paris on September 3, 1783, required Congress to return the ratified document to England within six months. More

1785, January 7 - French balloonist Jean-Pierre Blanchard and American John Jeffries make the first aerial crossing of the English Channel in a hydrogen balloon. More

1786, January 9 - The first successful balloon flight in America takes place in Philadelphia, piloted by Jean-Pierre Blanchard.

1787, January 6 - The Ordinance of 1787 is passed, establishing the Northwest Territory and laying the groundwork for the eventual creation of new states.

1788, January 2 - Georgia becomes the fourth  State of the Union.

1788, January 26 - The British colony of New South Wales is established as a penal colony. Led by Governor Arthur Phillip, the first settlement, at Sydney, consisted of about 850 convicts and their Marine guards and officers. The early years were increasingly difficult ones as the colony struggled to establish and be able to feed. By 1792, the first signs of stability were appearing but Governor Phillip, weakened by illness and the deprivations of those years, returned to England, leaving the colony in the hands of military Lieutenant-Governors. January 26 is now celebrated nationally as "Australia Day". Many Aboriginal Australians refer to it as "Invasion Day" More

1789, January 9 -  Connecticut becomes the fifth State of the Union.

1788, January 26 - The First Fleet, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrives at Port Jackson, Australia, establishing the first European settlement.

1789, January 7 - The first U.S. presidential election is held, resulting in George Washington's unanimous election as the nation's first president.

1790, January 8 - George Washington delivers the first State of the Union Address in New York City.

1791, January 27 - The British Parliament passes the Constitutional Act, dividing Canada into Upper Canada and Lower Canada.

1792, January 21 - The French National Convention declares King Louis XVI guilty of treason, leading to his execution.

1793, January 21 - King Louis XVI of France is executed by guillotine during the French Revolution after voting unanimously to find the King guilty.  For the first time in a thousand years, the French people were not ruled by a monarch. More

1794, January 14 - Dr. Jesús H. García discovers the healing powers of the "Niagara" medicinal spring in Colombia.

1795, January 19 - The Batavian Republic, a French client state, is established in the Netherlands.

1796, January 11 - John Jay, on behalf of the United States, signs the Jay Treaty with Great Britain, easing tensions between the two countries.

1797, January 15 - The first top hat is worn in public by John Etherington in London, England.

1798, January 22 - The French Revolutionary Wars see the British fleet under Admiral Horatio Nelson defeat the French fleet off the Egyptian coast at the Battle of the Nile.

1799, January 1 - The income tax is introduced in Britain to finance the Napoleonic Wars.

1800, January 1 - The Dutch East India Company is dissolved by the Netherlands government.

1801, January 1 - The Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland comes into effect, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

1802, January 25 - The Treaty of Amiens is signed, temporarily ending hostilities between France and the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.

1803, January 18 - Thomas Jefferson secretly commissions Meriwether Lewis to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Territory.

1804, January 1 - Haiti gains independence from France, becoming the first independent black-led nation in the Western Hemisphere.

1805, January 22 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition reaches the Pacific Ocean, completing their journey across the American continent.

1806, January 23 - The Pall Mall Gazette becomes the first London newspaper to be published daily.

1807, January 1 - The importation of slaves into the United States is banned by an act of Congress, taking effect in 1808.

1808, January 27 - The Rum Rebellion in Australia sees Governor William Bligh deposed by the New South Wales Corps.

1809, January 19 - Edgar Allan Poe, American author and poet, is born in Boston, Massachusetts.

1810, January 20 - The Argentine Primera Junta is established, marking the beginning of Argentina's independence from Spain.

1811, January 12 - An earthquake in the Midwest, known as the New Madrid earthquake, shakes the central United States.

1812, January 19 - Peninsular War: French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte storm the city of Valencia, Spain.

1813, January 8 - The Creek War ends with the signing of the Treaty of Fort Jackson, ceding Creek territory to the United States.

1814, January 14 - Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden, following the Treaty of Kiel between Sweden and Denmark-Norway.

1815, January 8 - American forces, led by General Andrew Jackson, defeat the British in the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812.

1816, January 1 - The Bank of America opens its doors in New York City.

1817, January 27 - Argentine General José de San Martín begins his crossing of the Andes during the South American Wars of Independence.

1818, January 28 - The British explorer and navigator John Ross reaches the North Magnetic Pole.

1819, January 15 - Simon Bolivar, the South American revolutionary, proclaims the Republic of Colombia.

1820, January 8 - Britain's King George III dies, and his son, King George IV, ascends to the throne.

1821, January 25 - The Mexican War of Independence concludes with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba, recognizing Mexican independence from Spain.

1822, January 8 - The Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire begins with an uprising in the Peloponnese.

1823, January 2 - Stephen F. Austin receives a grant of land in Texas from Mexico, initiating American colonization.

1824, January 26 - Peru defeats Spain in the Battle of Ayacucho, effectively securing South American independence.

1825, January 10 - The first freight train is introduced in the United States, operating in Quincy, Massachusetts.

1826, January 22 - The Treaty of Yandabo is signed, ending the First Anglo-Burmese War and ceding Assam, Manipur, and Arakan to Britain.

1827, January 27 - Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 8 in F Major premieres in Vienna, Austria.

1828, January 30 - The London Metropolitan Police, led by Sir Robert Peel, begins operating at Scotland Yard.

1829, January 8 - Frenchman Louis Braille publishes his system of raised dots for blind readers.

1830, January 14 - The Great Fire of New Orleans destroys over 200 buildings in the city.

1831, January 1 - William Lloyd Garrison publishes the first edition of the abolitionist newspaper, "The Liberator."

1832, January 26 - The Kingdom of Poland adopts a constitution, granting limited freedoms.

1833, January 1 - The United Kingdom abolishes slavery in its colonies, leading to the gradual emancipation of slaves.

1834, January 1 - The United States Congress approves a plan to dismantle Native American tribes' governments and relocate them west of the Mississippi River.

1835, January 8 - The United States national debt is zero for the first and only time in its history.

1836, January 5 - Davy Crockett arrives in Texas, joining the fight for independence from Mexico.

1837, January 30 - Michigan becomes the 26th state of the United States.

1838, January 11 - Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail demonstrate their telegraph system publicly for the first time at the Speedwell Iron Works in Morristown, New Jersey, by sending a telegram across two miles of wire. Morse continued to improve the system as well as invented the Morse Code while trying to get financial backing. It wasn't until  four years later, on March 1843, that Congress, awarded him $30,00 to construct an experimental telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore, a distance of 44 miles. In May 24, 1844 the now famous message "WHAT HATH GOD WROUGHT" was sent over those lines from the Capitol in Washington to the old Mt. Clare Depot in Baltimore marking the beginning of a new era of faster communications. More 

1839, January 25 - The British East India Company captures Aden, establishing a strategic foothold in Yemen.

1840, January 9 - Upper Canada and Lower Canada are merged into the Province of Canada by an Act of Union.

1840. January 19 - The United States Naval officer, Lt. Charles Wilkes, exploring expedition of the South Seas reaches the Antarctic continent. The six U.S. Navy vessels  under Wilkes command had set out in 1838 on a great voyage of exploration with several hundred seamen and scientists to explore and map the Pacific, Antarctica, and the northwest coast of the United States. Lt. Charles Wilkes' tremendous feat of navigation during his 4 year expedition helped broadened the knowledge of uncharted areas of the world and to expand American scientific knowledge, commerce, industry, and world standing. Wilkes is credited with proving the existence of Antarctica as a land continent, a vital contribution to world geography. More

1840, January 22 -  The first group of European settlers arrive at Petone aboard the ship the Aurora, to found the settlement that would become Wellington, named after Named for the first Duke of Wellington. By July of 1840 there were over 1000 settlers in New Zeeland .On May 21 1840, Lieutenant-Governor William Hobson proclaimed British sovereignty over all of New Zealand even though copies of the treaty were still circulating throughout the country for  the Māori to sign.

1841, January 4 - China cedes the Island of Honk Kong to the British as a result of the First Opium War. The treaty was followed in 1898 by a 99-year lease in 1898 that allowed Britain to control even more land. The lease ran out in 1997.

1842, January 29 - The Treaty of Nanking is signed, ending the First Opium War between Britain and China.

1843, January 4 - Richard Wagner's opera "Der fliegende Holländer" premieres in Dresden, Germany.

1844, January 13 - The University of Notre Dame is founded in Indiana, United States.

1845, January 3 - Texas is admitted as the 28th state of the United States.

1846, January 13 - The United States Congress establishes the Smithsonian Institution.

1847, January 26 - The Battle of the Sacramento River takes place during the Mexican-American War.

1848, January 24 - Gold is discovered at Sutter's Mill in California by James W. Marshall as he sees shining flecks of gold in the tailrace of the sawmill he was building in partnership with John Sutter. This discovery unleashed the California Gold Rush changing the course of California's and the nation's history. More

1849, January 23 - Elizabeth Blackwell becomes the first woman in the United States to earn a medical degree.

1850, January 29 - Henry Clay presents the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Senate in an attempt to prevent a civil war over slavery.

1851, January 29 - The British East India Company conquers the Kingdom of Punjab.

1852, January 27 - The United Kingdom recognizes the independence of the Transvaal (South African Republic).

1853,  January 4 -  Solomon Northrup, who was born a free person of color in what is now Minerva, New York, legally regains his freedom after being kidnapped, sold into slavery and spending 12 years as a slave. Northrup was a farmer, laborer, and musician.  He later wrote about his experiences in "Twelve Years a Slave"  More  

1853, January 4 - The first private mental health hospital in the United States, the Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of Their Reason, opens in Philadelphia.

1854, January 23 - The San Francisco steamer sinks in the Pacific Ocean, resulting in a significant loss of life.

1855, January 23 - The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, Minnesota.

1855, January 31 -  Treaty of Neah Bay: Makah Reservation established in US Territory of Washington for Makah nation, preserving tribal rights but ceding over 300,000 acres to the US government  More

1856, January 28 - The Victoria Cross, the highest British military decoration, is established.

1857, January 10 - The Great Eastern ship is launched in England, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel.

1858, January 11 - The Wedding March by Felix Mendelssohn is played for the first time at a wedding in Germany.

1859, January 1 - The French conquest of Cochinchina (Vietnam) begins.

1860, January 10 - The Pemberton Mill in Lawrence, Massachusetts, collapses, resulting in the death of over 145 workers.

1861, January 9 - Mississippi becomes the second state to secede from the Union before the American Civil War.

1861, January 29 - Kansas is admitted into the Union, becoming the 34th State  

1863, January 1 - The Emancipation Proclamation by President Abraham Lincoln goes into effect, freeing slaves in Confederate-held territories. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." More

1863, January 1 - The first claim under the Homestead Act is made by Daniel Freeman for a farm in Nebraska.

1864, January 17 - General William T. Sherman begins his march through the Carolinas during the American Civil War.

1865, January 31 - The United States Congress passes the 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery and sends it to the States for ratification. The amendment passed 119 to 56, barely above the required two-thirds majority. Ratification from the States was received on December 1865, ending the institution of slavery in the U.S. with a final constitutional solution. More

1866, January 1  The Royal Aeronautical Society is formed in London, becoming the world's oldest aeronautical society.

1867, January 30 - The United States buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million, known as the Alaska Purchase.

1868, January 1 - The Shogunate in Japan is abolished, marking the beginning of the Meiji Restoration.

1869, January 1 - The construction of the Brooklyn Bridge in New York City begins.

1870, January 1 - Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge begins.

1870, January 23 - The Bear River Massacre (also known as the Marias Massacre or the Baker Massacre) was the largest massacre of Indigenous people in present-day Montana. Over 150 Blackfeet—most of whom were women, children, the elderly, and those suffering from disease—were massacred by U.S. Second Cavalry soldiers under the command of Major Eugene Baker  near the Marias River. More 

1871, January 18 - Wilhelm I is proclaimed the first German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. Following the surrender by the French army in Sedan and the  south German states, except for Austria, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein, joined the North German Confederation  and recognized the Prussian King as the German Emperor More

1873, January 9 - French poet Arthur Rimbaud decides to stop writing at the age of 18.

1874, January 1 - New York City annexes the Bronx, increasing the city's land area by about a third.

1875, January 23 - The first electric dental drill is patented by George F. Green in Kalamazoo, Michigan.

1876, January 8 - Alexander Graham Bell receives a patent for the telephone.

1877, January 10 - Crazy Horse and his warriors fight their last battle against the U.S. Cavalry at Wolf Mountain, Montana. More

1878, January 22 - The world's first telephone directory is issued, by the New Haven District Telephone Company in Connecticut.

1879, January 1 - Thomas Edison demonstrates incandescent lighting to the public for the first time.

1879, January 11 - The Anglo - Zulu war begins when British troops invade Zululand from the southern African republic of Natal after Zululand King Cetshwayo refuses the British demands for him to disband his army or join a federation of British colonies and Boer Republics. The Zulus proved to be formidable opponents but could not overcome the technological advantage the British and were eventually defeated after a series of particularly bloody battles which lasted eight months. It wasn't until 1887 that Zululand was declared British territory and finally annexed to Natal ten years later. More

1880, January 10 - The Salvation Army begins operations in the United States.

1881, January 20 - -The United States Senate ratifies the Treaty of Paris, officially ending the Spanish-American War.

1882, January 1 - John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Trust is formed.

1883, January 4 - The Philippines formally becomes a Spanish colony.

1884, January 11 - Supreme Court rules that Native Americans cannot be barred from voting in the U.S.

1885, January 27 - The first successful appendectomy is performed by Dr. William Grant in Iowa.

1886, January 29 - Karl Benz patents the first successful gasoline-driven automobile.

1887, January 9 - Record Snow and cold hit the Northern Plains. The winter of 1886–1887, also known as the Big Die-Up, was extremely harsh for much of continental North America, especially the northern plains of the United States where the cattle industry was decimated. The cattle, already weak from lack of forage from the previous dry summer became weaker as they trudged through the deepening snow in search for food. Hundreds of thousands of cattle are said to have died, Montana ranchers alone lost an estimated 362,000 head of cattle, more than half the territory's herd. The disaster led  to a major reorganization of ranching and ending the open range era. More

1888, January 12 - One of the deadliest winter storms hits the upper Midwest. The blizzard with an epicenter in present-day South Dakota caused the deaths of hundreds of people, including 213 children who never made it home from their one-room schoolhouses and became known as the “Children’s Blizzard”. The frigid temperatures were a nationwide phenomenon. Sub-zero temperatures reached all the way to Texas and Georgia, people could ice skate in San Francisco, and water mains froze in Los Angeles. More

1888, January 14 - The National Geographic Society is founded in Washington, D.C.

1889, January 22 - Columbia Phonograph is formed in Washington, D.C., later merging with Edison's company to form Columbia Records.

1890, January 2 - Alice Sanger becomes the first female White House staffer.

1891, January 1 - The British South Africa Company is chartered, marking the start of British colonization in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia).

1892, January 19 - The first official basketball game is played at the YMCA gymnasium in Springfield, Massachusetts.

1893, January 4 - The Independent Labour Party of the UK holds its first meeting.

1893, January 17 - The Kingdom of Hawaii is overthrown by a group which called themselves the Committee of Safety, staged a coup d'état against Queen Liliuokalani and her government. The group composed of 13 Caucasian businessmen and lawyers, six citizens of the Kingdom and seven foreign residents of Hawaii (five Americans, one Scotsman, and one German). Their ultimate goal was annexation to the United States. However it took five years until that goal was achieved. More

1894, January 1 - The Manchester Ship Canal in England opens to traffic, becoming the largest navigation canal in the world.

1895, January 4 - Dreyfus Affair: French army officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island.

1896, January 4 - Utah is admitted into the Union, becomingthe 45th U.S. state.

1897, January 6 - The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty is founded in England.

1898, January 25 - The United States battleship Maine is commissioned.

1899, January 13 - The Spanish-American War ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, ceding Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States.

1900, January 8 - -U.S. President William McKinley places Alaska under military rule.

1901, January 1 - The Commonwealth of Australia is established by the Federation of six colonies.

1901, January 10 - The Lucas Gusher at Spindletop, just south of Beaumont, Texas, blew a stream of oil over 100 feet high until it was capped nine days later and flowed an estimated 100,000 barrels a day. It was found at a depth of 1,139 feet and it herald the beginning of the American Oil era. While some made fortunes, others lost everything. More

1902, January 4 - The first American college football bowl game, the Rose Bowl, is held in Pasadena, California.

1903, January 1 - Edward VII is proclaimed King after the death of Queen Victoria in the United Kingdom.

1904, January 16 - The first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America is held at Madison Square Garden, New York City.

1905, January 9 - The Russian Revolution of 1905 begins as a peaceful protest by Russian workers in St. Petersburg turns violent.

1905, January 25 - The Cullinan Diamond, the largest diamond ever found is discovered near Pretoria in modern-day South Africa. It was named after the chairman of the mining company, Thomas Cullinan. In its uncut state, it weighed 3,106 metric carats with a size of 10.1 x 6.35 x 5.9 cm. with extraordinary blue-white color and exceptional clarity. The rough stone was gifted to King Edward VII in 1907  and cut into nine major diamonds named Cullinan I through IX, ranked from largest to smallest.   More

1906, January 10 - The British SS Valencia runs aground off Vancouver Island, resulting in over 100 deaths.

1907, January 18 - The Short Magazine Lee-Enfield rifle (SMLE) becomes the official service rifle of the British Army.

1908, January 11 - U.S, President Theodore Roosevelt declares the Grand Canyon in Arizona a National Monument after having it established it as a Game Preserve by Proclamation in 1906. Theodore Roosevelt,  protected approximately 230 million acres of public land during his presidency. More

1908, January 21 - New York City passes the Sullivan Ordinance, prohibiting women from smoking in public establishments.

1909, January 7 - Ernest Shackleton's expedition reaches the magnetic South Pole.

1910, January 20 - The first public radio broadcast takes place in the United States, a live performance from the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City.

1911, January 11 - The first landing of an aircraft on a ship occurs as Eugene Ely lands a Curtiss Pusher biplane on the USS Pennsylvania in San Francisco Bay.

1912, January 6 - New Mexico is admitted into the Union, becoming the 47th U.S. state.

1912, January 18 - British explorer Robert Falcon Scott and four members of his expedition reached the South Pole, only to discover that Norwegian explorer Roald Engelbregt Amundsen had reached the South Pole a month earlier. Scott and his men died when trying to return to their base camp.

1913, January 12 - The Mona Lisa is recovered in Florence after being stolen from the Louvre Museum in Paris in 1911.

1914, January 16 - The first telephone line across the Atlantic Ocean is established between New York and London.

1915, January 13 - An earthquake in Avezzano, Italy, kills over 29,000 people.

1915, January 28 - A German cruiser sinks first American merchant ship, the William P. Frye, off the coast of Brazil. More

1915, January 28 - The U.S. Congress  creates the Coast Guard by combining the Revenue Cutter Service was merged with the U.S. Life-Saving Service, and was officially renamed the Coast Guard. In 1939, the Lighthouse Service was folded in and the Commerce Department's Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation was added to the USCG in 1946. More

1916, January 10 - The Professional Golfers' Association of America (PGA) is established in New York City.

1917, January 22 - President Woodrow Wilson pleads for "peace without victory" in World War I.

1918, January 8 - United States President Woodrow Wilson outlines his "Fourteen Points" for peace after World War I.

1919, January 16: The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, prohibiting the sale, manufacture, or transportation of intoxicating liquors, is ratified. More

1919, January 18 - The Paris Peace Conference convenes at Versailles just outside Paris. The conference was called to establish the terms of the peace after World War I. More

1920, January 10 - The League of Nations officially comes into existence holding its first council meeting in Paris. On November 15, 1920, 41 members states, representing more than 70% of the world’s population, gathered in Geneva for the opening of the first session of the Assembly. More

1921, January 10 - The Irish War of Independence begins as Irish guerrillas attack and burn down the Custom House in Dublin.

1922, January 3 - Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann (Irish Republic).

1923, January 3 - British archaeologist Howard Carter unseals the burial chamber of Pharaoh Tutankhamun in Egypt's Valley of the Kings.

1923, January 10 - U.S. President Harding issues an executive order halting U.S. occupation of the Rhine allowing the return of the final contingent of American troops to return home, more than four years after the end of World War I. More

1924, January 21 - Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin dies, leading to a power struggle in the Soviet Union.

1925, January 26: The world's first motor race at 300 km/h is won by Malcolm Campbell in a Sunbeam at Pendine Sands, Wales.

1926, January 28 - The first demonstration of television by John Logie Baird takes place in London.

1927, January 20 - The first transatlantic telephone service is established between New York and London.

1928, January 10 - The Soviet Union orders the exile of Leon Trotsky.

1929, January 3 - The Soviet Union announces the collectivization of agriculture, leading to significant upheaval in rural areas.

1930, January 4 - British India arrests Mohandas Gandhi in Bombay for organizing resistance against British rule.

1931, January 7 - The Second Italo-Ethiopian War begins as Italy invades Ethiopia.

1932, January 12 - Hattie Ophelia Wyatt Caraway becomes first woman elected to U.S. Senate when she defeated two male opponents in a special race in Arkansas. More

1932, January 23 - Franklin D. Roosevelt institutes the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to aid the struggling U.S. economy during the Great Depression.

1933, January 5 - The Golden Gate Bridge construction starts. Joseph B. Strauss led the way as Chief Engineer of the Golden Gate Bridge and he is is also credited as being the leading force behind seeing the Golden Gate Bridge become a reality. The bridge was completed on May May 28, 1937. More

1933, January 30 - Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. More

1934, January 17 - The United States formally devalues the dollar against gold for the first time in history.

1935, January 11: Amelia Earhart becomes the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California. More

1936, January 6: The first all-glass windowless building, the Owens-Illinois Glass Company, is completed in Toledo, Ohio.

1937, January 7 - The U.S. Senate rejects the nomination of Hugo Black to the Supreme Court due to his Ku Klux Klan involvement.

1938, January 3 - The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis s found by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, an adult victim of polio. The foundation was renamed later "The March of Dimes Foundation" More  

1938, January 5 - Iceland becomes the first country to legalize abortion.

1939, January 1 - The Hewlett-Packard Company is founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto, California.

1940, January 3 -The British Royal Air Force bombs a German seaplane base, marking the first British raid of World War II.

1941, January 6 - Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his "Four Freedoms" speech during the State of the Union Address.

1942, January 14 - U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issues Presidential Proclamation 2537 , requiring."All alien enemies" within the continental United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, to obtain a certificate of identification and carry it "at all times". Along with travel and access restrictions. More

1942, January 19 - Japan begins its invasion of Burma during World War II.

1943, January 14 - The Casablanca Conference begins between Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt to plan Allied strategy during World War II. 

1943, January 27 - The first US raid was conducted on Germany proper as 91 US bombers were sent on a day light raid on the submarine bases at Wilhelmshaven. 53 bombers successfully bombed the target and 3 were lost. The US daylight bombing of Germany continued as the British continue their night  bombing raids. More

1944, January 27- The 900 day siege of Leningrad is broken when the Soviet Leningrad–Novgorod Offensive expels the German forces from the southern outskirts of the city. This was a combined effort by the Leningrad and Volkhov Fronts, along with the 1st and 2nd Baltic Fronts. The estimates of the death toll vary, but it is believed than more than 1 million Leningrad residents perished from hunger or bombardments, during the siege.

1945, January 7 -  American troops land on the main Philippine Island of Luzon, after the capture the Philippine islands of  the Leyte and Mindoro Island to the south in late December 1944, where two airfields were established from which aircraft would be launched to assist in the landings on Luzon. Mexican and Australian troops also participated in the battle for Luzon, as well as a very large number of Filipino fighters. Japanese losses were 217,000 dead, with 9,050 taken prisoners. U.S. losses were 8,310 killed and 29,560 wounded. Civilian casualties are estimated at 120,000 to 140,000 dead. More

1945, January 16 - Hitler moves his headquarters to his underground bunker (Führerbunker) as the Soviet Army approaches and Berlin is under bombardment. His aides, bodyguards, servants, and his girlfriend Eva Braun joined him in the bunker. Later, propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and his wife Magda moved into the bunker with their six children. Hitler stayed in the bunker for 105 days and married Eva Braun there on 29 April 1945, less than 40 hours before they committed suicide. More

1945, January 17 - Soviet forces capture Warsaw during World War II.

1945, January 27 - The Soviet troops liberate the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz, Poland.

1945, January 30 - The German MV Wilhelm Gustloff military transport ship is sunk by the Soviet submarine S-13 in the Baltic Sea while on a mission to evacuate civilians and military personnel from East Prussia and other German occupied areas as the Red army advanced, It was estimated that between 6,000-9,000 people died, making it the largest loss of life in a single ship sinking in history. More

1946, January 1 - Emperor Hirohito of Japan announces he is not a god during a radio broadcast.

1946, January 10, The United Nations convened the First Session of the General Assembly in London, England. Delegates representing 51 nations attended the session, wherein the scope and purpose of the United Nations was defined. More

1947, January 1 - Canada's Citizenship Act comes into effect, allowing Canadians to acquire separate Canadian citizenship from British nationality.

1948, January 4 - Burma (Myanmar) formally achieves independence from Britain after the negotiations between Burmese leader Aung San and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee were completed.

1948, January 17 -The trial of 11 U.S. Communist Party leaders begins in New York City.

1948, January 30 -  Mahatma Gandhi, is assassinated at age 78 following a prayer vigil in New Delhi. His killer was Nathuram Vinayak Godse, a Hindu fanatic Hindu nationalist fanatic and a member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a right-wing Hindu paramilitary organization, who believed Gandhi had been too conciliatory to the Indian subcontinent's large Muslim minority. 

1949, January 1 - The Act of Free Choice in The Netherlands grants Indonesia independence.

1950, January 17 - The security firm Brinks, in Boston, Massachusetts, is surprised by five heavily disguised men as they were closing for the day. The men quickly bound the employees and within minutes, they’d stolen more than $1.2 million in cash and another $1.5 million in checks and other securities, making it the largest robbery in the U.S. at the time. More

1950, January 23 - Alger Hiss, a former State Department official, is convicted of perjury for lying about being a Soviet spy.

1950, January 26 - India declares itself a Sovereign, Democratic and Republic state with the adoption of the Constitution. Although India had become a free nation on August 15, 1947 (independence day), it officially became a republic on 26 January 1950, (Republic Day) when the Constitution was adopted. Republic Day and Independence Day are national holidays. 

1950, January 31 - U.S. President Harry Truman publicly announces his decision to continue and intensify research and production of thermonuclear weapons.(Hydrogen Bomb), a weapon theorized at that time to be hundreds of times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan during World War II. Five months earlier, the Soviet Union successfully detonated an atomic bomb. Then, several weeks after that, British and U.S. intelligence came to the staggering conclusion that German-born Klaus Fuchs, a top-ranking scientist in the U.S. nuclear program, was a spy for the Soviet Union. More

1951, January 8 - The United Nations headquarters officially opens in New York City. More

1951, January 27 - The Nevada Test Site (NTS), 65 miles north of Las Vegas, detonates the first of several nuclear bombs, Shot Able, a 1-kiloton bomb, as part of Operation Ranger. Between 1951 and 1992, the U.S. government conducted a total of 928 nuclear tests here. Out of these tests 100 were atmospheric, and 828 were underground. More

1952, January 31: The first official TV broadcast in Canada takes place in Montreal.

1953, January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces in his last State of the Union message to Congress that the United States had developed a hydrogen bomb. More

1953, January 20: -Dwight D. Eisenhower is inaugurated as the 34th President of the United States.

1954, January 14 - The Hudson Motor Car Company merges with Nash-Kelvinator Corporation, forming American Motors Corporation (AMC).

1955, January 7 - Marian Anderson, made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York Cityas Ulrica in Verdi’s Un ballo in maschera. She was the first African American to perform with the company.

1955, January 14 -The USSR ends its state of war with Germany.

1956, January 26 - The Republic of India's first election commences, making Jawaharlal Nehru the country's first Prime Minister.

1957, January 5 - The Eisenhower Doctrine is announced, providing military and economic aid to Middle Eastern countries threatened by communism.

1958, January 31 - The United States enters the space age by launching its first satellite, Explorer 1.

1959, January 1 Cuban President Fulgencio Batista flees Cuba and flies to the Dominican Republic with his chief military aides leaving behind a junta which the rebels refused to recognize. His eldest son and over 50 other military leaders left on a plane to Jacksonville, Florida.

1959, January 7 - The United States recognizes the new Cuban government after a general strike in early January forces the military Junta Government, left by Batista, to relinquish power to the 26th of July Movement. Fidel Castro arrives in Havana on January 8. The following month, on February 16, 1959, Castro was sworn in as Prime Minister of Cuba, and accepted the position on the condition that the Prime Minister's powers be increased. More

1959, January 3 - Alaska is admitted into the Union, becoming the 49th U.S. State 

1960, January 1 - Cameroon achieves independence from France.

1960, January 7 - The Aswan High Dam in Egypt construction starts. The rock-fill dam across the Nile River at Aswān, Egypt, was completed in 1970 and inaugurated in 1971. It now generates large amounts of electric power and allows for the control of the annual Nile flood providing major benefits to the Egyptian economy. More

1961, January 3 - The United States severs diplomatic relations with Cuba as Fidel Castro solidifies his socialist government.

1962, January 1 - The Western Samoan islands become independent from New Zealand and become Western Samoa, later known as Samoa.

1963, January 14 - George Wallace is inaugurated as Governor of Alabama and delivers his infamous "Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" speech.

1964, January 4 -  Patsy Mink (Patsy Matsu Takemoto) becomes the first Asian-American woman to serve in Congress. She was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives for the State of Hawaii. More

1964, January 11 - The United States Surgeon General Luther Terry announces that cigarette smoking may be hazardous to health and it is linked to serious health effects, including lung cancer and heart disease. More

1964, January 28 - A Soviet fighter shot down a U.S. T–39 training aircraft over East Germany. The three U.S. officers aboard were killed. More

1965, January 4 - President Lyndon B. Johnson unveils his "Great Society" vision in his State of the Union address calling for  legislation for major investments in social welfare programs. More 

1966, January 17 - A US B-52 bomber loaded with nuclear weapons collides with a tanker plane during a midair refueling operation off the coast of Almeria, Spain. Seven of the total 11 crew members were killed. The crash caused four hydrogen bombs to tumble from the B-52; one was later recovered intact in the Mediterranean while the other three crashed on land near the coastal village of Palomares. The bombs did not explode but two cracked open and dispersed 7 pounds of radioactive plutonium with the wind. More

1966, January 24 - Indira Gandhi becomes the first female Prime Minister of India.

1967, January 3 - Jack Leon Ruby dies of cancer in a Dallas hospital. Born Jacob Leon Rubenstein, he had been convicted  and sentenced to death for murdering Lee Harvey Oswald on November 24, 1963, two days after Oswald was accused of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The conviction was appealed, and he was to be granted a new trial, but Ruby became ill, was diagnosed with cancer, and died of a pulmonary embolism at a Dallas hospital. More

1967, January 27 - The United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union sign the Outer Space Treaty banning the militarization of space.

1967, January 27 - The Apollo I Tragedy; a fire swept through the Apollo 1 Command Module during a launch rehearsal test, tragically killing astronauts Virgil “Gus” Grissom, Edward H. White II, and Roger B. Chaffee. A long investigation concluded that a faulty electrical wire inside the Apollo 1 command module was the probable cause of the fire. More

1968, January 5 - Alexander Dubček comes to power in Czechoslovakia, beginning the period known as the Prague Spring.

1968, January 23 - North Korea, using three torpedo boats, two sub chasers and a couple of MiG fighters  opens fire on the  USS Pueblo (AGER-2) —and captures the virtually unarmed U.S. Ship outfitted as an electronic surveillance platform, in international waters off North Korea’s east coast in the Sea of Japan. More

1969, January 30 - The Beatles perform their last public concert on the rooftop of Apple Records in London.

1970, January 28 - The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is ratified by 43 nations.

1971, January 7 - In a television address, President Richard Nixon announces the end of the convertibility of the United States dollar into gold.

1972, January 5 - President Richard Nixon signs a bill authorizing $5.5 billion for the development of a reusable winged space transportation system commonly known as the space shuttle. The reusability of the shuttle’s components was expected to provide regular access to space to many customers, while at the same time reducing costs. The spacecraft was to be designed to carry seven astronauts and up to 50,000 pounds of cargo into orbits a few hundred miles from Earth. NASA launched Columbia, the first space shuttle, in 1981. More  

1972, January 24 - Japanese Army Sergeant  Shoichi Yokoi is discovered by local farmers on Guam. Yokoi, who fought in World War II, had been hiding in the jungle for almost 28 years. The return of the American forces to Guam and the bloody battle for possession of the island, created a breakdown of the Japanese command on Guam and soldiers like Yokoi were left to fend for themselves and told “to prefer death to the disgrace of getting captured alive”. More

1972, January 30 - British Paratroopers open fire on Roman Catholic civil rights supporters in Derry, Northern Ireland, killing 13 in what becomes known as Bloody Sunday. The demonstration began as a peaceful, but illegal, demonstration by some 10,000 people organized by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association in opposition to the British government’s policy of interning suspected members of the IRA without trial. The incident remained a source of controversy for decades, with competing accounts of the events. In 2010 the Saville Report, the final pronouncement of a government inquiry initiated by British Prime Minister Tony Blair in 1998, concluded that none of the victims had posed any threat to the soldiers and that their shooting was without justification.

1973, January 22 - The U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in Roe v. Wade recognized that the decision whether to continue or end a pregnancy belongs to the individual, not the government. Roe held that the specific guarantee of “liberty” in the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which protects individual privacy, includes the right to abortion prior to fetal viability. After Roe, the Supreme Court repeatedly reaffirmed that the Constitution protects for abortion as an essential liberty, which is tied to other liberty rights to make personal decisions about family, relationships, and bodily autonomy. However, the Supreme Court overturned Roe in 2022. More

1973, January 27 - The Vietnam War Paris Peace Accords are signed, effectively ending direct U.S. involvement in the war. More

1974, January 30 - The 10 millionth Volkswagen Beetle is produced.

1975, January 7 - OPEC ends its oil embargo against the United States, Europe, and Japan.

1976, January 15 - Sara Jane Moore is sentenced to life for attempting to assassinate President Gerald Ford.

1977, January 20 - Jimmy Carter is inaugurated as the 39th President of the United States.

1977, January 21 - President Jimmy Carter Issues Proclamation 4483 and Executive Order 11967, granting a pardon to those who evaded the draft in the Vietnam War by violating the Military Selective Service Act from August 4, 1964, to March 28, 1973.  It is estimated that the Pardon applied to over 500,000 people, of which 100,000 had left the country. About half of those who left returned. More 

1978, January 1 - The Soviet Union begins a series of five nuclear tests in the Arctic Circle.

1979, January 16 - After almost 40 years of ruling, the  Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi flees Iran amidst growing unrest, paving the way for the Islamic Revolution. More

1980, January 28 - The six United States embassy hostages in Tehran, Iran, are released.

1981, January 20: Ronald Reagan is inaugurated as the 40th President of the United States.

1981, January 20 -The Iran Hostage Crisis finally came to an end within hours from President Ronald Reagan inauguration and the hostages were brought to Germany for family reunions. More

1983, January 17 - The International Olympic Committee restores Jim Thorpe's Olympic medals 70 years after they were taken away due to his playing semi-professional baseball.

1984, January 24 - Apple Computer Inc. unveils its Macintosh personal computer.

1985, January 28 - The charity single "We Are the World" is recorded by USA for Africa.

1986, January 28 - The Space Shuttle Challenger explodes 73 seconds after liftoff, killing all seven astronauts aboard: Commander Michael J. Smith; Commander Francis R. 'Dick' Scobee; Ronald E. McNair, mission specialist; Ellison Onizuka, mission specialist; S. Christa McAuliffe, payload specialist; Gregory B. Jarvis, payload specialist; Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist. More

1987, January 15 - Delta Air Lines Flight 191 crashes in Dallas, Texas, killing 137 people.

1988, January 26 - The Phantom of the Opera, a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber, opens in London's West End.

1989, January 20 - George H. W. Bush is inaugurated as the 41st President of the United States.

1990, January 31 - The first McDonald's restaurant in the Soviet Union opens in Moscow's Pushkin Square.

1991, January 17 - Operation Desert Storm begins as coalition forces led by the United States launch air raids against Iraq, five months after Iraqi forces invaded and annexed Kuwait. More

1993, January 1 - Czechoslovakia peacefully splits into two nations, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

1994, January 1 - The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) comes into effect.  NAFTA immediately lifted tariffs on the majority of goods produced by the signatory nations. It also calls for the gradual elimination, over a period of 15 years, of most remaining barriers to cross-border investment and to the movement of goods and services among the three countries. More 

1994, January 17 - At 4:30 am, on January 17, 1994, Residents of the greater Los Angeles area were awakened by the strong shaking of the magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake. This was the first earthquake to strike directly under an urban area of the United States since the 1933 Long Beach earthquake. More

1995, January 1 - The World Trade Organization (WTO) is established to promote free trade globally.

1996, January 8 - Chechen separatists seize a hospital in Kizlyar, Russia, leading to the Kizlyar-Pervomayskoye hostage crisis.

1996. January 20, In Yasser Arafat is elected President of the newly created Palestinian National Authority (PNA) with 88.1 percent of the popular vote and a high voter turnout, despite the campaign by his rivals to abstain. 

1997, January 1 - Zaire's President Mobutu Sese Seko flees the country, ending his 32-year rule and leading to the rise of Laurent Kabila.

1998, January 1 - The European Central Bank is established, leading to the introduction of the euro currency.

1998, January 15 -  Fred Korematsu was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. His journey to that day started during World War II when he refused to be forced into a Japanese-American relocation center where families lived in horse stalls at an abandoned race track until they were sent to remote internment camps in the West. Korematsu went on to have a historical impact becoming an American civil rights activist and founder of the Korematsu Institute. On January 30, 2011, California celebrated its first of “Fred Korematsu Day of Civil Liberties and the Constitution”—the first day named after an Asian American in the United States. which celebrates the legacy of a courageous man who has left a message not just for one community, but for the entire country' More

1998, January 22 - Theodore J. Kaczynski, confesses and pleads guilty, admitting that he was the terrorist Unabomber who killed three and maimed dozens more in a deranged campaign against scientists, computers and jet airplanes. Under terms of the agreement. As part of a last minute plea deal where he was, Kaczynski pleaded guilty to all federal charges against him including 13 counts of transporting explosive devices with the intent to kill or maim. Kaczynski also admitted in court that he placed or mailed another 11 bombs, for which he was not charged. He was spared the death penalty and will serve life in prison without possibility of release. More

1999, January 1 - The euro becomes the official currency for 11 European countries. More

2000,
January 1 - The Millennium Summit of the United Nations outlines the Millennium Development Goals.

2001, January 1 - Greece adopts the euro as its official currency.

2002, January 1 - Euro banknotes and coins become legal tender in 12 European countries.

2003, January 1 - Estonia introduces the euro as its official currency.

2004, January 1 - Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia join the European Union.

2004. January 2 - NASA's spacecraft Stardust flies within 155 miles from the comet P/Wild 2, and collects dust grains and the cometary material. Stardust sealed its collected matter inside a sample reentry capsule, which separated from Stardust and landed in the Utah desert on Jan. 15, 2006. They were later revealed to contain the amino acid glycine, an essential building block of life. More 

2004, January 3 - The Mars robotic rover Spirit lands on Mars. Launched on June 10, 2003, lands on March. Its twin, rover, Opportunity, on Mars 21 days later on January 24, 2004. Spirit remained active until March 22, 2010. NASA was not able to regain contact with Spirit and officially concluded its recovery efforts May 25, 2011. More

2004, January 24 - Opportunity. the six-wheeled robotic rover Opportunity lands on Mars. Launched in mid 2003 it readies to analyze Mars soil and rocks and relay pictures back to earth. It remained active on Mars from 2004 until 2018. Its twin rover, Spirit, had landed on Jan 3, 2004 More

2005, January 26 -  A U.S. helicopter crashes in Iraq, killing 31 people, including 13 Americans.

2006, January 26 - Western Union discontinues its Telegram and Commercial Messaging services.

2007, January 1 - Romania and Bulgaria join the European Union.

2007, January 4 - Nancy Pelosi, Congress Woman for the State of California becomes first female Speaker of the House

2008, January 1 - Cyprus and Malta adopt the euro as their official currency.

2009, January 15 - US Airways flight 1549, flight makes an emergency landing in the Hudson River. shortly after taking off from LaGuardia Airport in New York City. the Airbus A320airplane flew into a flock of Canada geese. Both engines were severely damaged, causing an almost complete loss of thrust . Repeated attempts to restart the engines were unsuccessful. Five people were seriously injured, but there were no fatalities. . On board were 5 crew members, including Capt. Chesley (“Sully”) Sullenberger III, First Officer Jeffrey Skiles and 150 passengers. The event has been nicknamed "Miracle on the Hudson" More

2009, January 20 - Barack Obama is inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States.

2010, January 12 - A 7.0-magnitude earthquake strikes Haiti, causing widespread devastation and loss of life.

2011, January 14 - Tunisia's President Ben Ali flees the country, marking the start of the Arab Spring.

2012, January 13 - The Costa Concordia cruise ship runs aground off Italy, resulting in 32 deaths.

2013, January 21 -  Algerian militants attack the Tigantourine gas facility, resulting in multiple casualties.

2014, January 29 - The first case of Ebola is confirmed in the United States, leading to an international health crisis.

2015, January 7 - The Charlie Hebdo shooting occurs in Paris, killing 12 people in an attack on the satirical magazine's office.

2016, January 16 - Implementation of the Iran nuclear deal (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action) begins following international agreement.

2017, January 20 - Donald Trump is inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States.

2017, January 21, The Women’s March takes place in Washington DC . to protest Donald Trump’s blatant misogyny and history of sexual assault. It was the single largest demonstration in the capital’s history, with over 500,000 people in attendance.  Additional demonstrations, where hundreds of thousands of people gathered, took place in cities across the United States. More

2018, January 13 - A false missile alert causes panic in Hawaii, warning of an incoming ballistic missile threat.

2019, January 1 - Jair Bolsonaro assumes office as the President of Brazil.

2019, January 3 - China successfully lands the Chang'e 4 spacecraft on the far side of the Moon, a first in human space exploration.

2019, January 15 - British Parliament rejects Theresa May's Brexit deal, leading to political uncertainty regarding the UK's departure from the EU.

2019, January 16 - Zimbabwe experiences protests and violent crackdowns over a significant fuel price hike.

2019, January 25 - A viral outbreak of the coronavirus begins in Wuhan, China, which later leads to a global pandemic.

2020, January 3 - A U.S. drone strike kills Iranian General Qasem Soleimani in Baghdad, escalating tensions between the US and Iran.

2020, January 8 - Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 is shot down by Iran, killing all 176 passengers and crew on board.

2020, January 16 - The impeachment trial of President Donald Trump begins in the U.S. Senate.

2020, January 20 - The first case of COVID-19 in the United States was diagnosed in Snohomish County, WA. The patient from had returned to the United States from Wuhan on January 15, 2020,” The Seattle area became an early epicenter of the U.S. outbreak. Notably, 39 residents of a nursing home in Kirkland, WA, died from complications from the virus during a span of one month. The CDC reported that 14 U.S. coronavirus cases were reported by public health agencies between January 21 and February 23, 2020; all patients had traveled to China. On February 26, the first non-travel case was confirmed in California , and the first U.S. death was reported on February 29. More than 110 Million cases were diagnosed in the U.S. alone.

2020, January 23 - The Chinese city of Wuhan is placed under lockdown due to the spread of COVID-19.

2020, January 26 - Basketball legend Kobe Bryant dies in a helicopter crash in Calabasas, California.

2020, January 31 - The World Health Organization (WHO) declares the COVID-19 outbreak a global health emergency.

2020, January 31 - The United Kingdom officially leaves the European Union, implementing Brexit.

2021, January 1 - The United Kingdom officially exits the Brexit transition period, fully separating from the European Union.

2021, January 5 - Democrats win both Senate seats in Georgia's runoff elections, giving them control of the U.S. Senate.

2021, January 6 - Pro-Trump supporters storm the United States Capitol in a violent insurrection, disrupting the certification of Joe Biden's presidential victory forcing lawmakers into hiding. Most of the rioters had come from a nearby rally where Trump urged them to “fight like hell.”

2021, January 8 - Twitter permanently suspends then-President Donald Trump's account, citing the risk of further incitement of violence.

2021, January 13 - The U.S. House of Representatives impeaches President Donald Trump for the second time, charging him with "incitement of insurrection."

2021, January 15 - Uganda holds presidential elections, resulting in a controversial win for incumbent President Yoweri Museveni.

2021, January 20 - Joe Biden is inaugurated as the 46th President of the United States, and Kamala Harris becomes the first female Vice President.

2021, January 22: The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons enters into force, marking a significant step in nuclear disarmament efforts.

2021, January 23 - Anti-government protests erupt in Russia, demanding the release of opposition leader Alexei Navalny.

2021, January 26 - GameStop stocks surge due to a Reddit-driven trading frenzy by small investors, challenging Wall Street hedge funds.

2021, January 29 - Myanmar's military seizes power in a coup, detaining civilian leaders including Aung San Suu Kyi.

2021, January 30 - Mount Semeru in Indonesia erupts, spewing ash and triggering evacuations in nearby areas.

2021, January 31 - The UK surpasses 100,000 COVID-19 deaths, becoming the first European country to reach this grim milestone.

2021, January 31 - The International Criminal Court's jurisdiction is extended to cover war crimes in the occupied Palestinian territories, angering Israel.

2021, January 31 - NASA's Mars rover, Perseverance, lands successfully on Mars, beginning its mission to search for signs of ancient life.

2021, January 31 - Myanmar experiences widespread internet shutdowns as the military government tightens control following the coup.

2021, January 31  WHO approves the AstraZeneca/Oxford COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use, aiding global vaccination efforts.

2021, January 31 - The European Union introduces new export controls on COVID-19 vaccines amid supply shortages.
These events cover a broad spectrum, including political turmoil, global health crises, technological advancements, and social movements that have significantly impacted the world in recent years.

Sources for the Historical Content shown, include research and reviews of relevant Online History Resources or printed material. When possible, we show a link to a source which provides additional or unique perspective about the event. We do our best to provide accurate information but would appreciate being notified if any incorrect information is found. You may do so by using this link: Feedback

These are some of many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of December, listed by year.  Dates provided for earlier time events may be approximate.

609 BCE, December 25 - The first recorded solar eclipse in ancient Babylonia, which marked the beginning of systematic astronomical observations.

399 BCE, December 5 - The Greek philosopher Socrates is sentenced to death by drinking hemlock, following his trial in Athens.

333 BCE, December 1 - Alexander the Great decisively defeats the Persian king Darius III at the Battle of Issus, solidifying his control over Asia Minor.

218 BCE, December 2 - Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, wins a significant victory over the Roman Republic at the Battle of the Trebia during the Second Punic War.

121 BCE, December 15 - Gaius Gracchus, a Roman politician and reformer, is born. He would later become known for his attempts to enact land and citizenship reforms.

106 BCE, December 18 - The birth of Cicero, one of Rome's most famous orators, statesmen, and philosophers.

70 BCE, December 25 - The siege of Jerusalem by the Roman general Titus ends with the destruction of the Second Temple.

68 BCE, December 7 - The birth of the Roman poet Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus), known for his Odes and Satires.

65 BCE, December 8 - The birth of the Roman historian and author of "The History of Rome," Livy (Titus Livius).

45 BCE, December 31 - The Julian calendar is introduced by Julius Caesar, with January 1, 45 BCE, as its first day.

43 BCE, December 20 - The  Second Triumvirate in Rome, comprising Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus is established, split ing the Roman world into three sets of provinces and giving each one of the rulers practically absolute power. 

43 BCE, December 23 - Gaius Oppius, a close friend and advisor to Julius Caesar, is born.

40 BCE, December 2 - The Treaty of Brundisium is signed, temporarily ending the Roman civil wars between Octavian and Antony.

40 BCE, December 15 - The birth of the Roman poet and philosopher, Seneca the Younger (Lucius Annaeus Seneca).

21 BCE, December 30 - The Roman poet and author of the "Metamorphoses," Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso), is born.

17 BCE, December 25 - The Roman emperor Augustus celebrates the Ludi Saeculares, a secular games event, marking the end of a saeculum (a generation) and the beginning of a new one.

6 BCE, December 27 - The Roman emperor Augustus officially adopts his stepson and heir, Tiberius, as his son.

4 BCE, December 25 - The traditionally celebrated birth of Jesus Christ, though the exact date remains a subject of debate among scholars.

3 BCE, December 25 - Herod the Great dies, according to some estimates, around this date. Herod is known for his role in the Nativity story.

1 CE, December 20 - The Roman Emperor Vespasian captures the city of Jerusalem, effectively ending the First Jewish-Roman War.

37 CE, December 20 - Roman Emperor Nero is born, eventually becoming known for his tyrannical rule and the Great Fire of Rome.

45 CE, December 3 - Roman Emperor Augustus celebrates the Ludi Saeculares, a secular games event, marking the end of a saeculum (a generation) and the beginning of a new one.

104 CE, December 30 - The death of Trajan, one of Rome's greatest emperors, and the accession of his successor, Hadrian.

352 CE, December 25 - Pope Julius I officially establishes December 25 as the date of the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ, now known as Christmas.

357 CE, December 25 - Roman Emperor Constantius II decrees that the pagan festival of Sol Invictus coincides with Christmas, promoting Christianity.

540 CE, December 27 - The death of Chrysaphius, a eunuch advisor to the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, who played a controversial role in the court.

546 CE, December 27 - The Gothic War, fought between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Ostrogoths, sees a significant battle at Taginae, resulting in a Byzantine victory.

564 CE, December 20 - Saint Columba, an Irish missionary, dies, leaving a lasting legacy in spreading Christianity in Scotland.

674 CE, December 3 - The beginning of the construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, an iconic Islamic shrine.

771 CE, December 25 - Charlemagne becomes the King of the Franks after the death of his brother Carloman I.

820 CE, December 24 - The Byzantine Empire defeats the forces of the Abbasid Caliphate at the Battle of Mehmetçik, marking a significant victory in the Byzantine-Arab Wars.

827 CE, December 20 - The Muslim scholar and polymath Al-Khwarizmi is born, known for his contributions to algebra and mathematics.

875 CE, December 21 - The Treaty of Verdun is signed, dividing the Carolingian Empire into three parts, marking the beginning of the Carolingian dissolution.

884 CE, December 25 - The Danelaw, a region of England under Viking control, sees a series of treaties between the Vikings and the Anglo-Saxons.

910 CE, December 13 - The Buddhist monk Fadeng begins a journey to India, which would later contribute to Chinese Buddhist scholarship.

955 CE, December 6 - Otto I, King of Germany, defeats the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld, halting their invasion of Western Europe.

963 CE, December 15 - Emperor Otto I of the Holy Roman Empire dies, and he is succeeded by his son Otto II.

990 CE, December 16 - The Byzantine emperor Basil II wins a decisive victory against the Bulgarians at the Battle of Spercheios.

999 CE, December 31 - Pope Sylvester II dies, marking the end of his papacy, during which he contributed to the advancement of science and mathematics in Europe.

999 CE, December 31 - The coronation of Stephen I as the first Christian king of Hungary, a significant event in the Christianization of the Hungarian people.

1000, December 25 - The coronation of Stephen I as the first Christian king of Hungary, marking the establishment of the Kingdom of Hungary and Hungary's conversion to Christianity.

1002, December 29 - King Æthelred the Unready orders the St. Brice's Day massacre, leading to the killing of many Danish settlers in England.

1006. December - The supernova SN 1006, one of the brightest stellar events recorded, appears in the southern skies after appearing earlier in the year in the north. Now we know that is a remnant of a so-called Type Ia supernova. This class of supernova is caused when a white dwarf pulls too much mass from a companion star and explodes, or when two white dwarfs merge and explode. In this case, the star whose death brightened the early medieval sky was 7200 light years away. That means the supernova really happened about 8.200 years ago, but it took until 1006 for the light of the cosmic explosion to reach Earth. More

1013, December 25 - Sweyn Forkbeard is proclaimed King of England after the English nobility submits to him. Sweyn had built a strong an imposing Danish North Sea empire, establishing control in Norway in 1000 and conquering England in 1013. He died there on February 1014, having ruled England for only five weeks. Sweyn's cause of death is unknown. 

1025, December 24 - The Byzantine Emperor Basil II dies, marking the end of the Macedonian Dynasty

1065, December 28 - Westminster Abbey, located in London, was consecrated and opened by Edward the Confessor and became the site of coronations and other ceremonies of national significance in England. More

1066, December 25 - William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey, following the Norman conquest.

1135, December 1 - The death of King Henry I of England, leading to a period of civil war known as "The Anarchy."

1147, December 24 - The start of the Second Crusade, as European forces begin their journey to the Holy Land.

1154, December 19 - Henry II of England is crowned as king, beginning the Angevin Empire.

1170, December 29 - The murder of Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury Cathedral.

1214, December 27 - The University of Oxford receives its royal charter from King Henry III of England.

1257, December 9 - The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending a conflict between King Louis IX of France and King Henry III of England.

1271, December 24 - Kublai Khan issues a decree that allows Marco Polo to become an emissary of the Mongol Empire.

1287,  December 14 - A heavy storm over the North Sea generated surging waves that collapsed a thin land barrier, flooding the Zuiderzee inlet and causing more than 50,000 casualties. The flood, called the St. Lucia flood, has been rated as one of the most destructive floods in recorded history. The event also created direct sea access for the village of Amsterdam, allowing its development into a major port city.

1294, December 18 - Pope Celestine V abdicates the papacy, becoming one of the few popes to voluntarily resign.

1305, December 5 - Pope Clement V moves the papal residence to Avignon, beginning the Avignon Papacy.

1392, December 18 - The Joseon Dynasty in Korea repels the Japanese invasion during the Battle of Wihwa Island.

1398, December 17 - Tamerlane (Timur) captures and sacks Delhi, leading to the massacre of its inhabitants.

1408, December 28 - The Council of Oxford condemns the teachings of John Wycliffe, a precursor to the Protestant Reformation.

1431, December 16 - Henry VI of England is crowned King of France in Paris, marking a significant moment in the Hundred Years' War.

1431, December 23 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English, leading to her trial and execution.

1455, December 30 - The Battle of Castillon marks the end of the Hundred Years' War between England and France.

1470, December 29 - The Battle of Wakefield takes place during the Wars of the Roses in England, resulting in a Lancastrian victory.

1492, December 6 - Christopher Columbus reaches the island of Hispaniola (modern-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic) during his first voyage to the Americas.

1497, December 19 - John Cabot, an Italian explorer sailing under the English flag, reaches the coast of what is now North America, likely Canada.

1520, December 10 - Martin Luther throws a copy of the Papal bull, Exsurge Domine (“Arise O Lord”) into a bonfire Upon the expiration of the 60-day period stipulated in the bull which had been promulgated on 15 June 1520 by Pope Leo X in response to the teachings of Martin Luther which opposed the views of the Catholic Church. Luther refused to recant and continued to rebuke the papacy. As a result, Luther was excommunicated on Jan 3, 1521. More

1524, December 24 - Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama passes away in India during his second voyage to the East.

1531, December 9 - Our Lady of Guadalupe, one of the most important religious icons in Mexico, is believed to have appeared to Juan Diego.

1620, December 18 -  The Mayflower Pilgrims arrive at modern-day Plymouth Harbor, Massachusetts  after spending some time in Cape hook, known today as Provincetown Harbor, and proceed to get ready to establish the Plymouth Colony. More

1639, December 4 - The first documented recorded observation of a transit of Venus across the Sun is made by the English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks from his home at Carr House in Much Hoole, near Preston in England.

1684, December 10 - Isaac Newton's manuscript "On the motion of bodies in an orbit"; (De Motu) which he had sent to Edmond Halley, is read to the Royal Society.at  in November 1684.  This manuscript gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws of planetary motion" which before Newton's work had not been generally regarded as scientific laws). After further encouragement from Halley, Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Principia) which includes nearly all of the manuscript content. More

1688, December 11 - The Glorious Revolution in England sees William of Orange and Mary II take the throne from James II.

1732,  December 19 - Benjamin Franklin publishes his Poor Richard's Almanack, a periodical, containing  affordable information, humor, ideas, advice and the proverbial wisdom, etc. for the populace. More

1768, December 10 - The Encyclopedia Britannica is first published and advertised for sale in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is the oldest continuously published and revised work in the English language. More

1773, December 16 - Defiant colonists dump crates of tea into Boston Harbor. The "Boston Tea Party" is known as a central event in the American Revolution. But, it was simply the culmination of a series of events which led the thirteen American colonies closer to independence. More

1776, December 19 - Thomas Paine’s publishes "The American Crisis" a new pamphlet that appeared in the Pennsylvania Journal that inspired a huge American military victory. Paine had written the words during the army’s retreat from New York: “These are the times that try men’s souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like Hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph,” More

1776, December 25 - General George Washington and 2,400 Continental soldiers cross the Delaware River in a treacherous storm for a surprise attack against Hessian mercenary forces at Trenton, New Jersey. More

1777, December 17 -  Benjamin Franklin engineers a major diplomatic victory when after nearly a year in France without making much visible progress, the French foreign minister, Charles Gravier, the Count of Vergennes, officially acknowledged the United States as an independent country. Franklin also convinced the French to provide financial and eventually military support to the revolutionary effort in America. A formal treaty with France was signed in Paris on February 6, 1778,. 

1777, December 31 - The British suffer heavy losses in the Battle of Princeton during the American Revolutionary War.

1787, December 7 - Delaware ratifies the Constitution of the United States Union becoming the 1st State to do so.

1787, December 12 - Pennsylvania ratifies the Constitution of the United States becoming the second State of the Union.

1787, December 18 - New Jersey ratifies the Constitution of the United States becoming the third State of the Union.

1790, December 15 - The United States Congress relocates to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from New York City.

1799, December 10 - The French revolutionary government declares the metric system to be the official system of weights and measures.

1803, December 20 - The United States officially takes possession of the Louisiana Territory from France in the Louisiana Purchase.

1804. December 20 - Napoleon and Joséphine were crowned Emperor and Empress of the French at Notre-Dame in Paris.  More

1814, December 24 - The Treaty of Ghent is signed, officially ending the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom.

1816, December 11 - Indiana is admitted into the United States Union becoming the 19th State.

1817, December 10 - Mississippi is admitted into the United States Union becoming the 20th State.

1818. December 3 - Illinois is admitted into the United States Union becoming the 21st State.

1819. December 14 -Alabama is admitted into the United States Union becoming the 22nd State.

1820 Moses Austin asks the Spanish government for approval to establish an American Colony in Texas. Approval was granted but Moses Austin died a short time later and the project was taken over by his son Stephen Austin who continued his fathers project and by 1830 there were over 15,000 American settlers. More

1831, December 2 - Former U.S. President John Quincy Adams takes his seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, becoming the only former president to do so.

1831, December 27 - British naturalist Charles Darwin sets out from Plymouth, England, aboard the HMS Beagle on a five-year voyage to the Pacific Ocean including the Galapagos Island in South America and New Zealand. Darwin's discoveries while visiting such diverse places gave him the basis to develop his theory of evolution published in 1859, "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection." More 

1836, December 28 - Spain finally accepts Mexico’s permanent independence with the Santa Maria-Calatrava Treaty. Spain had previously attempted  to re-invade Mexico in 1829, leading to the Battle of Tampico where Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, defeated the Spanish and became a war hero. 

1843, December 19 - Charles Dickens' classic novella "A Christmas Carol" is first published in London.

1845, December 29 - Texas is admitted into the United States Union becoming the 28th State.

1846, December 28 - Illinois is admitted into the United States Union becoming the 29th State.

1865, December 6 -  The 13th amendment, abolishing Slavery becomes part of the U.S. Constitution as the State of Georgia became the 27th State to ratify it. More

1865, December 24 - The KKK is founded in Pulaski, Tennessee,  More

1867, December 4 - The Patrons of Husbandry, better known as the Grange is founded by Oliver Hudson Kelley. The Grange went on to become and influential political force in the western U. S. States. More

1872, December 5 - The Mary Celeste, an American ship that mysteriously disappeared, is discovered adrift and deserted in the Atlantic Ocean off the Azores Islands. The ,Captain, his family, or the crew of the vessel were never found, and the reason for the abandonment of the Mary Celeste has never been determined. More 

1877, December 6 - Thomas Edison successfully demonstrates the phonograph for the first time. Edison filed for a patent for the phonograph on December 24, 1877 and the patent was issued on February 19, 1878. The original phonograph was invented and patented by Edouard-Leon Scott in 1857. He called his device the phonautograph . His invention made a recording of sound waves on a glass plate, but it was not able to play back the sounds. More

1890, December 29 - The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as the Battle of Wounded Knee takes place. Nearly three hundred Lakota people are massacred by soldiers of the United States Army. More

1891, December 21 - The First Basketball Game is played in Springfield, MA at the YMCA International Training School; which today is Springfield College. The game was created by Dr. James Naismith in response to a request to come up with a new game students could play indoors during the winter that would help keep track and field runners in shape and would be relatively safe to play and would have a small amount of physical contact so that the players would not get injured in this game. More

1894, December 29 - French army officer Alfred Dreyfus is convicted of treason in a highly controversial trial, sparking the Dreyfus Affair.

1895, December 28 - The world’s first commercial movie screening takes place at the Grand Cafe in Paris showing a series of short scenes from everyday French life and charged admission for the first time. The film was made by Louis and Auguste Lumiere, two French brothers who developed a camera-projector called the Cinematographe. They had unveiled their invention to the public in March 1895 with a brief film showing workers leaving the Lumiere factory. More

1896, December 30 - Philippine nationalist José Rizal is publicly executed by the Spanish Colonial government enraging and uniting Filipinos against Spain. Rizal came from a prosperous family, was educated in Manila and at the University of Madrid. A brilliant medical student, he became an ophthalmologist by profession, a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement, which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain, although he never advocated Philippine independence. The night before his execution he wrote “Último adiós” (“Last Farewell”), a masterpiece of 19th-century Spanish verse. More

1898, December 10 - The Treaty of Paris is signed by representatives of Spain and the United States, concluding the Spanish-American War.

1900, December 14 -  Quantum Theory is born when German theoretical physicist Max Planck shares his hypothesis that  radiation energy is emitted, not continuously, but rather in discrete packets called quanta. The energy E of the quantum is related to the frequency ν by E = hν. The quantity h, now known as Planck’s constant, is a universal constant with the approximate value of 6.62607 × 10−34 joule-second. In 1905 Einstein extended Planck’s hypothesis to explain the photoelectric effect. More

1901, December 10 - The first awarding of five Nobel Prizes take place. Four of them were given out in Stockholm and one, the Peace Prize, in Christiania, as Oslo was then called. Alfred Nobel had died in San Remo, five years earlier. Since 1901, the Nobel Prizes have been presented to new laureates at ceremonies on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death.

1901, December 12 -  Guglielmo Marconi and his assistant, George Kemp, confirmed the reception of the first transatlantic radio signals from their test site in St. John, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  With a telephone receiver and a wire antenna kept aloft by a kite, they heard Morse code for the letter "S" transmitted from Poldhu, Cornwall, England. Their experiments showed that radio signals extended far beyond the horizon, giving radio a new global dimension for communication in the twentieth century. More

1903, December 17 - Orville Wright makes the first powered, controlled, and sustained flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina as his brother Wilbur looks on. Orville Wright covered 120 feet in 12 seconds during the first flight of the day. The Wright brothers made four flights that day, each longer than the last More 

1908, December 28 - The Messina Earthquake, Europe's most powerful earthquake shook southern Italy. Centered in the Messina Strait, which separates Sicily from Calabria. The quake's magnitude equaled a 7.5 by today's Richter scale. Moments after a devastating tsunami formed, causing forty-foot waves to crash down on dozens of coastal cities. Most of southern Italy's cities lost as many as half their residents with the total death toll throughout Italy was estimated at nearly 200,000 More

1911,  December 14 - Roald Amundsen’s Norwegian polar team was the first to reach the geographic South Pole on December. Five weeks later, on January, 1904, the polar team led by Robert Falcon Scott was the second. Scott's party of five died on the return journey from the pole. More

1913, December 1 - The world's first moving assembly line debuted, at the Ford Model T car factory in Highland Park, Michigan. The innovation spearheaded by Henry Ford, revolutionized the auto industry. More 

1913, December 12 - The stolen “Mona Lisa” was recovered in Florence, Italy. The thief, Vincenzo Perugia, was  arrested. He claimed he was avenging Italy. More

1913, December 13 - President Woodrow Wilson signs the Federal Reserve Act into law, creating the Federal Reserve. More

1914, December 8 -  Battle of the Falkland Islands (WWI) The German naval forces led by Admiral Maximilian von Spee,  unsuccessfully attempts to raid the Falkland Islands bit is stopped by the British Navy commanded by Admiral Doveton Sturdee. 

1914. December 25 - The Christmas Truce of 1914. Although fighting continued in many parts of the Western Front, a rare heart-warming display of humanity in the history of human conflict takes place in some sections. By Christmas of that year there were millions of soldiers dug in trenches packed together and living in freezing conditions. On Christmas Eve German troops began unwrapping gifts from home and singing Christmas carols and soon the British and French troops joined in. Christmas greetings and well wishes were exchanged, and offers of a temporary ceasefire were communicated between the trenches. On Christmas morning, The troops began to greet one another, messages and gifts were exchanged and spontaneous games of football(soccer) were rumored to have happened. More

1916, December 18 - The WWI battle of Verdun ends. The engagement in which the French repulsed a major German offensive was one of the longest, bloodiest, and most-ferocious battles of the war, lasting for almost a year. French casualties amounted to about 400,000, German ones to about 350,000. Some 300,000 were killed. More

1916, December 30 - Grigori Rasputin, the Siberian self proclaimed mystic was murdered by Russian nobles and conservatives—who reportedly poisoned, shot, and then drowned the Siberian mystic—to halt his influence over Empress Alexandra and the royal family. More

1917, December 6 - Finland declares independence from Russia, leading to the Finnish Civil War.

1917, December 7 - The United States  declares war on Austria-Hungary. More

1917, December 9 - Jerusalem surrenders to British troops. The mayor of Jerusalem, Hussein Salim al-Husseini,  delivers the Ottoman Governor's letter surrendering the city to Brigadier General C.F. Watson, of the 180th Brigade.

1917, December 26 - President Wilson issues a declaration that he had nationalized the railroad system under the Federal Possession and Control Act. Wilson appointed his son-in-law, Treasury Secretary William McAdoo, as administrator for the United States Railroad Administration. After the end of WWI in the railroads became private property once again on March 2020.

1922, December 30 - The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( USSR) is established with its capital in Moscow, The  Communist Party, led by Marxist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin took control of the government. The Union eventually incorporated 15 republics and constituted the largest country (in area) in the world until its dissolution in 1991.

1923, December 19, The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) terrorizes the University of Dayton, a Catholic Institution, by exploding 12 bombs throughout the campus and setting on fire an 8-foot cross. Several hundred Klansmen were routed by hundreds of neighborhood residents who joined students in chasing them off. The growing Catholic presence in Dayton during the 1920s drew the hostility of the Ku Klux Klan. More about the attack - More about the KKK

1932, December 5 - German physicist Albert Einstein is granted a visa to enter the United States, fleeing Nazi Germany.

1933, December 5 - The 21st Amendment is passed, ending the prohibition of alcohol in America by repealing the 18th amendment which had been as passed thus becoming Prohibition, the only Constitutional amendment to be repealed in United States history.

1936, December 11 - The abdication of King Edward VIII formally approved. Edward VIII had abdicated after failing to win acceptance for his desire to marry American divorcée Wallis Warfield Simpson. He became the only British sovereign to voluntarily resign the crown. 

1941, December 7 - The attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese Empire leads to the United States' entry into World War II. The attack was preceded by months of negotiations between the U.S. and Japan over the future of the Pacific. Japanese demands included that the U.S. end its sanctions against Japan, cease aiding China in the Second Sino-Japanese war, and allow Japan to access the resources of the Dutch East Indies. More than 2,400 U.S. servicemen were killed in the attack. More 

1941, December 8 - The United States enters World War II a day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, as Congress declares war against Imperial Japan.

1941, December 11 - Adolf Hitler declares that Germany is at war with the United States following the Japanese attacks on the U.S., British, and Dutch positions in the Pacific and in East Asia.

1941, December 17 -  Admiral Husband E. Kimmel is relieved of his fleet command following the the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor and his rank is reverted to the rank of Rear Admiral. He retired in March 1942. Rear Admiral Kimmel died at Groton, Connecticut, on 14 May 1968. More

1941, December 18 - Battle of Hong Kong . Japan attacks the Island of Honk Kong as a continuation of an attack on the British Colony which started on December 7. A Japanese force of around 35,000 strong was faced by a defending force of 13,500 British, Indian, Canadian, and local troops. Hong Kong surrendered on Christmas Day 1941 and Hong Kong entered a period of Japanese rule that lasted for three years and eight months. More

1941, December 26 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs into law a bill establishing the fourth Thursday in November  as the Federal Thanksgiving Day holiday ending the confusion that had taken place since 1939 when FDR had changed the official Thanksgiving to the second to last Thursday of the month since there were five Thursdays and the last Thursday of the month was the last day of the month and there was a worry that it would shorten the Christmas shopping season. Only 32 states had issued similar proclamations while 16 states refused to accept the change creating confusion. More 

1944, December 15 - A single-engine aircraft Noorduyn C-64 “Norseman” airplane carrying trombonist and Band leader Glenn Miller  disappears over the English Channel. The Army Air Force Major was an unauthorized passenger aboard the flight and he was preparing to move his Army Air Forces Band (Special) from England to France for a congratulatory performance for American troops that had recently helped to liberate Paris. More  

1944, December 16 - The German army launches a counteroffensive intended to cut through the Allied forces and turn the tide of the war in Hitler's favor. The German offensive was code-named Wacht am Rhein (the “Watch on the Rhine”), but is better known in the United States as the “Battle of the Bulge". More 

1944, December 27 - President Franklin Roosevelt , asserting wartime emergency powers, orders his secretary of commerce to seize the  plants and facilities of Montgomery Ward which was in the middle of a labor strike affecting the flow of war supplies. Montgomery Ward appealed the government action in Federal Court, but lost. More

1945, December 5 - Flight 19, a Navy Aircraft squadron disappears in the Bermuda Triangle. Thee squadron consisted of five TBM Avenger torpedo bombers which departed the U.S. Naval Air Station at Fort Lauderdale, Florida, for a routine navigational training flight with Lt. Charles C. Taylor acting as the flight's leader.  All 14 Naval Aviators on the flight were lost, as were all 13 crew members of a Martin PBM Mariner flying boat that subsequently launched from Naval Air Station Banana River to search for Flight 19. More

1945, December 9 - The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (.UNICEF) is established. More 

1948, December 10 - The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris. A milestone document in the history of human rights, it sets out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. More

1949, December 8 - Unable hold ground against Mao Zedong forces, the Chinese Nationalists depart for the island of Taiwan and  establish their new capital. Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek joined them on the following day. This action marked the beginning of the “two Chinas” phase and it wasn't until 1979 when the United States officially recognized the People’s Republic of China.

1952,
December 5th - Lethal smog covers the city of London for five days. It was caused by a combination of industrial pollution and high-pressure weather conditions bringing  London to a near standstill and resulting in thousands of deaths. Four years later, the UK Parliament passed the Clean Air Act marking a turning point in the history of environmentalism. More

1954, December 2 - Censure of Senator Joseph McCarthy - The U.S. Senate votes to censure Senator Joseph McCarthy, who had led the fight in Congress to root out suspected Communists from the Federal Government. The censure described his behavior as "contrary to senatorial traditions". Senator Joseph R. McCarthy had been a little-known junior senator from Wisconsin until February 1950 when he claimed to have a list of 205 card-carrying Communists and members of a spy ring employed in the U.S. Department of State. McCarthy was never able to prove his sensational charge. More  

1955, December 1 - Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the civil rights movement. More

1955, December 5 - The Montgomery Bus Boycott ends after the U.S. Supreme Court rules that racial segregation on public buses is unconstitutional.

1958, December 9 - The John Birch Society (JBS) is founded by Robert W. Welch Jr. More

1958, December 21 - Charles de Gaulle is elected president of France's Fifth Republic. An insurrection that had broken out in Algiers threatened to bring civil war to France. He was given extraordinary powers to resolve the political crisis and the  extraordinarily divisive and bloody War in Algiers. After several tumultuous years de Gaulle resigned on April 28, 1969, following his defeat in a second referendum. More

1960, December 4 - A magnitude 9.5 earthquake, the most powerful ever recorded, strikes Chile, resulting in widespread destruction and loss of life.

1960, December 7 - Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) gains independence from French colonial rule.

1960, December 11 - French forces capture the Algerian city of Oran, effectively ending the Algerian War of Independence.

1960, December 14 - Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is officially established in Baghdad, Iraq.

1960, December 15 - Richard Pavlick attempts to assassinate then-U.S. President-elect John F. Kennedy in Florida.

1960, December 16 - The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, marking a significant moment in human rights history.

1960, December 18 - Charles de Gaulle is reelected as the President of France.

1960, December 28 - An uprising against Portuguese colonial rule in Angola, known as the Baixa de Cassanje revolt, begins.

1961, December 2 - Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist-Leninist and Cuba becomes a communist state.

1961, December 6 - Independence is granted to Kuwait, ending British protection.

1961, December 9 - Tanganyika (now part of Tanzania) gains independence from British colonial rule.

1961, December 11 - Adolf Eichmann, a Nazi war criminal, is found guilty and sentenced to death in Israel.

1961, December 18 - India annexes the territories of Goa, Daman, and Diu, ending Portuguese colonial rule in the region.

1962, December 10 - The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to Linus Pauling for his work in campaigning against nuclear weapons testing.

1962, December 14 - Mariner 2, an American space probe, becomes the first spacecraft to successfully fly by Venus.

1962, December 17 - The United States lifts its economic embargo on Cuba, allowing the sale of certain goods.

1962, December 20 - The New York City Board of Estimate votes to build the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan.

1962, December 25 - An earthquake and tsunami in Northern Chile result in significant loss of life and destruction.

1963, December 1 - The Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Hotline is established between the United States and the Soviet Union.

1963, December 7 - The United States launches the communication satellite Syncom 3, which broadcasts the first live transatlantic television program.1963, December 10 - The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.

1963, December 10 - Zanzibar (now part of Tanzania) gains independence from British colonial rule.

1963, December 12 - Kenya becomes fully independent from British rule.  A year later, Kenya became a republic (with Kenyatta as its first president and Oginga Odinga as vice president). 

1963, December 17 - The Clean Air Act is signed into law in the United States, aiming to reduce air pollution. The Clean Air Act empowered federal and state agencies to research and regulate air pollution, marking a major expansion of government efforts to fight back against the damage being done to the climate.

1964, December 10 - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. receives the Nobel Peace Prize for his nonviolent civil rights activism.

1964, December 2 - The U.S. Senate passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, granting President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authority to use military force in Vietnam.

1964, December 10 - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his leadership in the American civil rights movement.

1964, December 11 - The South African Rivonia Trial concludes with the sentencing of Nelson Mandela and other anti-apartheid activists to life in prison.

1964, December 15 - Canada adopts the new national flag, the Maple Leaf, replacing the Red Ensign.

1965, December 4 - NASA's Gemini 7 and Gemini 6 spacecraft achieve the first space rendezvous, flying within 1 foot of each other.

1965, December 7 -  Roman Catholic Pope Paul VI and Orthodox Patriarch Athenagoras I, lift the mutual excommunications that led to the split of the two churches in 1054 in the Great Schism. Today, the two branches of Christianity remain distinct expressions of a similar faith.

1965, December 13 - Singapore gains independence from Malaysia and becomes a sovereign nation.

1965, December 22 - Apartheid in South Africa is further entrenched with the passing of the Suppression of Communism Act.

1965, December 30 - Ferdinand Emmanuel Marcos Sr.is first  inaugurated as the 10th President of the Philippines. . He ruled under martial law from 1972 until 1981. He was deposed in 1986. His rule was infamous for its corruption and brutality. More

1966, December 1 - The West Coast Port Dispute, a labor strike, begins on the U.S. West Coast, affecting shipping and trade.

1966, December 4 - The United Nations General Assembly recognizes the independence of Barbados and Guyana.

1966, December 25 - The first Kwanzaa celebration is held, a week-long holiday honoring African heritage in African American culture.

1966, December 30 - The Beatles' manager, Brian Epstein, secures a contract for the band to produce animated television shows.

1966, December 31 - The estimated population of the world reaches 3.45 billion, according to the United Nations.

1967, December 3 - The first successful human heart transplant is performed by South African surgeon Dr. Christiaan Barnard. More

1968, December 9 -  Douglas Engelbart, gives a landmark computer demonstration  at the  Association for Computing Machinery / Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ACM/IEEE)—Computer Society's Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco". The presentation demonstrated for the first time many of the fundamental elements of modern personal computing: windows, hypertext, graphics, efficient navigation and command input, video conferencing, the computer mouse, word processing, dynamic file linking, revision control, and a collaborative real-time editor. The name "The Mother of All Demos" was retroactively applied to the landmark computer demonstration. More

1968, December 21 - Apollo 8, the first manned launch of the Saturn V rocket lifts off to demonstrate a lunar trajectory, entering lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1968. The Apollo 8 mission proved the performance of the command and service module.  On July 20 of the following year, The Apollo 11 spaceflight was the first to land humans on the Moon; Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin More

1969, December 2 - The Boeing 747 jumbo jet makes its first passenger flight. It carried 191 people, 110 of them reporters and photographers, from Seattle, to New York City.

1971, December 2 - The United Emirates (UAE) declares its independence following the completion of treaties with Great Britain. The United States recognized the United Arab Emirates the next day. The uniting Sheikdoms were Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharja, Ajman, Umm al-Qaiwain, Fujairah. Ras al-Khaimah joined two months later. The UAE is the third-largest oil producer in the Gulf after Saudi Arabia and Iran. The United Arab Emirates is a member state of the League of Arab States.

1972, December 7 - Apollo 17, the final Apollo moon mission, launches from Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

1973, December 2 - The first mobile phone call is made by Martin Cooper, a Motorola executive, in New York City.

1973, December 15 - The American Psychiatric Association reverses its longstanding position and declares that homosexuality isn't a mental illness. More

1973, December 28 - U.S. President Richard Nixon signs the Endangered Species Act, which obligates federal and state governments to protect all species threatened with extinction that fall within the borders of the United States and its outlying territories. More

1978, December 15 - Following months of secret negotiations, the United States and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) announced that they would recognize one another and establish official diplomatic relations. As part of the agreement, the United States recognized the Government of the People’s Republic of China as the sole legal government of China, and declared it would withdraw diplomatic recognition from Taiwan (also known as the Republic of China [ROC]). More

1978, December 25 - Vietnam invades Cambodia, leading to the eventual downfall of the Khmer Rouge regime.

1979, December 24 - The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan, beginning the Soviet-Afghan War. More

1980, December 8 - Former Beatle John Lennon is assassinated in New York City.

1980, December 9 - The World Health Assembly declares smallpox, a serious infectious disease, eradicated (eliminated). No cases of naturally occurring smallpox have happened since. More

1980, December 12 - Leonardo Da Vinci's manuscript known as the Leicester Codex is sold in auction to American oil tycoon Armand Hammer for $5.1M . The manuscript written circa 1508, contained 72 loose pages with over 300 notes and drawings. Thomas Coke, the first earl of Leicester, bought the manuscript in 1717 and installed it among his impressive collection of art at his family estate in England. The manuscript was placed in auction by the then current Earl of Leicester. Hammer placed it in his private art collection. In 1994 it was bought by Bull Gates for $30.8M More

1
987, December 8 - U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev sign the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty).

1987, December 9 - The Intifada begins in the Israeli-occupied Gaza Strip twenty years after Israeli conquered the Gaza Strip and the West Bank and permanently annexed East Jerusalem. Israeli settlers had moved into the occupied territories, seizing Arab land. By December 1987, 2,200 armed Jewish settlers occupied 40 percent of the Gaza Strip, while 650,000 impoverished Palestinians were crowded into the other 60 percent, making the Palestinian portion of the tiny Gaza Strip one of the most densely populated areas on earth. More

1988, December 7 - The Armenian earthquake. A 6.9 earthquake in Spitak, Armenia kills an estimated 25,000-50,000 people and leaves 130,000 injured. and up to 500,000 homeless. More 

1988, December 21 - Pan Am Flight 103 is destroyed by a terrorist bomb over Lockerbie, Scotland. The Boeing 747, took off from London, bound for New York City.  As it was climbing on its northerly flight path, it exploded over the town of Lockerbie , Scotland.  All 259 passengers and crewmembers were killed plus 11 people on the ground in Lockerbie. More

1989, December 2 - The Cold War officially ends with a summit meeting between U.S. President George H.W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.1991 CE, December 26 - The dissolution of the Soviet Union is officially declared, ending the existence of the USSR.

1989, December 20 - The United States invades Panama under orders from President residency of George H. W. Bush. The primary purpose of the invasion was to depose the de facto ruler of Panama, General Manuel Noriega who had longstanding ties to United States intelligence agencies but the relations had deteriorated. Noriega was wanted by U.S. authorities for racketeering and drug trafficking.  Noriega was captured, brought to the U.S. tried and convicted. He was eventually returned to Panama where he died in 2017.The United Nations General Assembly and the Organization of American States both condemned the invasion as a violation of international law. More

1990, December 1 - The Chunnel Breakthrough - In a mostly ceremonial event, British miner Graham Fagg and his French counterpart Philippe Cozette made history whent hey broke through the last piece of rock separating the French and British side of the Chunnel,132 feet (100 metres) below the English Channel,  connecting the two ends of an underwater tunnel linking Great Britain with the European mainland for the first time since the Ice Age. The official opening of the Chunnel took place In a May 6, 1994 in a ceremony presided over by England’s Queen Elizabeth II and French President Francois Mitterrand. More

1991, December 8 - The leaders of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus sign the Belavezha Accords, effectively dissolving the Soviet Union. The Accords and other signed documents were ratified by the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR on Dec. 12, 1991. At the same time Russia dissolved the Union Treaty of 1922. More

1991, December 21 -  The Belavezha Accords were joined by Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. In the city of Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan), the heads of these countries, along with Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, signed the Declaration on the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on an equal footing. In December 1993 the Accords on the establishment of the CIS were joined by Georgia. Three former Soviet republics, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, did not join the CIS. More 

1991, December 25 - The Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR approved the Law of the RSFSR "On renaming of the state of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic", which took effect immediately. The new name of the state was the Russian Federation (Russia) Effective dissolving the USSR. The Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin and then replaced by the tricolor Russian Federation flag. More

1992, December 3 - The first text message is sent from a computer by Neil Papworth, a 22-year-old software programmer from the UK working for Vodaphone  to his colleague Richard Jarvis. The message was “Merry Christmas.”  One year later in 1993, Nokia introduced an SMS feature with a distinctive ‘beep’ to signal an incoming message. More 

1992, December 4 - U.S. President George H.W. Bush, in his last weeks in office, orders about 25.000 U.S. troops to Somalia as part of an agreement with the UN to protect aid workers. The military operation encounter difficulties from the start due to the absence of a national Somali leadership and the daily fighting in the streets of the capital city of Mogadishu. The new U.S. president, Bill Clinton, ordered the number of U.S. troops to be reduced as other UN forces come in. In October 1993, soon after an incident at Mogadishu where 18 U.S. soldiers lost their lives and  two U.S. two helicopters were shut down, Clinton orders all U.S. combat troops to be out of Somalia by March 31. A year later UN troops were also withdrawn, leaving the country engulfed in clan warfare.

1992, December 6 - The Babri Mosque in Ayodhya, India, is demolished by Hindu nationalists, leading to communal violence.

1993, December 2 - Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar is killed in a shootout with authorities.

1995, December 14 - The Dayton Agreement is signed, ending the Bosnian War with the goal of achieving peace in the Balkans.

1995, December 20 - The NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR) is deployed to Bosnia to insure compliance to the Dayton Agreement as NATO assumes peacekeeping duties. More 

1996, December 10 - South African President Nelson Mandela signs a new constitution that completes a transition from a long period of white minority rule (apartheid) to full-fledged #ref44040" class="md-crosslink" data-show-preview="true" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: var(--link-color); text-decoration: var(--link-decoration); font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">democracy. More 

1997, December 3 - The Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty to combat climate change, is adopted.

1998, December 16 - President Clinton orders air attack on Iraq and the United States joined by Britain begin operation "Desert Fox" as a reaction to Saddam Hussein's refusal to cooperate with UNSCOM's inspectors and to degrade Iraq's ability to produce weapons of mass destruction as well as to diminish" the Iraqi threat to its neighbors. More

1998, December 19 - The U.S. House of Representatives impeaches President Bill Clinton on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice.

1999, December 20 - Macau is handed back to China by Portugal, marking the end of Portuguese colonial rule.

1999, December 31 - The Panama Canal is transferred from U.S. control to Panamanian ownership.

2000, December 12 - The United States Supreme Court releases its 5-4 decision in the case of Bush v. Gore with Justice Sandra Day O’Connor providing the "swing vote".  The Court decision effectively ended the Florida recount of the presidential election and lead to the election of George W. Bush as President of the United States. Bob Gore won the popular vote by 537,179 votes but Bush won 271 Electoral votes versus 266 for Gore, who conceded the following day. More

2001, December 2 - The Enron Corporation files for bankruptcy.  Eventually it came to light, that some of Enron aggressive accounting practices allowed claiming future unrealized gains from some trading contracts into current income and the transferring of troubled operations to so-called special purpose entities (SPEs), kept the assets off Enron’s books, making its losses look less severe than they really were. Enron’s collapse, cost investors billions of dollars, wiped out over 5,600 jobs and liquidated over $2 billion in pension plans. It also triggered the collapse of Arthur Anderson which had served not only as Enron’s auditor but also as a consultant to the company. More about Enron - #toc-where-are-they-now">More about the executives

2001, December 11 - China joins the World Trade Organization (WTO) after 15 years of negotiations.

2003, December 13 - Saddam Hussein, the former dictator of Iraq, is captured by U.S. forces near Tikrit. after 9 months of hiding.

2004, December 26 -The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in the Indian Ocean and resulting Tsunami kill approximately 230,000 people, making it one of the deadliest disasters in modern history. More

2006, December 30 - Saddam Hussein, former president of Iraq, is executed after being convicted of crimes against humanity in 2004. More

2007, December 27 - Former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto is assassinated in Rawalpindi. More

2009, December 1 - The Lisbon Treaty, which reformed the European Union's institutions, comes into force.

2010, December 17 - The outbreak of the Arab Spring begins when Mohamed Bouazizi, a Tunisian street vendor, sets himself on fire in protest, sparking widespread demonstrations.

2011, December 18 - The last convoy of U.S. troops leaves Iraq, officially marking the end of the Iraq War.

2012, December 14 - A mass shooting occurs at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, leading to renewed discussions on gun control in the United States.

2013, December 5 - The death of Nelson Mandela, former President of South Africa and anti-apartheid icon.

2014, December 17 - The United States and Cuba announce plans to normalize diplomatic relations after decades of tension.

2015, December 12 - The Paris Agreement on climate change is adopted by 196 countries during the COP21 summit.

2016, December 19 - The assassination of Andrei Karlov, the Russian ambassador to Turkey, in Ankara.

2017, December 6 - The United States officially recognizes Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, sparking controversy and protests.

2018, December 1 - Former U.S. President George H.W. Bush passes away at the age of 94.

2019, December 19 - The United States House of Representatives impeaches President Donald Trump on charges of abuse of power and obstruction of Congress.

2020, December 14 - The first doses of the COVID-19 vaccine are administered in the United Kingdom, marking the beginning of vaccination campaigns worldwide.

2020, December 24 - The United Kingdom and the European Union reach a post-Brexit trade deal, averting a no-deal scenario.

2020, December 28 - The United States Congress passes the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, providing economic relief amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

2021, December 4 - British businessman Richard Branson becomes the first person to reach space aboard a Virgin Galactic suborbital spaceplane.

2021, December 31 - The United Kingdom officially completes its transition out of the European Union, fully implementing Brexit.

Online History Resources

These are some of many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of November, listed by year.  Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate.

753 BCE, November 1 - Traditional date for the founding of Rome.

323 BCE, November 11 - Death of Alexander the Great in Babylon.

312 BCE, November 20 - The Battle of the Milvian Bridge, where Constantine the Great defeated Maxentius, leading to Constantine's rise to power.

284 BCE, November 17 - Diocletian is acclaimed as emperor by his soldiers. During his reign, he restored efficient government to the empire after the near anarchy of the 3rd century by reorganizing the fiscal, administrative, and military functions of the empire. and laying the foundation for the Byzantine Empire in the East.  The last major persecution of Christians occurred during his reign.

218 BCE, November 3 - The Second Punic War begins with the Battle of the Trebia between Rome and Carthage.

207 BCE, November 2 - Scipio Africanus defeats Hasdrubal at the Battle of Baecula during the Second Punic War.

190 BCE, November 15 - The Battle of Magnesia takes place, ending the Seleucid War between the Roman Republic and the Seleucid Empire.

133 BCE, November 13 - Attalus III of Pergamon bequeaths his kingdom to Rome, leading to the establishment of the Roman province of Asia.

63 BCE, November 20 - Roman general Pompey captures Jerusalem, expanding Roman control in the Eastern Mediterranean.

47 BCE, November 7 - Cleopatra VII, the last pharaoh of Egypt, is captured by Julius Caesar after the Siege of Alexandria.

43 BCE, November 27 - The Second Triumvirate, consisting of Octavian (later Augustus), Mark Antony, and Lepidus, is formed in R

42 BCE, November 3 - The Battle of Philippi takes place in Greece, where the forces of the Second Triumvirate defeat the forces of Brutus and Cassius.

42 BCE, November 27 - The forces of the Second Triumvirate, consisting of Octavian (later Augustus), Mark Antony, and Lepidus, defeat the forces of Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi.

40 BCE, November 27 - Parthian forces under Pacorus I defeat the Roman general Publius Ventidius at the Battle of Amanus, temporarily reversing Roman setbacks in the East.

31 BCE, November 2 - The Battle of Actium occurs, leading to the defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra by Octavian (Augustus) and the establishment of the Roman Empire.

64 CE, November 18 - The Great Fire of Rome begins, lasting for six days and causing significant destruction.

284 CE, November 20 - Diocletian is proclaimed as the Roman emperor, marking the beginning of the Tetrarchy.

636 CE, November 7 - The Rashidun Caliphate, led by Caliph Umar, defeats the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Yarmouk, marking a significant event in the Arab-Byzantine Wars.

888 CE, November 21 - Pope Formosus dies, leading to a period of chaos and scandal in the papacy known as the Cadaver Synod.

996 CE, November 2 - Emperor Otto III of the Holy Roman Empire dies at the age of 21, leaving a power vacuum in Europe.

1002, November 30 - King Æthelred the Unready orders the St. Brice's Day massacre, leading to the killing of many Danish settlers in England.

1009, November 2 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is destroyed by order of the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.

1016, November 30 - Edmund Ironside, King of England, dies, leaving the throne to Cnut the Great, who becomes the King of all England.

1035, November 12 - King Cnut the Great of England, Denmark, and Norway dies, leading to a period of political instability.1050, November 9 - Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, is born.

1054, November 11 - The Great Schism occurs, leading to the separation of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

1071, November 24 - The Seljuk Turks, led by Alp Arslan, defeat the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert, marking a significant step in the decline of Byzantine power.

1078, November 25 - The coronation of Géza I as the first King of Hungary from the Árpád dynasty.

1087, November 24 - William II of England (William Rufus) is killed in a hunting accident, leading to the ascension of his brother Henry I to the throne.

1093, November 13 - Margaret of Scotland, Queen of Scotland, dies, eventually becoming a saint in the Roman Catholic Church.

1095, November 27 - Pope Urban II calls for the First Crusade during the Council of Clermont in France. More

1096, November 27 - The People's Crusade, a precursor to the First Crusade, is launched by Peter the Hermit, with thousands of peasants and lower-class individuals embarking on a journey to the Holy Land.

1097, November 26 - The Crusaders, led by Bohemond of Taranto, capture the city of Antioch during the First Crusade.

1098, November 14 - The Siege of Ma'arrat al-Numan begins during the First Crusade, resulting in the capture of the town and its gruesome events.

1099, November 27 - The Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, enter Jerusalem during the First Crusade, resulting in the capture of the city.

1100, November 17 - William II of England (William Rufus) is buried at Winchester Cathedral, England, after his death in a hunting accident.

1100, November 26 - Henry I of England is crowned as King of England at Westminster Abbey.

1100, November 29 - The Treaty of Devol is signed between Bohemond I of Antioch and the Byzantine Empire, establishing Antioch as a vassal state.

1105, November 20 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, dies, and his son Henry V succeeds him.

1105, November 25 - King Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland dies, leading to a period of succession disputes.

1107, November 1 - Henry I of England's daughter, Matilda (Maud), marries Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, strengthening Anglo-German relations.

1107, November 17 - King Baldwin I of Jerusalem dies, and his sister's son, Baldwin II, succeeds him as King of Jerusalem.

1109, November 14 - The Council of Poitiers begins, addressing issues related to simony and clerical marriage within the Catholic Church.

1109, November 25 - King Alfonso I of Aragon captures the city of Zaragoza from Muslim control during the Reconquista.

1115, November 16 - A massive earthquake strikes Syria, resulting in significant destruction.

1120, November 25 - The White Ship, carrying King Henry I's heir and many nobles, sinks in the English Channel, resulting in the loss of many lives and a succession crisis.

1123, November 18 - The First Lateran Council, the first ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, opens in Rome.

1138, November 6 - Empress Matilda's forces defeat King Stephen's troops at the Battle of the Standard during the Anarchy in England.

1154, November 7 - King Stephen of England dies, and Henry II becomes King, marking the end of the Anarchy.

1158, November 27 - Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) issues the "Privilegium Minus," which grants Austria special privileges within the Holy Roman Empire.

1170, November 29 - Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket is assassinated in Canterbury Cathedral, leading to a conflict between church and state in England.

1177, November 24 - Pope Alexander III and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I sign the Treaty of Venice, ending their long-running dispute.

1183, November 11 - The Peace of Constance is signed, ending the conflicts between the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I and the Lombard League.

1187, November 2 - Saladin captures Jerusalem from the Crusaders, leading to the Third Crusade.

1192, November 4 - Richard the Lionheart is captured in Austria while returning from the Third Crusade.

1199, November 28 - King Richard the Lionheart dies, and his brother John becomes King of England.

1202, November 1 - The Fourth Crusade, after diverting from its original goal, begins the siege of Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia).

1202, November 20 - The Fourth Crusade begins with the siege of Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia), diverting the Crusaders from their intended target, Jerusalem.

1204, November 27 - Pope Innocent III grants his approval for the Fourth Crusade to capture Constantinople, leading to the sacking of the city in April 1204.

1208, November 4 - Pope Innocent III issues the papal bull "Ad Apostolicae Dignitatis Apicem," calling for the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathar heretics in southern France.

1208, November 17 - Otto IV is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III in Rome.

1209, November 28 - The University of Oxford is officially founded in England, becoming one of the oldest universities in the world.

1215, November 4 - The Fourth Lateran Council, convened by Pope Innocent III, opens in Rome and addresses various church matters.

1215, November 15 - King John of England seals the Magna Carta at Runnymede, limiting the powers of the monarchy.

1217, November 21 - The Battle of Lincoln takes place during the First Barons' War in England, resulting in a victory for royalist forces.

1225, November 29 - Pope Honorius III approves the Dominican Order founded by Saint Dominic.

1248, November 23 - The Seventh Crusade, led by King Louis IX of France, departs from France to reconquer the Holy Land.

1250, November 29 - King Louis IX of France is captured by Egyptian forces during the Seventh Crusade at the Battle of Al Mansurah.

1256, November 26 - Pope Alexander IV canonizes Saint Edmund of Abingdon, the Archbishop of Canterbury.

1267, November 29 - Pope Clement IV issues the papal bull "Ad Extirpanda," authorizing the use of torture during the Inquisition.

1272, November 16 - Edward I of England, also known as Edward Longshanks, ascends to the throne after the death of his father, Henry III.

1272, November 16 - Edward I of England departs on the Ninth Crusade, which eventually leads to his death in 1277.

1276, November 21 - Giovanni Gaetano Orsini is elected as Pope Nicholas III.

1282, November 18 - The Battle of Orewin Bridge takes place during the First War of Scottish Independence, resulting in a Scottish victory.

1284, November 15 - The Statute of Rhuddlan is enacted by King Edward I, reorganizing the governance of Wales.

1285, November 20 - Pope Martin IV is elected as the 189th pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

1292, November 17 - John Balliol is chosen as King of Scots by Edward I of England, leading to the beginning of the Scottish Wars of Independence.

1295, November 3 - The Model Parliament of England is convened by King Edward I, representing a significant step in the development of English parliamentary institutions.

1296, November 30 - Edward I of England captures Berwick-upon-Tweed during the First War of Scottish Independence.

1300, November 30 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the papal bull "Unam Sanctam," asserting the supremacy of the papal authority over temporal powers.

1302, November 11 - Pope Boniface VIII is captured by agents of King Philip IV of France, leading to a conflict between the papacy and the French monarchy.

1302, November 18 - The Battle of the Golden Spurs occurs in Flanders, with the Flemish militia defeating the forces of the French king, Philip IV.1303, November 5 - The Battle of Roslin takes place during the First War of Scottish Independence, with Scottish forces led by William Wallace defeating the English.

1303, November 11 - Pope Boniface VIII is captured by agents of King Philip IV of France, leading to a conflict between the papacy and the French monarchy.

1307, November 27 - King Philip IV of France orders the arrest of the Knights Templar, leading to their suppression and persecution.

1312, November 16 - Pope Clement V, in his papal bull "Vox in Excelso," suppresses the Knights Templar, leading to their dissolution.

1314, November 5 - The Battle of Morgarten occurs in Switzerland, where Swiss forces defeat the Habsburg army.

1315, November 2 - The Council of Vienne, convened by Pope Clement V, opens in France to address various church matters, including the suppression of the Knights Templar.

1320, November 6 - The Declaration of Arbroath, a Scottish declaration of independence, is sent to Pope John XXII, asserting Scotland's sovereignty.

1327, November 17 - Edward III is crowned King of England, marking the beginning of his rule.

1329,
November 20 - King Robert the Bruce of Scotland dies, and his son, David II, succeeds him as King.

1330, November 17 - The Battle of Posada takes place between the Wallachian forces and the Hungarian Empire, leading to a Wallachian victory.

1343, November 14 - King Edward III of England formally establishes the Order of the Garter, one of the most prestigious orders of chivalry.

1345, November 12 - Pope Clement VI officially consecrates the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.

1347, November 28 - Emperor Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire grants privileges to the city of Prague, leading to its economic and political growth.

1356, November 24 - The Battle of Poitiers occurs during the Hundred Years' War, with English forces led by Edward, the Black Prince, defeating the French.

1362, November 1 - The Treaty of Calais is signed, ending the Breton War of Succession and recognizing John IV, Duke of Brittany, as ruler.

1378, November 18 - The Papal Schism begins with the election of Pope Urban VI, leading to a split within the Catholic Church.

1380, November 8 - The Battle of Kulikovo takes place, where the Russian forces under Dmitry Donskoy defeat the Golden Horde.

1394, November 4 - King Charles VI of France is first diagnosed with a mental illness that would affect his reign.

1399, November 1 - Henry IV of England is crowned as King of England, marking the beginning of the Lancastrian dynasty.

1400, November 9 - Death of Geoffrey Chaucer, the famous English poet known for "The Canterbury Tales."

1402, November 20 - The Battle of Ankara takes place between the forces of Timur (Tamerlane) and the Ottoman Empire, resulting in a decisive victory for Timur.

1406, November 27 - Construction of the Charles Bridge in Prague, Czech Republic, begins under the rule of Emperor Charles IV.

1417, November 11 - The Council of Constance begins, aiming to resolve the Western Schism and address other church issues.

1421, November 15 - The Siege of Meaux begins during the Hundred Years' War between England and France.

1421, November 18 -  A massive storm surge hits Zeeland and southern Holland flooding several villages and transforming a segment of reclaimed land called Grote Ward into an inland sea. Some areas that were flooded in this storm remain under water today. Up to 10.000 people perished.

1431, November 10 - Henry VI of England is crowned King of France in Paris, although his control over the French territory is limited.

1439, November 30 - The Council of Florence is convened in Italy, aimed at reunifying the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

1444, November 10 - The Battle of Varna takes place, with the Ottomans defeating a Christian Crusader army.

1456, November 24 - The printing of the Gutenberg Bible, one of the earliest major books printed using movable type, is completed.

1461, November 2 - The Lancastrian King Henry VI of England is captured after the Battle of Tewkesbury during the Wars of the Roses.

1470, November 11 - Henry VI of England is restored to the throne briefly during the Wars of the Roses.

1477, November 28 - William Caxton, an English merchant, printer, and writer, publishes his first book, "The Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophers," in London.

1483, November 2 - King Richard III of England is crowned at Westminster Abbey, marking the beginning of his short reign.

1485, November 22 - The Battle of Bosworth Field takes place, leading to the victory of Henry Tudor (Henry VII) and the end of the Wars of the Roses.

1491, November 20 - The Treaty of Granada is signed, allowing Muslims in Spain to practice their religion freely under the Catholic Monarchs.

1492, November 26 - Christopher Columbus and his crew aboard the ship "La Navidad" land on the island of Hispaniola (present-day Dominican Republic and Haiti).

1493, November 3 - Christopher Columbus first sights the island of Dominica during his second voyage to the Americas.

1493, November 19 - Christopher Columbus arrives at the island of Puerto Rico during his second voyage to the Americas.

1494, November 7 - The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed, dividing the newly discovered lands between Spain and Portugal along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands.

1497, November 11 - Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama departs on his voyage to find a sea route to India.

1499, November 26 - Perkin Warbeck, who claimed to be Richard, Duke of York (one of the "Princes in the Tower"), is hanged for his role in conspiracies against King Henry VII.

1499, November 27 - Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reaches the Mozambique coast during his journey to India.

1500, November 22 - Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral arrives at Calicut, India, marking the beginning of Portugal's presence in India.

1503, November 18 - Pope Julius II lays the foundation stone for the new St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.

1504, November 10 - The Treaty of Blois is signed, solidifying the alliance between France and Spain against the Republic of Venice.

1509, November 28 - Henry VIII becomes King of England after the death of his father, Henry VII.

1512, November 3 - The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City, painted by Michelangelo, is first unveiled to the public. More

1519, November 8 - Hernán Cortés and his Spanish conquistadors arrive at the coast of Mexico, beginning their conquest of the Aztec Empire.

1520, November 8 - Stockholm Bloodbath: Danish forces under King Christian II execute a large number of Swedish nobles in Stockholm.

1520, November 28 - Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, sponsored by Spain, becomes the first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic by sailing through the dangerous straits below South America. Although he was the mastermind of the expedition, he was killed in the Philippines before completing the trip. The first European to complete the circumnavigation was Magellan's second-in-command, Juan Sebastian de Elcano, who took over after his death. More

1528, November 6 - Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, shipwrecks near Galveston Island. The raft held survivors of an ill-fated Spanish expedition to settle Florida and becomes the first know European to reach the future State of Texas. He lived for several years among Texas Indians, learning the tribes' languages and customs. In time, he reunited with three other survivors of the original expedition. The travelers gained a reputation as healers, and their fame spread as they slowly made their way to Mexico City in 1536 after traveling nearly 2000 miles during eight years. More

1532,  November 16 - The Inca Atahualpa , taken completely by surprise is attacked and captured by Spanish conquistadors under Francisco Pizarro in Cajamarca, Peru. The Spanish forced him to pay a large ransom of tons of gold and silver. Although Atahualpa produced the ransom, the Spanish executed him anyway. More 

1534, November 3 - The English Parliament passes the Act of Supremacy, making Henry VIII the head of the Church of England.

1534, November 26 - The Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro and his men reach the Inca Empire in Peru.

1542, November 18 - Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho, sailing under the Spanish flag, explores the coast of California.

1558, November 17 - Queen Elizabeth I ascends to the English throne, marking the beginning of the Elizabethan era, a period,  when England asserted itself vigorously as a major European power in politics, commerce, and the arts.

1572, November 4 - The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre occurs in France, resulting in the killing of thousands of Huguenots (Protestants).

1582, November 3 - William Shakespeare marries Anne Hathaway in Stratford-upon-Avon, England.

1587, November 16 - Mary, Queen of Scots, is imprisoned in England after seeking refuge there and remains in captivity for 19 years.

1588, November 19 - The English defeat the Spanish Armada at the Battle of Gravelines, marking a turning point in the Anglo-Spanish War.

1597, November 28 - The Second Battle of Myeongnyang takes place during the Japanese invasions of Korea, with Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin achieving a significant victory.

1599, November 30 - The Rosicrucian manifesto, "Fama Fraternitatis," is published in Kassel, Germany, promoting the Rosicrucian mystical movement.

1600, November 8 - The Battle of Sekigahara in Japan marks the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate and the end of the Sengoku period.

1600, November 25 - After being captured, the "Princes in the Tower," Edward V and Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, are presumed to have died in the Tower of London.

1602, November 21 - The Dutch East India Company is founded, becoming one of the world's first multinational corporations.

1602, November 22 - Bartholomew Gosnold becomes the first European to discover Cape Cod in what is now Massachusetts, USA.

1605, November 5 - The Gunpowder Plot, a failed conspiracy to assassinate King James I of England and blow up the House of Lords during the Opening of Parliament is discovered. The plan was organized by Robert Catesby, a devout English Catholic who hoped to kill the Protestant King James and establish Catholic rule in England. More

1609, November 21 - Henry Hudson, an English sea explorer, is set adrift in the Hudson Bay by his mutinous crew.

1611, November 1 - William Shakespeare's play "The Tempest" is performed for the first time at Whitehall Palace in London.

1617, November 17 - The "First Thanksgiving" is celebrated by Plymouth colonists and the Wampanoag Native Americans in Massachusetts.

1620, November 11 - The Mayflower Compact is signed by Pilgrims on board the Mayflower ship in Cape Cod Bay, establishing self-government in the Plymouth Colony.

1626, November 24 - St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City is consecrated by Pope Urban VIII.

1639, November 13 - The first documented observation of a transit of Venus is made by English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks.

1642, November 24 - Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, becomes the first European to report the sighting the Island of Tasmania. He named the island Anthoonij van Diemenslandt, after his sponsor, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies. The name was later shortened to Van Diemen's Land and in 1856 it was renamed Tasmania in honor of the explorer Abel Tasman. More

1667, November 17 - Jean-Baptiste Lully, the Italian-born French composer, premieres his opera "Cadmus et Hermione" at the Palace of Versailles.

1676, November 19 - Danish scientist Ole Rømer presents the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.

1688,
November 5 - The Glorious Revolution in England culminates with the landing of William of Orange, leading to the overthrow of King James II.

1695, November 21 - English pirate Henry Every (also known as "Captain Kidd") and his crew capture the Ganj-i-Sawai, a wealthy Indian ship.

1697, November 10 - The Treaty of Ryswick is signed, ending the Nine Years' War and restoring peace in Europe.

1644, November 15 - The Battle of Fincastle takes place during the English Civil War, resulting in a victory for the Royalists.

1700, November 17 - Sweden's King Charles XII assumes the throne at the age of 18, beginning his long and eventful reign.

1701, November 23 - Anders Celsius, the Swedish astronomer and inventor of the Celsius temperature scale, is born.

1703, November 5 - The Eddystone Lighthouse in England, one of the world's earliest lighthouses, is destroyed in a storm.

1703, November 30 - The Great Storm of 1703, one of the most severe storms in British history, strikes southern England causing significant damage and loss of life.

1707, November 21 - The second Battle of Humenne takes place during the Rakoczi's War for Hungarian independence, with an Austrian victory.

1707, November 22 - The Treaty of Union is signed, merging the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1709, November 28 - A severe cold wave, known as the Great Frost, begins in Europe and continues into January 1710, causing widespread suffering and hardship.

1718, November 22 -  The notorious pirate Blackbeard, whose name is believed to have been Edward Teach is killed off the coast of North Carolina by the Royal Navy, under the command of Lieutenant Robert Maynard. Teach had become the most feared pirate in the Americas practically overnight. More

1729, November 30 - Natchez Indians massacre French settlers in the Mississippi Territory, leading to conflicts between Native Americans and European colonists.

1733, November 22 - The start of the 1733 slave insurrection on St. John in the Danish West Indies (now part of the U.S. Virgin Islands).

1755, November 1 - Lisbon, Portugal, is struck by a devastating earthquake, tsunami, and fires, resulting in significant destruction and loss of life. Gigantic fissures of up to 15 feet wide tore through the center of Lisbon. Estimates of casualties range from 30,000 to 60,000. Major damage and casualties also occurred in Spain and Northern Africa. More

1765, November 1 - The Stamp Act takes effect in the American colonies, leading to widespread protests against British taxation without representation.

1775, November 10 - The United States Marine Corps is officially established by the Continental Congress.

1776, November 16 - British forces capture Fort Washington in New York during the American Revolutionary War.

1777, November 2 - John Paul Jones Sails to the British Isles. after given command of the newly built Ranger.  He took several prizes before arriving in Brest, France in May 1778 where he was hailed as a hero. Operating out of Brest, Jones led a cruise to the Irish Sea capturing or destroying small vessels. This cruise made Jones a household name in Britain. More

1777, November 15 - The Continental Congress agrees to adopt the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. Maryland was the last of the 13 States to ratify the agreement on March 1,1781. More

1783, November 21 - The first free flight of a hot air balloon carrying a human takes place in Paris, France.  The balloon carried two men, Francois Pilatrê de Rozier and Francois Laurent, Marquis of Arlanders. The hot air balloon made of paper and silk was made by the Montgolfier brothers. More

1783, November 25 - The last British troops evacuate New York City, marking the end of the American Revolutionary War.

1789, November 21 - North Carolina becomes the 12th U.S. state to ratify the United States Constitution.

1791, November 15 - The first U.S. Catholic college, Georgetown University, is founded in Washington, D.C.

1793, November 19 - French revolutionary Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne becomes Prime Minister, marking a phase of the French Revolution.

1794, November 19 - Jay's Treaty is signed between the United States and Great Britain, resolving disputes and avoiding war.

1799, November 9 - Napoleon Bonaparte stages a coup d'état, establishing himself as First Consul of France.

1799, November 12 - American astronomer, Andrew Ellicott sees the Leonid meteor shower and records and reports the event in what it is believed to be the first time a meteor shower was recorded in North America. The Leonids are a prolific annual meteor shower associated with the comet Tempel–Tuttle . They  occur between 15 and 20 November each year and are also known for their spectacular meteor storms that occur about every 33 years.res They enter the atmosphere at 44 miles per second, and begin to glow at an altitude of around 96 miles. More

1800, November 17 - The United States Congress holds its first session in Washington, D.C., marking the city's official establishment as the nation's capital.

1800, November 19 - The U.S. Congress holds its first session in the partially completed Capitol Building in Washington, D.C.

1800, November 30 - The United States conducts its first national census, showing a population of nearly 5.3 million people.

1804, November 6 - Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, is born.

1805, November 7 - Lewis and Clark reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first recorded expedition to cross North America.1

1805, November 15 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition reaches the Pacific Ocean, completing their journey to explore the western United States.

1806, November 21 - The African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) is founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1806, November 6 - The Battle of Lübeck takes place during the War of the Fifth Coalition, with French forces defeating the Austrians.

1807, November 27 - The Portuguese Royal Family, D João VI and its court of over 10,000 people, leave Lisbon for their colony of Brazil aboard 36 vessels to  escape the invading Napoleonic troops. The travelers arrived in Rio on March 7, 1808. The stay lasted until 1820 when D João VI went back to Portugal leaving his eldest son Pedro in charge. Pedro remain in Brazil and in 1822 led the move for Brazilian independence from Portugal and declared himself Emperor. More

1808, November 10 - The Osage, were the largest tribe of the Southern Sioux people occupying what would later become the states of Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska. Several treaties starting in 1808  between the Osages and the United States resulted in the  Osage leaving their tribal lands and to settled in southeast Kansas on the Cherokee Strip. Later in 1865, in a decision that would eventually make them one of the wealthiest surviving Native American nations, the Osage tribe agreed to abandon their lands again, and move from Missouri and Arkansas to a reservation in Indian Territory in Oklahoma, site of present-day Osage County. More

1809, November 20 - The United States and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Amiens, ending hostilities during the Napoleonic Wars.

1809, November 21 - The first modern parachute is tested by André-Jacques Garnerin in France.

1810, November 6 - The Hidalgo Revolt, a precursor to the Mexican War of Independence, begins in Mexico.

1811, November 7 - Tecumseh's War culminates in the Battle of Tippecanoe, where U.S. forces led by William Henry Harrison defeat Native American forces.

1814, November 28 - The Times of London makes newspapers available to a mass audience by using automatic, steam powered presses built by German inventors Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Friedrich Bauer  More

1820, November 23 - A sperm whale, believed to have inspired Herman Melville's novel "Moby-Dick," attacks the Essex, an American whaling ship. More

1824, November 7 - The presidential election in the United States is decided by the House of Representatives, with John Quincy Adams becoming president.

1831, November 11 - Nat Turner's slave rebellion begins in Southampton County, Virginia.

1837, November 7 - Elijah Parish Lovejoy was killed by a pro-slavery mob while defending the site of his anti-slavery newspaper the St. Louis Observer. His death both deeply affected many individuals who opposed slavery and greatly strengthened the cause of abolition. More

1839, November 7 - The Newport Rising, a Chartist-led rebellion in Wales, is suppressed by British forces. - 

1844, November 5 - Democratic candidate James K. Polk defeated Whig Party candidate Henry Clay to become the eleventh president of the United States. #the-napoleon-of-the-stump">More

1845, November 29 - The Sonderbund War, a civil war in Switzerland, begins over religious and political disputes.

1859, November 24 - Charles Darwin’s "On the origin of species by means of natural selection" was published in London. The book was popular and the first edition sold out on the first day. It is considered to be one of the most important books on biology ever printed. The book was translated into 11 languages during Darwin's life time. More

1860,  November 6 -  Abraham Lincoln is elected as the 16th President of the United States, replacing James Buchanan. Before  Lincoln’s election was certified on February 15, 1861, seven southern states had left the Union  and the Confederate States of America with Jefferson Davis as its President had been established. From 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the Union through the American Civil War and succeeded in defeating the insurgent Confederacy, abolishing slavery, expanding the power of the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy. More

1863, November 19 - President Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address during the ceremony to consecrate the grounds of what eventually became the Gettysburg National Cemetery. Four months earlier it had been the site the bloodiest battle of the Civil War, where more than 10,000 soldiers were killed or mortally wounded, 30,000 injured, and 10,000 captured or went missing. The Battle of Gettysburg proved to be the turning point of the war; Gen. Robert E. Lee’s defeat and retreat marked the last Confederate invasion of northern territory. It also marked the beginning of the southern Army’s decline. President Lincoln's 271 words, two minute speech become one of the most memorable speeches in American history as it served as a reminder to a war-weary public as to why the Union had to fight and win the Civil War. 

#replaceparse14#####quot;);if(m){m=e+m;if(d">1864, November, 26 - Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll gives Alice the manuscript of Alice's Adventures Under Ground, dedicating it as "A Christmas Gift to a Dear Child in Memory of a Summer's Day". and with illustrations by Carroll. The published version of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is about twice the length of Alice's Adventures Under Ground and includes episodes, such as the Mad Tea-Party, that did not appear in the manuscript and all 42  wood-engraved illustrations are by John Tenniel.The only known manuscript copy of Under Ground is held in the British Library. Macmillan published a facsimile of the manuscript in 1886.

1867, November 15 - The first telegraphic ticker tape, goes live in New York city. It was the creation of Edward Calahan, who was an employee of the American Telegraph Company. Four years later, Thomas Edison improved upon Calahan's invention and patented it launching a revolution in the financial markets. The model 32A ticker was Edison's very first invention. The weakness of mechanical stock tickers showed itself during the Crash of 29, when prices were changing so quickly, that the tickers couldn't keep up. As technology evolved, that dissemination became faster and almost real-time, as we can see today. More

1869, November 17 - The Suez Canal opens after 10 years of construction. The Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. It is a key trade route between Europe and Asia. The Suez Canal went through a major one year expansion in 2014 and reopened in 2015. More   

1871. November 10 - Henry Morton Stanley meets Dr. David Livingstone after nearly eight months of search, in Ujiji, a small village on the shore of Lake Tanganyika in present day Tanzania. Dr. Livingstone had been traveling in Central Africa without contact with the Western world for 7 years. The first words from Stanley were the now famous "Dr. Livingston I presume? More

1872, November 5 - Susan B. Anthony and other women's suffrage activists are arrested for voting in the U.S. presidential election.  After casting her ballot in  her hometown of Rochester, New York, she was arrested, indicted, tried, and convicted for voting illegally. She later described her trial as “the greatest judicial outrage history has ever recorded. More 

1874, November 18 - The National Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is founded in the United States.

1876, November 7 - Rutherford B. Hayes is elected President of the United States in one of the most disputed elections in U.S. history.

1883, November 18 - The United States adopts Standard Time Zones, establishing the system still in use today.

1884, November 4 - Democrat Grover Cleveland defeats Republican James G. Blaine Becoming the 22nd President of the United States and the first Democrat to occupy the White House after the Civil War. President Grover Cleveland was the only President to leave the White House and return for a second term four years later becoming also the 24th President. More 

1885, November 7 - Canada's transcontinental railway is completed as Donald Smith, later known as Lord Strathcona, drives the last spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at Craigellachie, BC.  More

1889, November 2 - North Dakota is admitted to the United States of America becoming the 39th State.

1889, November 2 - South Dakota is admitted to the United States of America becoming the 40h State.

1889, November 8 - Montana is admitted to the United States of America becoming the 41st State.

1889, November 11 - Washington is admitted to the United States Union becoming the 42nd State.

1893, November 28 - Women in New Zealand become the first in the world to vote in a national election.

1895, November 8 - Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovers X-rays while experimenting with cathode rays. More

1895, November 28 - The first auto race in the U.S. is held in Chicago on Thanksgiving Day. The race was promoted by H. H. Kohlsaat, the publisher of the Chicago Times-Herald. the Duryea, built and driven by J. Frank Duryea crossed the finish line first, 7 hours and 53 minutes later, with an average speed of 7 miles per hour. The official distance was 54.36 miles, and this was accomplished on 3.5 gallons of gas.  More

1895, November 27 -  Alfred Bernhard Nobel signed the final version of his will, leaving the bulk of his immense fortune to a fund for the financing of annual honorary awards to be made in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine or physiology, literature and peace. He died a year later on December 1896. The first Nobel Prizes were awarded in 1901. More

1898, November 10 - The Wilmington Insurrection of 1898, a violent coup d'état in Wilmington, North Carolina, takes place, resulting in significant racial violence and political change.

1903, November 3 - Panama declares independence from Colombia with U.S, Support while simultaneously negotiating a treaty granting the U.S. the right to construct the canal. The United States recognized Panama three days later The treaty that allowed the United States to build and operate a canal that traversed Panama. The treaty also gave the United States the right to govern a ten-mile wide Canal Zone that encompassed the waterway, which was completed in 1914. In 1979, the United States transferred control of the Canal Zone to Panama, and in 1999 transferred control and responsibility for the Canal to Panama. More

1903, November 10 - Mary Anderson is granted a patent for a windshield wiper. The United States Patent Office awarded Anderson patent number 743,801 for her Window Cleaning device which consisted of a lever inside the vehicle that controlled a rubber blade on the outside of the windshield. More

1907, November 16 - Oklahoma is admitted to the United States of American.

1910, November 3 - Dr. Crippen is convicted in London for the murder of his wife, making it one of the first cases solved with the help of wireless communication.

1910, November 20 - The Mexican Revolution begins as Francisco Madero, speaking at San Luis Potosi, in San Antonio, Texas, calls for an uprising against the elitist government and oligarchical policies of Porfirio Díaz who had already being in power for 33 years and had just just declared himself the winner after a mock election against Madero and was starting his 7th term as president. Although the revolt failed, it kindled revolutionary movements led by Pascual Orozco, Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. All culminating with Díaz resignation in May 25,1911 and Madero being elected president, Madero was assassinated early in 1913 by Victoriano Huerta, a commander of the federal forces who dissolved the congress and assumed power. More upheavals followed and the revolution continued until 1920 when General Álvaro Obregón rose to power. More

1912, November 5 - Woodrow Wilson becomes the 28th President of the U.S. by defeating the incumbent William H. Taft and former president Theodore Roosevelt in the 1912 presidential election with a landslide victory in the electoral college and just 41.8% of the popular vote, the lowest vote share for a victorious presidential candidate since 1860. More

1914. November 2  - Russia declares war on Turkey, following the shelling of Russian ports and the sinking of Russian ships in the Black Sea by Turkey, 

1914, November 2 - Great Britain and France declared war on Turkey respecting their agreement with Russia, widening the conflict of World War I.

1916, November 7 -  Jeannette Rankin becomes the first woman in the history of the nation to win a seat in the U.S. Congress. when she is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives for the State of Montana. More

1916, November 21 - The Hospital ship HM Britannic, Sister ship to the Titanic, sinks on her sixth voyage when she struck a mine and sank off the Greek coast in the Agean Sea. More than 1,000 crew, doctors and nurses were on board, and 30 people lost their lives. The Britannic sank in 55 minutes and was the largest ship lost in the First World War. More

1917, November 2 - The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government in 1917 during the First World War announcing its support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a small minority Jewish population. The statement came in the form of a letter from Britain’s then-foreign secretary, Arthur Balfour, addressed to Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild, More

1917, November 7 - The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia begins with the storming of the Winter Palace in Petrograd (St. Petersburg), leading to the establishment of Soviet power.  More

1918, November 11 - WWI Armistice on the Western Front also known as the Armistice of Compiègne is officially signed. After more than four years of fighting and the loss of millions of lives, the guns on the Western Front fell silent. The armistice between Germany and the Allies was the first step to ending World War I. More

1919, November 11 - World War I ends with the signing of the Armistice of Compiègne, marking the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front.

1922, November 4 - British archaeologist Howard Carter discovers the entrance to the tomb of Tutankhamun in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. More

1923, November 8 - Adolf Hitler's first attempted coup, the Beer Hall Putsch, is foiled in Munich, Germany.

1926, November 23 - The fifth Imperial conference, hosted by King-Emperor George V, ends. The Imperial Conference brought together the prime ministers of the Dominions of the British Empire and it was held in London. The conference was notable for establishing the principle that the dominions are all equal in status, and "autonomous communities within the British Empire" not subordinate to the United Kingdom. The term "Commonwealth" was officially adopted to describe the community.

1929, November 28 - Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Jr., USN along with pilot Bernt Balchen, co-pilot/radioman Harold June, and photographer Ashley McKinley, make their historic first-flight over the South Pole, in 18 hours, 41 minutes. More

1930, November 5 -  Sinclair Lewis wins the Nobel Prize for Literature, the first American to receive the honor.  More

1935, November 22 - The Flying boat "China Clipper" lifts off the waters of San Francisco Bay, California, carrying 58 mailbags, weighing 1,837 lbs, containing 110,865 specially stamped letters on the first trans-Pacific airmail flight. More

1936, November 25 - The Anti-Comintern Pact is signed between Germany and Japan, laying the groundwork for the Axis Powers during World War II.

1938, November 9 - Kristallnacht or the Night of Broken Glass, a massive, coordinated attack on Jews throughout Greater Germany takes place. The German authorities looked on without intervening as Jewish homes, hospitals and schools were ransacked and buildings were demolished. The name Kristallnacht (literally 'Crystal Night') comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the attack. More 

1939, November 30 - The Soviet Union invades Finland starting what is sometimes call the "Winter War".  Though small and under-resourced, the Finnish Army was resilient, well-led and was able to use knowledge of the terrain to good effect. Despite the overwhelming odds, Finland resisted for three months with little outside assistance. However, it was only a matter of time before the balance of power tipped in the Soviet Union’s favor. Finland was forced to sign the Treaty of Moscow on 12 March 1940, which ceded 11 per cent of its territory to the Soviet Union. More

1940, November 5 - Franklin D. Roosevelt is reelected as President of the United States for an unprecedented third term. More

1940, November 7 -  The Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington State collapses More 

1942, November 8 - Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North Africa during World War II, begins.

1942, November 19 - Operation Uranus: Soviet Marshal Georgi Zhukov’s Stalingrad trap for the German Army is ready and a devastating attack is unleashed. More 

1943, November 29 - The Tehran Conference, a four day meeting between U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin begins in Tehran, Iran. The three leaders coordinated their military strategy against Germany and Japan and made a number of important decisions concerning the post World War II era. More

1944, November 7 - President Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected to an unprecedented fourth term by defeating Thomas Dewey by more than three and a half million votes and a 333 Electoral College vote margin. FDR would die on April 12, 1945, at the age of 63 from complications of high blood pressure. More

1945, November 20 - The Nuremberg Trials of Nazi war criminals begin in Germany. More

1947, November 2 - Howard Hughes flies the H-4 Hercules nicknamed the Spruce Goose. It was the largest, heaviest and most expensive plane ever built. Yet aside from a one-mile test flight at 70ft (20m), it never flew again. The plane was designed under an Air Force contract to carry 750 troops or one Sherman tank up to 5,000 miles and at a cruising speed above 250 mph at up to 21,000ft (6,400m) across the Atlantic, thus avoiding Nazi U-boats.. Shortages of materials and in-fighting with business partner Henry Kaiser meant that the only prototype ever built was not completed until 1947, two years after the war ended. More

1947, November 29 - The United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution (not implemented) calling for the partition of Palestine into two separate states—an Arab and a Jewish one — (Map) that would retain an economic union with Jerusalem internationalized (Resolution 181 (II) More

1950, November 25 -  “The Great Appalachian Storm of 1950,”  system blanketed areas from western Pennsylvania southward deep into West Virginia with over 30 inches of snow for several days. Some locations received more than 50 inches of snow, and Coburn Creek, West Virginia, reported a staggering 62 inches of snow fall. More

1952, November 4 - The United States conducts its first successful hydrogen bomb test, code-named "Ivy Mike." More

1952, November 4 -  Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected president. A popular World War II general who ran on the slogan “I Like Ike,” Eisenhower easily defeated Democrat Adlai Stevenson becoming the the 34th president of the United States.

1954, November 12 - Ellis Island  Immigration Gateway is officially closed. The processing center began receiving arriving immigrants on January 1, 1892.  Over the next 62 years, more than 12 million immigrants would arrive in the United States via Ellis Island. More 

1954, November 30 - A meteorite crashes through the roof of a home near Sylacauga, Talladega County, Alabama, striking resident Ann E. Hodges. Hodges was the first person in modern history to have reportedly been injured by a meteorite. The meteorite, which weighs about eight and one-half pounds, is on permanent display at the Alabama Museum of Natural History at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. More

1956, November 1 - The Suez Crisis begins when Israel invades the Sinai Peninsula, leading to international tensions and intervention. More

1956, November 4 - Soviet troops move against Budapest with great force to crush a nascent rebellion in Budapest, the capital of the Soviet satellite state of Hungary. Over the course of the next several days, thousands of Hungarians were killed by Red Army troops. Hundreds of thousands more fled to the West, seeking asylum. More

1957, November 3 - The Soviet Union launches a dog into space, the first animal in Orbit More

1962, November 6 - The U.N. General Assembly requested Member States to take specific measures to bring about the abandonment of apartheid in South Africa, including breaking of diplomatic, trade and transport relations. It also established a Special Committee to follow developments and report to the General Assembly and the Security Council. More

1963, November 2 - Generals in the South Vietnamese Army depose President Ngo Dinh Diem and assassinate Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu. More

1963, November 22 - President John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. More

1968, November 5 - Richard Nixon is  elected as the 37th President of the United States (1969-1974) after previously serving as a U.S. Representative and a U.S. Senator from California. He became the only President to ever resign the office, as a result of the Watergate scandal. More

1969, November 10 - Sesame Street, a beloved educational children's television program, premieres in the United States.

1970, November 12 - The Bhola cyclone, the deadliest tropical cyclone ever recorded, and one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern times occurred on this day in East Pakistan, now Bangladesh. and India's West Bengal. The estimated fatalities were at least 300,000 and possibly as many as 500,000. primarily as a result of the storm surge that flooded much of the low-lying islands of the Ganges Delta. More

1971, November 12 - Congress changes the status of Arches to National Park in recognition  of over 10,000 years of human history that flourished in this now-famous landscape of rock. Located in eastern Utah, U.S., on the Colorado River just north of Moab and northeast of Canyon lands National Park, it had been previously established as a National Monument in 1929. More

1971, November 24 - An unidentified man hijacks Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 305, a Boeing 727 aircraft, in United States during a flight from Portland, Oregon, to Seattle, Washington.  The hijacker, nicknamed D. B. Cooper by the media tells a flight attendant he is armed with a bomb, demanded $200,000 in ransom (equivalent to about $1,500,000 in 2023). He later parachuted out of the aircraft with the ransom money; despite an extensive manhunt, he was never identified or caught. More

1972, November 7 - Richard Nixon is re-elected President of the United States after defeating Senator George McGovern, Democrat from South Dakota. On the evening of August 8, 1974, President Nixon addressed the nation and announced his intention to resign. The President’s resignation letter is addressed to Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, who initialed it at 11:35 a.m. More

1974, November 13 - Karen Silkwood, an American chemical technician and whistleblower, dies under suspicious circumstances while investigating safety concerns at a nuclear facility. More

1974, November 24 - Fossils of one of the oldest known human ancestors, an Australopithecus afarensis specimen nicknamed “Lucy,” were discovered in Hadar, Ethiopia's Awash Valley. Lucy, about 3.2 million years old, stood only a meter (3.5 feet) tall. She had powerful arms and long, curved toes that paleontologists think allowed her to climb trees as well as walk upright. More

1979, November 4 - Iranian students seized the embassy and detained more than 50 Americans, ranging from the Chargé d’Affaires to the most junior members of the staff, as hostages. The Iranians held the American diplomats hostage for 444 days. More 

1979, November 29 - New Zealand's flight TE901 crashes on Antarctica' s Mt Erebus volcano during a sightseeing trip. All 257 people on board  were killed.
 
1980, November 4 - Ronald Reagan is elected President of the United States, defeating incumbent Jimmy Carter.

1980, November 12 - The U.S. space probe Voyager 1 reaches the planet Saturn. More

1982, November 13 - The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is dedicated. The most prominent feature of the memorial is a massive wall that lists the names of the more than 58,000 servicemen and women who lost their lives during the Vietnam War. About 2,7 Million U.S. Service members served in Vietnam. including 265,000 women.  It's the most-visited memorial on the National Mall in Washington, attracting more than 5 million people each year. More 

1985, November 13 -  The volcano Nevado del Ruiz, located about 130 kilometers from Colombia’s capital city of Bogotá, erupts spewing a violent mix of hot ash and lava into the atmosphere and causing nearly 30 meters high mudflows through the countryside where more than 23,000 people were killed most of them in the town of Armero. More

1985, November 19 - The Geneva Summit, the first meeting between U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev starts. The two leaders met for two days to discuss the Cold War-era arms race, primarily the possibility of reducing the number of nuclear weapons. Hosted in Geneva, Switzerland, the meeting was the first American-Soviet summit in more than six years. More

1985, November 20 - US Navy intelligence analyst Jonathan Pollard arrested for spying and passing classified information to Israel; he received a life sentence on Nov. 1, 1987. He was paroled in 2015 after 30 years in prison and is now living in Israel.

1986, November 25 - The Iran-Contra scandal unravels - On a televised press conference, President Reagan assures viewers that he was “not fully informed on the nature of the activities undertaken in connection with this initiative”  and announces that he was relieving the officials involved of their duties. Prior to this, on October 5, a US aircraft loaded with materials for the Contras was shot down over Nicaragua by the Sandinista government. On November 3, the Lebanese weekly Al-Shiraa unveiled the whole affair which consisted of secretly selling weapons to Iran, and using the profits to fund the Contras. In 1985 the US made two shipments of arms to Iran via Israel. The following year, it handled the shipments itself. One was delivered to Tehran at the end of May 1986 by Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, a member of the NSC. North also delivered a bible signed by President Reagan. More  

1988, November 22 - The first B-2 is displayed to the public as it was rolled out of its hangar at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California. Its first flight was July 17, 1989. More

1989, November 9 - The Berlin Wall, which had divided East and West Berlin for nearly 30 years, is opened, leading to the eventual reunification of Germany. More

1990, November 12 - Tim Berners-Lee publishes a formal proposal for the World Wide Web, laying the foundation for the internet as we know it. More  

1990, November 25 - The 50-year old Seattle's Lacey V. Murrow Bridge breaks apart and plunges into the mud beneath Lake Washington after a week of high winds and rain while undergoing $35.6 million renovation. It is later discovered that hatchways into the concrete pontoon air pockets were left open, allowing water to enter. A new Lacey V. Murrow Bridge opened the following year. More

1993, November 1 - The European Union is officially established as the Maastricht Treaty comes into force. More

1995, November 4 - Yitzhak Rabin, the fifth prime minister of Israel, is assassinated. The assassin, an Israeli ultra nationalist named Yigal Amir, radically opposed Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin's peace initiative, particularly the signing of the Oslo Accords. More 

1998, November 20 - The first module of the International Space Station, named Zarya, is launched into orbit.

2000, November 2 - NASA Astronaut Bill Shepherd and cosmonauts Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev become the first crew to reside onboard the station. Expedition 1 spent four months onboard completing tasks necessary to bring the ISS "to life" and began what is now more than 20 years of continuous human presence in space. More

2000, November 7 - The United States presidential election between George W. Bush and Al Gore leads to a disputed result, eventually resolved by the Supreme Court in favor of Bush.

2001, November 10 - American Airlines Flight 587, an Airbus A300-600, N14053, crashes in Queens, New York, shortly after takeoff from Kennedy International Airport. All 260 people on board and five people on the ground died in the crash. More

2003, November 7 - The United Nations General Assembly adopted a Joint Statement on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the Holodomor – a deliberate famine inflicted in 1932-’33 by the Soviet regime that resulted in the starvation of millions of Ukrainians-  which states: “The Holodomor – The Great Famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine – took life from 7 to 10 million innocent people and became a national tragedy for the Ukrainian people”  The Holodomor has been defined as an act of genocide by many nations around the world. It is commemorated on the 4th Saturday in November, More

2003, November 12 - The United States launches Operation Iron Hammer during the Iraq War.

2004, November 2 - George W. Bush is reelected as President of the United States, defeating John Kerry.

2005, November 9 - A series of coordinated bombings in Amman, Jordan, target three hotels, killing 60 people and injuring hundreds.
 
2008, November 4 - Barack Obama is elected President of the United States defeating Republican John McCain, thus becoming the first Black president of the United States, 

2012, November 6 - Barack Obama is reelected as President of the United States, defeating Mitt Romney.

2013, November 5 - India launched its first interplanetary spacecraft, the Mars Orbiter Mission. India built Mangalyaan (“Mars craft” in English) to study the Red Planet and test key technologies required for exploring the inner solar system. The Mangalyaan spacecraft successfully entered Mars orbit on September 23, 2014, More

2013, November 24 - A historic agreement is reached between Iran and six world powers, known as the Joint Plan of Action, to limit Iran's nuclear program.

2014, November 12 - The Rosetta spacecraft's Philae lander successfully lands on Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.

2015, November 13 - A series of coordinated terrorist attacks in Paris, France, leave 130 people dead and hundreds injured.

2016, November 4 - The Paris Agreement enters into force. A legally binding international treaty on climate change was adopted by 196 Parties at the UN Climate Change Conference (COP21) in Paris, France, on December 12, 2015. Its overarching goal is to hold “the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels” and pursue efforts “to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.” More

2016, November 8 - Donald Trump is elected as President of the United States, defeating Hillary Clinton.

2017, November 18 - The Zimbabwean military initiates a coup d'état, leading to the resignation of President Robert Mugabe after 37 years in power.

2018, November 11 - The 100th anniversary of the end of World War I is commemorated worldwide.

2019, November 20 - SpaceX launches its Starship prototype for the first time on a suborbital flight.

2020, November 3 - Joe Biden is elected as the 46th President of the United States, defeating incumbent President Donald Trump.

2020, November 10 - Pharmaceutical companies Pfizer and BioNTech announce positive results from their COVID-19 vaccine trial.

2020, November 28 - Iranian nuclear scientist Mohsen Fakhrizadeh is assassinated near Tehran, leading to tensions in the region.

2020, November 30 - NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft successfully collects a sample from the asteroid Bennu.

2021, November 4 - The United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) concludes in Glasgow, Scotland, with commitments to address climate change.

2021, November 8 - Pfizer-BioNTech's COVID-19 vaccine receives full approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Online History Resources

These are some of the many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of September, listed by year.  Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate.

42 BCE, October 23 -  Marcus Junius Brutus, one of the conspirators in the assassination of Julius Caesar dies by suicide after being defeated in battle by Antony in Philippi. Greece.

70 CE, October - The Siege of Jerusalem concludes with the sacking and destruction of the Second Temple by the Roman Empire.

312 CE, October 28 - Constantine the Great defeats Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, becoming the sole Roman Emperor.

517, October 31 - Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses against papal indulgences, or the atonement of sins through monetary payment, on the door of the church at Wittenberg, Germany. Within less than four years, the Catholic Church would brand Luther a heretic, and the Holy Roman Empire would condemn him as an outlaw. This  marked the beginning of the  Protestant Reformation, a turning point in history that would over time, transform not only the Christian faith, but also the politics and society of all of Europe. Some historians have argued that this event didn't happen as described but rather the Theses were delivered to the local archbishop. More

732 CE, October 10 - The Battle of Tours takes place in France, where Frankish forces under Charles Martel defeat the Umayyad Caliphate,  The large invading Islamic army was led by Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi Abd al Rahman. During the battle, the Franks defeated the Islamic army and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. This battle stopped the northward advance of Islam from the Iberian peninsula, and is considered by most historians to be of macro historical importance, in that it halted the Islamic conquests, during a period in which Islam was conquering the remains of the old Roman and Persian Empires. More

787 CE, October - The Second Council of Nicaea is held, addressing the use of religious images in the Byzantine Empire.

846 CE, October - The Great Heathen Army of Vikings attacks Rome, sacking the city and its surroundings.

877 CE October 8 - The Battle of the Aisne takes place in present-day France, with Louis the Stammerer leading the West Franks against the Vikings.

992 CE, October - The founding of the Fatimid Caliphate by Imam Al-Mahdi Billah in North Africa.

1000, October - The Icelandic parliament, Althing, is established, making it one of the oldest extant parliamentary institutions in the world.

1000, October - The construction of the Brihadisvara Temple in India is completed, dedicated to the Hindu deity Shiva.

1000, October 18 - Leif Erikson, the Norse explorer, is believed to have landed in North America, possibly in present-day Canada.

1002 CE, October - King Æthelred the Unready orders the St. Brice's Day massacre, leading to the killing of many Danes in England.

1009, October 18 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is destroyed by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.

1066, October 14 - The Battle of Hastings takes place, resulting in William the Conqueror's victory over King Harold II of England. More

1097, October - The Crusaders lay siege to Antioch during the First Crusade.

1147, October - The Second Crusade begins, with European forces launching campaigns to the Holy Land.

1200, October - The Maya civilization reaches its peak in the Yucatan Peninsula, with cities like Chichen Itza flourishing.

1206, October 15 - Genghis Khan is proclaimed the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.

1227, October - The Mongol Empire, under Genghis Khan's leadership, conquers the Jin Dynasty in China.

1307, October 13 - King Philip IV of France orders the arrest of the Knights Templar, leading to their persecution.

1340, October 30 - The Battle of Salado, also known as the Battle of Tarifa is fought between the armies of King Afonso IV of Portugal and King Alfonso XI of Castile against those of Sultan Abu al-Hasan 'Ali of the Marinid dynasty and Yusuf I of Granada, resulting in a Christian victory. More

1415, October 25 - The Battle of Agincourt takes place during the Hundred Years' War, resulting in a significant English victory over the French.

1424, October - The Yongle Emperor of China moves the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, initiating the construction of the Forbidden City.

1435, October - The Congress of Arras is held, aiming to negotiate peace during the Hundred Years' War.

1448, October 17 - The Battle of Kosovo takes place between the Ottoman Empire and a coalition of Balkan states, with the Ottomans emerging victorious.

1453, October 29 - The Hundred Years' War comes to an end with the recapture of Bordeaux by the French, reclaiming their last possession in the conflict.

1466, October 8 - The Second Peace of Thorn is signed, ending the Thirteen Years' War and defining the borders between the Teutonic Knights and Poland-Lithuania.

1470, October - King Edward IV of England returns from exile, reclaiming the throne during the Wars of the Roses.

1483, October 2 - King Richard III of England is crowned, following the death of his nephew Edward V.

1485, October 22 - The Battle of Bosworth Field takes place, resulting in the defeat of Richard III and the ascension of Henry VII as King of England.

1486, October - The Malleus Maleficarum, a treatise on witchcraft, is first published in Germany.

1489, October 30 - The Treaty of Medina del Campo is signed, establishing a marriage alliance between the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal.

1492, October 12 -  Christopher Columbus and his crew make landfall in the present day Bahamas, marking the European discovery of the Americas. More

1492, October 27 - The Alhambra Decree is issued by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, ordering the expulsion of Jews from the country.

1493, October - Christopher Columbus arrives back in Spain, concluding his first voyage to the New World.

1494, October - The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed between Spain and Portugal, dividing the newly discovered lands outside Europe.

1495, October 5 - King Charles VIII of France invades Italy, initiating the Italian Wars.

1497, October 19 - Italian explorer John Cabot lands in North America, possibly in Newfoundland.

1498, October 12 - Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reaches India, opening the sea route to the East.

1499, October - Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I dies in captivity, leading to the Ottoman Interregnum and subsequent rise of Selim I.

1501, October - Michelangelo begins work on his famous statue "David" in Florence, Italy.

1502, October - Christopher Columbus sets sail on his fourth and final voyage to the Americas.

1503, October - Pope Julius II lays the foundation stone for the new St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.

1512, October 28 - Michelangelo's artwork on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City is unveiled to the public.

1517, October 31 - Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, sparking the Protestant Reformation.

1520, October - The Aztec Empire's ruler, Moctezuma II, is taken captive by Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés.

1534, October 18 - The English Parliament passes the Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII the head of the Church of England.

1535, October - Jacques Cartier's second voyage to Canada concludes, with the establishment of a settlement at Quebec.

1540, October - The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) is formally approved by Pope Paul III.

1542, October - Explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo becomes the first European to set foot on the West Coast of the United States.

1552, October - Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible captures Kazan, an important victory in the Russo-Kazan Wars.

1553, October 1 -  Coronation of Queen Mary I of England and Ireland takes place at Westminster Abbey, London, This was the first coronation of a queen regnant in England, a female ruler in her own right. More 

1562, October - The Edict of Saint-Germain is signed, granting limited religious freedom to French Protestants (Huguenots).

1571, October 7 - The Battle of Lepanto takes place, with the Holy League defeating the Ottoman Empire's navy in a significant naval battle.

1580, October 8 - The Spanish army captures Lisbon, effectively uniting the crowns of Portugal and Spain under Philip II.

1582, October 15 - The Gregorian calendar is introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, skipping several days to realign the calendar with astronomical events.

1586, October 25 - The trial of Mary, Queen of Scots, begins in England, eventually leading to her execution.

1597, October - Toyotomi Hideyoshi's forces emerge victorious in the Battle of Myeongnyang against the Japanese invasions of Korea.

1598, October 18 - The Treaty of Vervins is signed, ending the war between Spain and France.

1599, October - The Battle of Sellenberk takes place, marking a significant conflict during the Long War between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy.

1599, October 27 - The Treaty of Weissenburg is signed, ending the War of the Jülich Succession between Spain and the Dutch Republic.

1600, October - The Battle of Sekigahara takes place in Japan, leading to Tokugawa Ieyasu's rise to power and the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate.

1601, October - Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, dies under mysterious circumstances.

1602, October - Dutch navigator and merchant Willem Janszoon becomes the first recorded European to set foot on Australian soil.

1604, October 9 - Supernova Kepler's Star becomes visible, leading to Johannes Kepler's study of its movement.

1605, October 5 - The Battle of Kircholm occurs between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden.

1607, October 26 - The Dutch East India Company (VOC) is established to facilitate colonial trade.

1608, October 14 - English explorer Henry Hudson reaches the river that now bears his name during his search for the Northwest Passage.

1610, October - The Italian scientist Galileo Galilei discovers the four largest moons of Jupiter, now known as the Galilean moons.

1613, October 12 - The new Russian Tsar, Michael Romanov, is elected, marking the beginning of the Romanov dynasty.

1618, October 29 - Sir Walter Raleigh is executed outside the Palace of Westminster. He was one of the most famous explorers of Elizabeth I's reign and a favorite of the Queen's. Raleigh was also a scholar and a poet, but he is usually remembered for introducing the essential potato, and the addictive tobacco. #gs.7ktlro">More

1628, October 11 - The War of the Mantuan Succession begins, a conflict between France and the Habsburg Monarchy over control of the Duchy of Mantua.

1635, October 28 - The Treaty of Sztumska Wieś is signed, ending the Polish-Swedish War and recognizing Sweden's control over Livonia.

1639, October - The Treaty of Hartford ends the Pequot War between the Pequot tribe and English settlers in New England.

1641, October - The Irish Rebellion of 1641 begins, marking a significant conflict between Catholics and Protestants in Ireland.

1651, October 1 - English Parliamentarian forces under Oliver Cromwell decisively defeat the Royalists at the Battle of Worcester.

1659, October 27 - Quakers William Robinson, Marmaduke Stephenson are hanged in Boston by the Puritans. Mary Dyer was also  scheduled to be hanged. However, her life was spared by a last minute reprieve. The day after her reprieve, Mary wrote to the General Court refusing to accept her pardon's terms. While the General Court attempted to soften the terms, Mary left for Rhode Island only to return in the spring of 1660. She was resolute; either the authorities would change their laws or they would need to hang a woman. She was publicly hanged on June 1, 1660. More
  
1660, October 13 - The Treaty of Oliva is signed, ending the Second Northern War and recognizing Swedish territorial losses.

1665, October - The Great Plague of London reaches its peak, causing widespread death and disruption.

1675, October - King Philip's War, a conflict between Native American tribes and English settlers, concludes with the Treaty of Casco.

1678, October - The Popish Plot, a fabricated conspiracy against King Charles II of England, emerges, leading to anti-Catholic sentiment.

1683, October 6 - The first Mennonites to establish a permanent settlement in North America arrived in Philadelphia. Invited to the city by its Quaker founder, William Penn, they settled in Germantown, then a small village about six miles north of the city. More

1683, October 14 - The Battle of Vienna takes place, with the Holy League forces defeating the Ottoman Empire and ending their siege of Vienna.

1685, October - King Louis XIV of France revokes the Edict of Nantes, leading to the persecution of Huguenots and the weakening of religious tolerance.

1688, October 22 - The Glorious Revolution begins as William of Orange lands in England to challenge King James II's rule.

1692, October - The Salem witch trials conclude in Massachusetts with several executions and imprisonments.

1697, October - The Treaty of Ryswick is signed, ending the Nine Years' War and restoring the status quo in Europe.

1699, October - The Treaty of Karlowitz is signed, marking the end of the Great Turkish War and resulting in territorial changes in southeastern Europe.

1608, October 2 - Fire destroys most of the Palace of Whitehall in London.

1609, October - Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei demonstrates his newly built telescope to Venetian lawmakers.

1616, October 9 - Dutch sea captain Dirk Hartog makes the second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil.

1701, October - The Collegiate School of Connecticut (later Yale University) is founded in New Haven, Connecticut.

1707,
 October 22 - The Acts of Union unite the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1708, October - The Siege of Lille during the War of the Spanish Succession concludes with the city's surrender to Allied forces.

1710, October 11 - The Port Royal earthquake strikes Jamaica, causing widespread destruction and loss of life.

1720, October - The South Sea Bubble, a financial crisis in England, reaches its peak, leading to economic turmoil.

1737, October 20 - The Battle of Soor takes place during the War of the Austrian Succession, with the Austrian army defeating the French.

1740, October 20 - Maria Theresa becomes the ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy following the death of her father, Emperor Charles VI.

1751, October - The St. Petersburg State University is founded by Empress Elizabeth of Russia.

1755, October - The Lisbon earthquake and tsunami strike Portugal, resulting in massive destruction and loss of life.

1760, October 25 - George III becomes King of Great Britain following the death of his grandfather, George II.

1764, October 25 - Abigail Smith married a young lawyer from Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts, by the name of John Adams, who would become, some thirty years later, the second president of the United States. Abigail Adams who was both the wife and the mother of a president shares that distinction with Barbara Bush. More

1777, October 17 - The British forces, led by General John Burgoyne, surrender to the American Continental Army at the Battle of Saratoga, a turning point in the American Revolutionary War.

1781, October 19 - The Siege of Yorktown concludes with the surrender of British General Cornwallis to American and French forces, effectively ending major combat in the American Revolutionary leading to the end of British rule in the colonies and the birth of a new nation — the United States of America. More
 
1789, October - The French Revolution begins with the Women's March on Versailles, prompting King Louis XVI to return to Paris.

1793, October 16 - Marie Antoinette, the former Queen of France, is executed by guillotine during the French Revolution.

1797, October - The Treaty of Campo Formio is signed, ending the War of the First Coalition and marking significant territorial changes.

1799, October 9 - Napoleon Bonaparte stages a coup d'état, overthrowing the French Directory and establishing the French Consulate.

1703,
 October 23 - The Eddystone Lighthouse off the coast of Cornwall, England, is completely destroyed by a storm.

1707, October 28 - The Hōei earthquake strikes Japan, causing widespread damage and loss of life.

1746, October - The Battle of Rocoux occurs during the War of the Austrian Succession, with French forces defeating an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army.

1758, October - The Siege of Louisbourg during the French and Indian War ends with British forces capturing the fortress of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia.

1787, October 27 - The Federalist Papers. The first in a series of eighty-five essays by “Publius,” the pen name of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, appeared in the Independent Journal, a New York newspaper. Publius urged New Yorkers to support ratification of the Constitution approved by the Constitutional Convention on September 17, 1787. #the-federalist-papers">More

1796, October 19 - A mysterious editorial from a writer named Phocion appeared in the Gazette of the United States, a popular Federalist newspaper in Philadelphia. Phocion said, in terms understood by most readers, that presidential candidate Jefferson was having an affair with one of his female slaves. More

1797, October 22 - Pioneering balloonist André-Jacques Garnerin became the modern world's first successful parachutist. More

1803, The U.S. Congress approves the Louisiana Purchase by a vote of 24 to 7.. More

1804, October 6 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition returns to St. Louis, completing their journey to explore and map the western portion of the United States.

1805, October 21 - The Battle of Trafalgar takes place, resulting in a British victory over the combined French and Spanish fleets during the Napoleonic Wars. More

1812, October 13 - American forces under General William Henry Harrison defeat the British and Native American forces at the Battle of the Thames during the War of 1812.

1812, October 19 - Napoleon begins his retreat from Moscow. It is estimated that of the 612,000 combatants who entered Russia only 112,000 returned to the frontier; 100,000 are thought to have been killed in action, 200,000 died from other causes, 50,000 were left sick in hospitals, 50,000  deserted, and 100,000 were been taken as prisoners of war. Russian casualties have been estimated at 200,000 killed. More

1813, October 5 - The Battle of the Thames in present-day Ontario, Canada, sees British and Native American forces defeated by American forces.

1820, October 6 - Mexico officially becomes a republic as the Plan of Iguala is accepted, ending Spanish rule and establishing Mexican independence.

1825, October 26 - The Erie Canal opens providing overland water transportation between the ­­ Hudson River on the east and Lake Erie at the western end. Popularly known as “Clinton’s Folly,” the eight-year construction project was the vision of New York Governor DeWitt Clinton. #the-erie-canal">More

1827, October 20 - The Naval Battle of Navarino occurs, during which combined British, French, and Russian forces defeat the Ottoman Empire's fleet.

1835, October - The Texas Revolution begins with the Battle of Gonzales, a confrontation between Texian settlers and Mexican soldiers.

1843, October - Sir James Young Simpson discovers the anesthetic properties of chloroform, revolutionizing surgery and pain management.

1854, October 25 - The Charge of the Light Brigade takes place during the Battle of Balaclava in the Crimean War.

1854, October 16 - The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead, England, destroys a large portion of both towns.

1856, October - The Second Opium War between Britain and France against China begins with the Battle of Canton.

1859, October 16 - John Brown, a staunch abolitionist, and a group of his supporters start their march toward the town of Harpers Ferry. In the early hours of October 17,  they capture local residents and seized the federal armory and arsenal. Brown was captured two days later and quickly placed on trial and charged with treason against the state of Virginia, murder, and slave insurrection. Brown was sentenced to death for his crimes and hanged on December 2, 1859.

1860, October 18 - During the Second Opium War, The British High Commissioner to China, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, orders  the complete destruction of the Old Summer Palace in retaliation for the imprisonment and torture of several Anglo-French delegation members by the Qing government, with several of them being killed. The French and British troops had captured the palace days earlier and had looted and destroyed the imperial collections. The destruction of the Peking’s Summer Palace has been considered criminal and barbaric by many Chinese and remains a a very sensitive issue in China today. More

1860, October 24 - The Second Opium War ends with the signing of the Convention of Peking. The Beijing Convention consists of three individual treaties that China signs, with Great Britain (October 24), France (October 25), and Russia (November 14). More

1863, October 3 -  President Abraham Lincoln encourages Americans to recognize the last Thursday of November as “a day of Thanksgiving   More

1864, October 31 - Nevada is admitted into the Union.

1866, October 6 - The brothers John and Simeon Reno staged what is generally believed to be the first train robbery in American history. Their take was $13,000 from an Ohio and Mississippi railroad train in Jackson County, Indiana. Considered the first train robbery, the incident at Seymour was preceded by a similar train burglary exactly nine months before. In early 1866, bandits entered an Adams Express car in route to Boston from New York and stole over half a million dollars from safes on the unoccupied car. As in the Seymour case, detectives from the Pinkerton National Detective Agency quickly identified the criminals. More

1867, 
October 18 - The United States formally takes possession of Alaska from Russia in a ceremony known as the Alaska Purchase. This $7.2 million purchase, ended Russia’s presence in North America and ensured U.S. access to the Pacific northern rim. Skeptics had dubbed the purchase of Alaska “Seward’s Folly,” but the former Secretary of State was vindicated when a major gold deposit was discovered in the Yukon in 1896, and Alaska became the gateway to the Klondike gold fields. The strategic importance of Alaska was finally recognized in World War II. Alaska became a state on January 3, 1959. More

1868, Cuba Independence Day . Commemorates the beginning of the wars of independence.  

1871, October 8 - The Great Chicago Fire starts at about 9:00 p.m. in or around a small barn belonging to Patrick and Catherine O’Leary. The fire quickly spread and lasted two days. It killed about 300 people, and destroyed over 17,000 buildings, leaving 100,000 homeless. The estimated damage costs were $200 million dollars (roughly $4 billion in 2020 dollars). The real cause of the fire has never been determined by city officials. More 

1873, October 27 - Joseph Glidden applies for a patent for a reinforced wire fence that placed the barbs along a wire and then twisted another wire around it to keep the barbs in place, an improvement over Michael Kelly's 1868 invention that "twisted two wires together to form a cable for barbs. Nine patents for improvements to wire fencing were granted by the U.S. Patent Office to American inventors, beginning with Michael Kelly and ending with Joseph Glidden in November 24 1874 when he was 61 years old. By the time of his death in 1906, he was one of the richest men in America. More

1879, October 12 - The First Anglo-Boer War begins as British forces invade the South African Republic. (Transvaal) More

1881, October 26 - The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral takes place in Tombstone, Arizona Territory, USA, involving the Earp brothers and Doc Holliday. More

1881, October 8 - Haiphong cyclone,  Over 300,000 people perished in one of most catastrophic natural disasters in history. The cyclone smashed into the Gulf of Tonkin causing widespread destruction as tidal waves flooded the city of Haiphong in northeastern Vietnam.

1883, October 4 - The Orient Express train makes its inaugural run leaving Paris with 40 passengers for Constantinople, (as the city of Istanbul was still commonly called in the west) and ending in Giurgiu, Romania, with stops in Munich and Vienna. At Giurgiu, passengers were ferried across the Danube to Ruse, Bulgaria, to pick up another train to Varna where they were then ferried by steamship across the Black Sea to Constantinople. With this one trip, the notion of long-distance travel was completely redefined. All original Orient Express routes finally retired in 2009 after almost 100 years of the most famous train journeys in the world. More

1886, October 28 - The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, is dedicated on Liberty Island in New York Harbor. President Grover Cleveland oversaw the dedication of the Statue of Liberty in front of thousands of spectators. More

1892, October 12 - The Pledge of Allegiance is first recited by students in many U.S. public schools as part of the Columbus Day celebration.

1898, October 25 - The United States defeats Spain in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, a decisive naval engagement during the Spanish-American War.

1899, October 11 - The Second Boer War begins between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics in South Africa.

1901, October 24 - Annie Edson Taylor becomes the first person to successfully take the plunge over Niagara Falls  inside an oak barrel. She was a 63-year-old at the time. Seventy one years earlier, on October 17,1829,  Sam Patch, had survived jumping down the Horseshoe Falls of the Niagara River, on the Canadian side of the border. More

1903, October 1 - The first modern World Series in baseball begins between the Boston Americans (now Red Sox) and the Pittsburgh Pirates.

1904, October 27 - The New York City Subway Opens. #new-york-city-subway-opens">More

1908, October 1 - Henry Ford introduces the Model T automobile to the market, revolutionizing the automotive industry.

1908, October 6 -  The dual Kingdome of Austria - Hungary announces the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina provinces in the Balkan region of Europe formerly under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Intended as a catalyst for domestic policy, it proved to be a fateful move. More  

1910, October 16 - The first airship flight across the English Channel takes place, with French aviator Ferdinand Ferber piloting the "Ferber I."

1912, October 14 - Theodore Roosevelt is shot at a hotel in Milwaukee as he was about to start a campaign speech for a third term.  The bullet penetrated Roosevelt’s heavy overcoat and ripped through the right side of his chest. Inside the breast pocket were two items that absorbed the impact and undoubtedly saved Roosevelt’s life. The first was a thick fifty-page speech manuscript folded in half. Behind that was a metal eyeglass case in which Roosevelt kept his spectacles. Roosevelt was wounded, finished the speech and was then taken to the hospital. He survived the attack but loss the election for a third term. More

1912, October 17 - The First Balkan War breaks out as Serbia and Greece, follow Montenegro and declare war on the Ottoman Empire. More

1915, October 11 - Bulgaria's Prime Minister Vasil Radoslavov issues a statement announcing Bulgaria's entrance into the First World War on the side of the Central Powers.  More 

1917, October 15 - Mata Hari is executed by the French on charges of spying for Germany during World War I. She was a dancer and courtesan whose name has become a synonym for the seductive female spy. She performed all over Europe telling the story that she was born in a sacred Indian temple and taught ancient dances by a priestess who gave her the name Mata Hari. Margaretha Geertruida MacLeod, née Zelle was actually born in the Netherlands. The nature and extent of her espionage activities remain uncertain, and her guilt widely contested. More

1917, October 25 - The October Revolution in Russia begins as the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, seizes power in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg).

1917, October 26 - Brazil declares war on the German Empire. Brazil had pursued a policy of neutrality in the initial years of the war . In the course of the war, public opinion was on the side of the Allies. Only a few intellectuals declared their solidarity with the German Empire along with the majority of the descendants of German immigrants. On April of 1917 the Brazilian freighter Paraná was sank by Germany followed by three other Brazilian ships being torpedoed. More

1918, October 4 - German Chancellor Max von Baden,  sends a telegraph message to President Woodrow Wilson requesting an armistice between Germany and the Allied powers in World War I.  a few days later, Wilson responded to Baden’s armistice request (and a subsequent German communiqué on October 12) with a note that quickly deflated German expectations.

1918, October 28 - The Cech Republic Independence Day. Commemorates the Independence declaration by the Czechoslovak National Council.

1918, October 30 - The Armistice of Mudros is signed at the port of Mudros on the Aegean island of Lemnos, between the Ottoman Empire and Great Britain, representing the Allied powers, bringing an end to the Turkish Army’s participation in the war. More

1919, October 2 - President Woodrow Wilson suffered a severe stroke that left him incapacitated until the end of his presidential term in 1921.  More

1919, October 28 - Congress passed the Volstead Act providing for enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which was ratified nine months earlier. Known as the Prohibition Amendment, it prohibited the “manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors” in the United States. More

1923, October 16 - Walt Disney signed a contract with M. J. Winkler to produce a series of Alice Comedies — the date is used as the start of the Disney company, first known as “The Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio.” More

1923, October 29 - The Ottoman Empire officially dissolves as the Republic of Turkey is declared under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

1927, October 4 - Artist and sculptor Gutzon Borglum begins sculpting Mount Rushmore. Work on the monument finished 14 years later on October 31, 1941. It involved the efforts of nearly 400 men and women. The duties involved varied greatly from the call boy to drillers to the blacksmith to the housekeepers. Despite the colossal proportion and difficult nature of the project, there were no worker fatalities. Borglum died 7 months before the project was declared completed. His son Lincoln Borglum supervised the completion. More

1929, October 25 - The Teapot Dome scandal; Albert B. Fall, who served as secretary of the interior in President Warren G. Harding's cabinet, is found guilty of accepting a bribe while in office.. More

1929, October 29 - "Black Tuesday" marks the start of the Wall Street Crash of 1929, leading to the Great Depression. It was preceded by the crash of the London Stock Exchange. It is considered the most disastrous market crash in the history of the United States characterized by panic sell-offs on the New York Stock Exchange and dramatic declines in major market indices. More

1931, October 3 - The Empire State Building is officially opened in New York City, becoming the tallest building in the world at the time.

1932, October 3 - Iraq Independence day -Britain ends its 17 year mandate and Iraq is admitted to the League of Nations, making Iraq an independent nation after centuries of Ottoman rule.

1934, October 16 - The Red Army brakes through the first Nationalist enemy lines surrounding it and sets out on its epochal year-long trek to the west and to the north. More

1935, October 3 - Italy invades Ethiopia, initiating the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.

1938, October 30 - "The War of the Worlds" ,  a radio Halloween episode  directed and narrated by Orson Welles as an adaptation of H. G. Wells's novel The War of the Worlds (1898) is performed and broadcast live over the CBS Radio Network. The episode is famous for inciting a panic by convincing some members of the listening audience that a Martian invasion was taking place, though the scale of panic is disputed, as the program had relatively few listeners. More 

1940, October 28 -  Italy declares war on Greece and starts the invasion. The people of Greece answer the call to defend the country and drive the Italian army back into Albania, placing Hitler in the position of having to delay his invasion of Russia to commit troops to attack and occupy Greece. More

1942, October 3 - The V-2 first successful launch takes place. It flew at speeds in excess of 3,500 miles per hour and delivered a 2,200-pound warhead to a target 200 miles away. Beginning in September 1944, it was employed against targets in Western Europe, including London, Paris, and Antwerp. More

1942, October 26 - Japanese planes critically damage and sink the U.S.S Hornet in the Battle of Santa Cruz Island. Approximately 140 of her sailors and air crews were killed that day. The Hornet was a Yorktown-class aircraft carrier. She was in service for just over one year. While in the Pacific theater, Hornet was involved in the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo, and in the Battle of Midway. In the Solomon Islands campaign, she participated in the defense of Guadalcanal and the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. More

1944, October 20 - General Douglas MacArthur lands on the Philippine island of Leyte and delivers his famous “I Have Returned” speech. It is one of the most iconic phrases of the war, coupled with one of the most famous photographs, that captured the moment he waded ashore. More

1944, October 25 - Japan employed kamikaze bombers for the first time at the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval battle in history, which took place in the Pacific Ocean near the Philippines. Kamikaze strikes against Allied warships continued throughout World and were costly to both sides. War II. More

1945, October 12 - US Army medic Private First Class Desmond Thomas Doss becomes the first conscientious objector to be awarded the Medal of Honor. More

1945, October 24 - The United Nations is officially established. The United Nations did not come into existence at the signing of the Charter. In many countries the Charter had to be approved by their congresses or parliaments. It had therefore been provided that the Charter would come into force when the Governments of China, France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States and most of other signatory states had ratified it and deposited notification to this effect with the State Department of the United States. On October 24, 1945, this condition was fulfilled. More

1947, October 5 - President Harry Truman delivers the first-ever televised presidential address, asking Americans to cut back on their use of grain in order to help Europe, which was still recovering from World War II. More

1947, October 14 -  U.S. Air Force Captain Charles E. “Chuck” Yeager piloting the Bell X-1 Glamorous Glennis on the world’s first piloted supersonic flight, reaching a speed of Mach 1.06—faster than the speed of sound. The experimental purpose-built aircraft was air launched from the bomb bay of a Boeing B-29 bomber. The Bell X-1 went on to fly 78 times—as fast as Mach 1.45 and as high as 21,900 meters (71,900 feet). More

1948, October 29 - An air pollution environmental disaster hits Donora, Pennsylvania. The town was home to many industries, such as steel mills and zinc melting plants. Of the town’s population of 14,000, approximately 20 people passed away and between 5000-7000 were estimated to become very ill due to the smog event. Investigations into the disaster eventually led to legislations to establish better control over air pollution. More

1949, October 1 - China National Day. Mao Zedong's formal proclamation of the establishment of the People's Republic of China

1949, October 7 - The German Democratic Republic. The GDR, commonly known as East Germany is created from the Soviet occupation zone of occupation on October 7, 1949. The United States responded by stating its position that the GDR was “without any legal validity,” and that the United States would “continue to give full support to the Government of the German Federal Republic FDR at Bonn in its efforts to restore a truly free and democratic Germany.” The FDR, commonly known as West Germany had been formed months earlier  on May  23,1949 by combining the occupation territories of France, Britain and the U.S. The U.S. refused to recognize the GDR until 1974. The GDR was absorbed by the FRG in 1990 when Germany reunified. More 

1957, October 4 - The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite, The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball weighed only 83.6 kg. or 183.9 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race. More

1958, October 2 - Guinea Independence Day from France. Guinea was the only French West African colony to opt for complete independence, rather than membership in the French Community. France withdrew all aid to the new republic. shortly thereafter.

1960, October 1 - Cyprus Independence day. The effective date of the Lon don-Zürich Agreements was 16 August 1960, but the public holiday was moved to October 1 to avoid summer heat and tourist season.

1960, October 1 - Nigeria Independence Day from the UK

1961, October 6 - President John F. Kennedy, in a letter to the members of the Committee on Civil Defense of the Governors’ Conference, urges Americans to build bomb shelters as protection from atomic fallout in the event of a nuclear exchange with the Soviet Union. Kennedy also pressed Congress to allocate more than $100 million to build a network of public fallout shelters.  Only one year later, the world teetered on the brink of nuclear war when the Cuban Missile Crisis erupted over the USSR’s placement of nuclear missiles in Cuba. During the tense 13-day crisis, some Americans prepared for nuclear war by buying up canned goods and completing last-minute work on their backyard bomb shelters. More

1962, October 2 - A team of scientists working at a University of Florida lab, invent a sports drink to quench thirst. the drink that would soon become known as Gatorade was born. The name "Gatorade" is derived from the nickname of the university's sports teams. Eventually, the drink becomes a phenomenon and made its inventors wealthy. More

1962, October 14 - The Cuban Missile Crisis begins as an American U-2 spy plane secretly photographed nuclear missile sites being built by the Soviet Union on the island of Cuba. On Sep 16, the pictures were presented to President Kennedy after they were developed and analyzed by intelligence officers. President Kennedy did not want the Soviet Union and Cuba to know that the missiles had been discovered. He met in secret with his advisors for several days to discuss the problem. On October 22, President Kennedy spoke to the nation about the crisis in a televised address and his decision to place a naval blockade, or a ring of ships, around Cuba. He demanded the removal of the missiles already there and the destruction of the sites.
For thirteen days in October 1962 the world waited—seemingly on the brink of nuclear war—and hoped for a peaceful resolution to the Cuban Missile Crisis. More 

1964, October 14 - Martin Luther King Jr. is awarded the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize "for his non-violent struggle for civil rights for the Afro-American population". More

1964, October 16 - The People's Republic of China (PRC) joined the nuclear club when it tested a nuclear device at its Lop Nur test site in Inner Mongolia. More 

1965, October 28 - The last piece of the St. Louis's Gateway Arch is fitted into place. More

1966, October 4 - Lesotho Independence day from the UK

1967, October 2 - Thurgood Marshall is sworn in to the nation’s highest court at the opening ceremony of the Supreme Court term, becoming the first Black US Supreme Court justice. More

1967, October 8 - Che Guevara is captured by Bolivian troops. He was executed the following day, on orders from thr Bolivian President. More 

1968, October 12 - Equatorial Guinea Independence Day from Spain

1969, October 16 - The "Miracle Mets" win their first World Series, defeating the Baltimore Orioles in five games.

1970, October 10 - Fiji's Independence Day from the UK. (Fiji Day) Commemorates the signing of the Instruments of Independence.

1971, October 1 - Walt Disney World Resort opens in Orlando, Florida.

1971, October 25 - The United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 2758, which “restored” the People's Republic of China to the Chinese seat at the UN and “expelled” the Republic of China (Taiwan). Since then, Taiwan has sought to maintain its international space without the benefits of UN membership. More

1972, October 12 - The Kitty Hawk Race Riot - More than 100 sailors on the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk are involved in a race riot resulting in 46 sailors injured. in a race riot involving more than 100 sailors on the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk en route to her station in the Gulf of Tonkin off Vietnam.  More

1973, October 6 - The Yom Kippur War begins as Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack against Israel.

1973, October 17 - Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) imposes an embargo against the United States,  in retaliation for the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military and to gain leverage in the post-war peace negotiations during  the 1973 Arab-Israeli War. More

1978, October 16 - Cardinal Karol Józef Wojtyła of Poland was elected to be the 264th Pope; he assumed the name John Paul II and was the first non-Italian pontiff in 455 years. More

1979, October 27 - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Independence Day from the UK

1981, October 6 - Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated by Islamic extremists during a military parade in Cairo.

1983, October 25 - The United States invades Grenada, known as Operation Urgent Fury, in response to a coup. More 

1984, October 31 - Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India was assassinated by her own bodyguards and Sikh nationalists, purportedly to avenge the humiliation of Sikhs and the desecration of the Golden Temple during Operation Blue Star in June of that year. She was the first and, to date, the only female Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. Despite her surname Gandhi, she is not related to the family of Mahatma Gandhi.   More

1986, October 5 - The Iran-Contra scandal comes to light after a plane carrying weapons is shot down over Nicaragua by the Sandinista regime. Eugene Hasenfus and ex US Marine and sole survivor of the plane crash, confessed that he was shipping military supplies into Nicaragua for use by the Contras, an anti-Sandinista force, allegedly run by the CIA. President Ronald Reagan and other officials denied the CIA's involvement in the flight, but further investigations confirmed that the U.S. had been secretly selling weapons to Iran and using some of the proceeds to covertly fund the Contra war in Nicaragua. More

1987, October 19 -  The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) dropped 22.6 percent in a single trading session, a loss that remains the largest one-day stock market decline in history. Reaction of market distress sent global stock exchanges plummeting in a matter of hours. More

1989, October 17 - The 7.1-magnitude Loma Prieta earthquake, also called the San Francisco Earthquake strikes the San Francisco Bay Area in California causing 63 deaths, nearly 3000 injuries and billions of Dollars of damage. It was the strongest earthquake to hit the area since the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.  More

1989, October 18 - The Hungarian Republic is officially declared, marking the end of Communist rule.

1990, October 3 - Germany Day of Unity. Commemorates the Reunification of Germany which ended decades of division. More

1992. October 28 - The new Leif Erickson Tunnel ribbon is cut and balloons are dropped on the final link of I-35 through Duluth, MN. Mayor Gary Doty and U.S. Representative James Oberstar wield the giant plywood scissors. More

1994, October 1 - Palau Independence Day from the United States.

1994, October 27 - The U.S. prison population in state and federal prisons reaches one million (for the first time in American history. An additional 500,000 prisoners were estimated to be held in local prisons. The United States became second only to Russia in the world for incarceration rates at the time. In 2021, the U.S. had the highest incarceration rate in the world. The U.S. prison population was 1,204,300 at yearend 2021, a 1% decrease from 2020 (1,221,200) and a 25% decrease from 2011 (1,599,000). More

1998, October 29 - John Glenn returns to space aboard the Discovery’s 25th flight. Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth on Mercury-Atlas 6 on February 20, 1962. With one flight in 1962 and another in 1998, at 77 years of age, John Glenn uniquely bridged two eras in space history and became the oldest human ever to travel in space. He died at age 95 in December 2016. More

1999, October 27 - Gunmen storm the Armenian Parliament in Yerevan, resulting in the deaths of the Prime Minister and several members of parliament.

1999, October 31 - Egypt Air flight 990, an extended range Boeing 767-366 jet airliner crashes into the Atlantic Ocean about 60 miles (100 km) south of Nantucket, Massachusetts, after a rapid fatal descent losing its left engine before crashing into the ocean. All 217 people on board died. The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) stated that the actions of the copilot caused the crash, but Egyptian authorities blamed mechanical failure. More

2000, October 12, The USS Cole, on a refueling stop at Aden, Yemen. is attacked by two suicide pilots of a small bomb-laden boat, blasting a a 40-by-40-foot hole in the port side of the USS Cole, at midship. Seventeen sailors were killed and 38 wounded in the attack. Following investigations determined the attack had ben carried out by members of Saudi exile Osama bin Laden’s al Qaeda terrorist network. More

2001, October 7 - The United States launches Operation Enduring Freedom, marking the beginning of the War in Afghanistan. More

2001, October 23 - Apple introduces the iPod, revolutionizing the way people listen to music.

2001, October 26 - President George W. Bush signs the Patriot Act. More

2002, October 12 - Terrorist bombings in Bali, Indonesia, kill over 200 people and injure hundreds more. More

2002, October 23 - Some 40 Chechen militants burst into the Dubrovka Theater during the performance of a popular musical and  take hundreds of audience members, actors, and staff hostage, demanding the withdrawal of troops from Russia's Chechnya region. It ended 57 hours later, when security forces stormed the building after pumping in toxic gas that neutralized the attackers but led to the deaths of as many as 174 hostages. More

2003, October 28 - The Boston Red Sox win their first World Series championship in 86 years, breaking the "Curse of the Bambino."

2004, October 9 - The first official World Space Week is declared by the United Nations.

2004, October 28 - The European Space Agency's Huygens probe lands on Saturn's moon Titan.

2005, October 8 - The 7.6 magnitude Kashmir earthquake strikes northern Pakistan and India, causing widespread destruction and killing at least 86,000 people.  More

2006, October 9 - North Korea conducts its first nuclear test.

2007, October 14 - A suicide truck bomb detonates in Baghdad's busy market, killing over 500 people.

2008, October 3 - The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act is signed into law in the United States, establishing the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) to address the financial crisis.

2009, October 9 - President Barack Obama is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation.

2009, October 25 - Typhoon Morakot strikes Taiwan, causing significant flooding and landslides.

2010, October 13 - The Copiapó mining accident in Chile ends with the successful rescue of 33 trapped miners.

2010, October 27 - The 2010 North Sumatra earthquake and tsunami hit Indonesia, resulting in significant loss of life and devastation.

2011, October 20 - Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is captured and killed during the Libyan Civil War.

2012, October 29 - Hurricane Sandy makes landfall in the northeastern United States, causing widespread damage and power outages.

2013, October 1 - The Affordable Care Act, often referred to as Obamacare, begins its enrollment phase in the United States.

2013, October 5 - Former NSA contractor Edward Snowden is revealed as the source of leaked classified documents, exposing mass surveillance programs.

2014, October 22 - Canada's Parliament Hill in Ottawa is attacked by a lone gunman, resulting in the death of a soldier and the attacker.

2015, October 1 - A mass shooting takes place at Umpqua Community College in Oregon, USA, leaving multiple people dead and injured.

2016, October 1 - Hurricane Matthew, one of the most powerful Atlantic hurricanes in recent history, strikes the Caribbean and the southeastern United States.

2017, October 1 - A mass shooting occurs at the Route 91 Harvest music festival in Las Vegas, USA, leaving 58 people dead and hundreds injured.

2018, October 2 - Journalist Jamal Khashoggi is murdered inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey.

2018, October 29 - Lion Air Flight 610 crashes into the Java Sea shortly after takeoff from Jakarta, Indonesia, killing all 189 people on board.

2019, October 6 - The United States announces its withdrawal from Syria, leading to concerns about the situation in the region.

2019, October 9 - Turkey launches a military offensive into northern Syria against Kurdish forces.

2020, October 2 - U.S. President Donald Trump tests positive for COVID-19, leading to concerns about the virus's impact on political leadership.

2020, October 18 - Protests erupt in Nigeria against police brutality and the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS), leading to widespread demonstrations.

2020, October 29 - A powerful earthquake strikes the Aegean Sea, causing significant damage and loss of life in Turkey and Greece.

2021, October 15 - NASA's Lucy spacecraft launches to study Trojan asteroids, marking a significant step in asteroid research.

Online History Resources

A Comment by Loy

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Loy • 10/01/2023 at 10:41AM • Like 1 Profile

Wow, October 1 is an active day in history - many good and bad events... one of my personal favorites is the Affordable Care Act - happy 10th anniversary!

These are some of many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of September, listed by year.  Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate.

476,  September 4 - Fall of the Western Roman Empire. Odoacer (Adovacar), a barbarian member of the Germanic tribe Siri and former commander in the Roman army enters the city of Rome unopposed and dethrones  emperor Romulus, becoming the first barbarian king of Italy. Although Roman rule continued in the East, the crowning of Odoacer marked the end of the original Roman Empire centered in Italy, although there was some resurgence and expansion of the power of Rome to the west.

1010 BCE, September - The Battle of Mount Gilboa takes place between the Israelites, led by King Saul, and the Philistines. The battle ends in a decisive victory for the Philistines and the death of King Saul and his sons.

1000 BCE, September - King David captures the city of Jerusalem, establishing it as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.

722 BCE, September - The Assyrian Empire conquers the northern kingdom of Israel, leading to the exile of the ten tribes of Israel and the collapse of the kingdom.

586 BCE, September - The city of Jerusalem is captured and destroyed by the Babylonian Empire under King Nebuchadnezzar II, leading to the Babylonian exile of the Israelites.

509 BCE, September - The Roman Republic is established after the overthrow of the last Etruscan king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbug, marking the beginning of the Roman Republic era.

490 BCE, September - The Battle of Marathon takes place between the Persian Empire and the city-state of Athens during the first Persian invasion of Greece. The Athenians, led by Miltiades, achieve a decisive victory over the Persians.

480 BCE, September - The Battle of Salamis occurs during the second Persian invasion of Greece. The Greek fleet, led by Themistocles, defeats the Persian fleet, halting the Persian advance.

480 BCE, September - The Battle of Salamis takes place during the Greco-Persian Wars. The Greek city-states, led by Themistocles, achieve a decisive naval victory over the Persian Empire, halting their advance.

480 BCE, September - The Battle of Plataea is fought between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire. The Greeks, led by Pausanias, achieve a significant victory, effectively ending the Persian invasion.

335 BCE, September - Alexander the Great completes his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire, including the capture of the Persian capital of Persepolis.

333 BCE, September - The Battle of Issus occurs between Alexander the Great of Macedonia and Darius III of Persia. Alexander achieves a decisive victory, securing his control over Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) and further weakening the Persian Empire.

331 BCE, September - The Battle of Gaugamela occurs between Alexander the Great of Macedonia and Darius III of Persia. Alexander achieves a decisive victory, further solidifying his control over the Persian Empire.

31 BCE, September 2 - The Battle of Actium takes place between the forces of Octavian (later known as Augustus) and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian emerges victorious, leading to the end of the Roman Republic and the establishment of the Roman Empire.

9 BCE, September 23 - The Roman general Publius Quinctilius Varus and his legions suffer a disastrous defeat at the hands of Germanic tribes in the Battle of Teutoburg Forest, resulting in the loss of three Roman legions.

9 CE, September - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest takes place in Germania. Germanic tribes led by Arminius ambush and defeat three Roman legions under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus, preventing further Roman expansion into Germania.

9 CE, September  - The Roman general Germanicus wins a significant victory over the Germanic tribes in the Battle of Idistaviso, consolidating Roman control in Germania.

14 CE, September 23rd - Emperor Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, dies in Nola, Italy. His stepson Tiberius succeeds him as the second Roman Emperor.

33 CE, September 14th - According to Christian tradition, Jesus Christ is crucified in Jerusalem, marking a significant event in the life and teachings of Jesus.

70 CE, September - The Siege of Jerusalem begins during the First Jewish-Roman War. Roman forces, led by Titus, lay siege to Jerusalem, eventually resulting in the destruction of the city and the Second Temple.

407 CE, September 24th - Vandals, Alans, and Suebi tribes cross the Rhine River into Gaul, marking the beginning of the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

476 CE, September 4th - Romulus Augustus, the last Roman emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed by Odoacer, a Germanic chieftain, leading to the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

610 CE, September - Muhammad receives his first revelation from the angel Gabriel, marking the beginning of the Islamic prophet's mission and the foundation of Islam.

622 CE, September 24th - The prophet Muhammad completes the Hijra ("Flight"), the migration from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution and establishing of the first Muslim community and later marking the beginning (Year 1) of the Muslim calendar.  More

641 CE, September 20th - Arab forces led by Caliph Umar conquer the city of Alexandria, Egypt, ending Byzantine control and marking a significant moment in the Arab conquests.

732 CE, September 10th - The Battle of Tours takes place in modern-day France, where Frankish forces led by Charles Martel defeat an invading Muslim army, halting the spread of Islam into Europe. 

853 CE, September 15th - Viking raiders sack the city of Bordeaux in present-day France, highlighting their expansion and impact in Europe.

867, CE, November 13 - The Byzantine emperor Michael III is assassinated, leading to the ascent of Basil I to the throne.

877 CE, September 8th - Louis the Stammerer is crowned as the King of the West Franks, succeeding his father Charles the Bald. This event marks an important moment in the history of the Carolingian dynasty.

917 CE, September 20th - Byzantine forces led by Emperor Constantine VII defeat the Bulgarian army at the Battle of Achelous, securing Byzantine control over the Balkans.

919 CE, September - Henry the Fowler, the Duke of Saxony, is elected as the first king of East Francia (Germany), initiating the Ottonian dynasty.

927 CE, September - Simeon I of Bulgaria defeats the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Achelous, leading to the recognition of Bulgaria as an independent state.

935 CE, September 27th - The Battle of Andernach takes place between East Francia (Germany) and West Francia (France), marking a conflict over the division of the Carolingian Empire.

937 CE, September 17th - The Battle of Brunanburh takes place in England, where King Athelstan of England secures a decisive victory against a coalition of Viking and Scottish forces.

955 CE, September 10th - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, leads the East Frankish (German) forces to victory against the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld, halting their invasion of Central Europe.

962 CE, September 7th - Otto I is crowned as the Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, marking the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the Ottonian dynasty.

962 CE, September 26th - The Byzantine Empire defeats an army of the Emirate of Sicily at the Battle of Garigliano, solidifying Byzantine control over Southern Italy.

969 CE, September 2nd - The Fatimid Caliphate captures the city of Cairo, establishing it as their new capital and solidifying their control over Egypt.

972 CE, September 11th - Emperor Otto I holds a synod in Quedlinburg, Germany, where he confirms the appointment of his son Otto II as co-emperor and heir.

972 CE, September - The Battle of Cedynia occurs between the forces of the Piast dynasty and the Holy Roman Empire, leading to the establishment of Poland as an independent state.

980 CE, September 24th - The Byzantine emperor Basil II defeats the Bulgarian army at the Battle of Thessalonica, leading to the subjugation of Bulgaria under Byzantine rule.

991 CE, September 11th - The Battle of Maldon takes place in England, where the Anglo-Saxons are defeated by Viking raiders.

992 CE, September 10th - Holy Roman Emperor Otto III visits Rome and meets with Pope John XV, marking a significant moment of cooperation between the Holy Roman Empire and the Papacy.

994 CE, September 15th - The Battle of Swold takes place between the Norwegian king Olaf Tryggvason and a coalition of Swedish and Danish forces, resulting in Olaf's defeat and death.

996 CE, September 4th - Otto III, the Holy Roman Emperor, issues a document known as the "Privilege of Otto III," granting certain rights and privileges to the bishopric of Merseburg, Germany.

999 CE, September 9th - King Olaf II of Norway is killed in the Battle of Svolder, against an alliance of the Kings of Denmark and Sweden and Olaf's enemies in Norway,  leading to the temporary downfall of Christianity in Norway. 

1000, September 9 - The Battle of Svolder takes place in the Baltic Sea, resulting in a decisive victory for the combined Viking fleets of Denmark and Sweden over the Norwegian fleet, solidifying Danish and Swedish control over the region.

1002, September 29 - King Æthelred the Unready orders the massacre of Danes living in England, known as the St. Brice's Day massacre, as a response to a perceived Danish threat.

1004, September 15 - The Battle of Maldon occurs in Essex, England, where an English force led by Byrhtnoth is defeated by Viking raiders.

1014, September 23 - The Battle of Clontarf takes place near Dublin, Ireland, where the forces of Brian Boru, High King of Ireland, defeat the Viking forces of Dublin and their allies, although Brian Boru is killed in the battle.

1031, September 1 - The Battle of Stiklestad is fought in Norway, resulting in the death of King Olaf II Haraldsson, who would later be canonized as Saint Olaf.

1066, September 25 - The Battle of Stamford Bridge takes place in England, where King Harold II of England defeats an invading Norwegian army led by King Harald Hardrada, the Last Great Viking King Of Norway, securing his position before the Battle of Hastings.

1066, September 28 - William the Conqueror invades England after seven months of preparation for his invasion force, landing unopposed at Pevensey with about 7,000 men (including 2,000-3,000 cavalry). He quickly build fortifications at Hastings in preparation to fight the English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson. The" Battle of Hastings" was fought on October 14, 1066 beginning the Norman Conquest of England.  More 
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1071, September 7 - The Battle of Manzikert occurs in eastern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), where the Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Empire, leading to significant territorial losses for the Byzantines and opening Anatolia to Turkish conquest.

1091, September 9 - The Battle of Alnwick is fought in Northumberland, England, between Scottish and English forces, resulting in a Scottish victory and expanding their influence in northern England.

1098, September 21 - The Siege of Antioch begins during the First Crusade as Crusader forces surround the city of Antioch in present-day Turkey, initiating a prolonged siege.

1099, September 20 - The Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, capture the city of Jerusalem from the Fatimid Caliphate, marking the conclusion of the First Crusade.

1101, September 20 - The Crusaders, led by Sigurd I of Norway, arrive in Lisbon, Portugal, and establish a temporary alliance with King Afonso I against the Moors.

1106, September 27 - The Battle of Tinchebray takes place in Normandy, France, where King Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, securing his control over Normandy.

1110, September 29 - The Crusader army of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem is ambushed by Muslim forces near Beirut, Lebanon, resulting in heavy losses.

1120, September 25 - The White Ship Disaster occurs off the coast of Normandy, France, when the vessel carrying the heir to the English throne, William Adelin, sinks, resulting in his death and a succession crisis in England.

1130, September 26 - Roger II is crowned King of Sicily, establishing the Kingdom of Sicily and becoming its first Norman ruler.

1146, September 10 - Pope Eugenius III declares the Second Crusade at the Council of Vézelay in France, calling for a military campaign to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims.

1159, September 7 - The Treaty of Benevento is signed, ending the long-standing conflict between the papacy and the Kingdom of Sicily.

1167, September 29 - The Battle of Monte Porzio takes place near Rome, Italy, as forces loyal to Pope Alexander III defeat the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.

1176, September 29 - The Battle of Legnano is fought in Lombardy, Italy, where the Lombard League defeats the forces of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, resulting in a significant setback for imperial power.

1192, September 2 - The Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Richard the Lionheart of England and Saladin, ending the Third Crusade and securing a truce in the Holy Land.

1202, September 8 - The Fourth Crusade sets sail from Venice to reclaim the Holy Land but eventually deviates and ends up sacking the city of Constantinople.

1209, September 22 - The Siege of Carcassonne ends during the Albigensian Crusade, with the city surrendering to Simon de Montfort, leader of the Crusader forces.

1215, September 15 - King John of England puts his seal on the Magna Carta, a document that outlines rights and limitations on royal power.

1229, September 18 - The Treaty of Meaux-Paris is signed, officially ending the Albigensian Crusade and granting amnesty to the Cathars in Languedoc, France.

1238, September 23 - The Battle of the Puig takes place during the Reconquista, where forces of the Kingdom of Aragon defeat the Almohad Caliphate in Valencia, Spain.

1241, September 11 - The Battle of Legnica occurs during the Mongol invasion of Europe, resulting in a decisive Mongol victory over the Polish and German forces.

1260, September 3 - The Battle of Ain Jalut takes place between the Mongol Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, resulting in a significant Mongol defeat.

1283, September 1 - The Treaty of Rheinfelden is signed, ending the conflict between the House of Habsburg and the Swiss Confederation, establishing peace in the region.

1297, September 11 - The Battle of Stirling Bridge is fought during the First War of Scottish Independence, where Scottish forces led by William Wallace defeat the English army.

1297, September 22 - The Treaty of Alcañices is signed between the Kingdom of León and the Kingdom of Portugal, resolving territorial disputes and establishing peace between the two kingdoms.

1209, September 22 - The Massacre at Béziers takes place during the Albigensian Crusade, as Crusaders led by Simon de Montfort sack the city of Béziers, resulting in a large number of deaths.

1217, September 2 - The Battle of South Foreland occurs during the First Barons' War, where English naval forces defeat a French fleet off the coast of Kent.

1227, September 18 - Genghis Khan, the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, dies while on campaign in Western Xia (modern-day China).

1241, September 9 - The Battle of Legnica takes place during the Mongol invasion of Europe, where a combined Polish-German force is defeated by the Mongols.

1248, September 1 - The construction of the Cologne Cathedral in Germany begins. It would take over 600 years to complete.

1260, September 3 - The Battle of Ain Jalut occurs, as the Mamluks of Egypt decisively defeat the Mongols, halting their westward expansion.
1271, September 17 - Marco Polo sets off on his journey to the East, embarking on a 24-year exploration of Asia and becoming one of the most famous European explorers.

1282, September 4 - The War of the Sicilian Vespers ends with the Peace of Caltabellotta, granting independence to the Kingdom of Sicily from the Angevin Kingdom of Naples.

1283, September 8 - The Battle of Evesham takes place during the Second Barons' War in England, resulting in a decisive victory for King Edward I over rebel forces.

1297, September 11 - The Battle of Stirling Bridge occurs during the First War of Scottish Independence, where Scottish forces led by William Wallace defeat the English.

1305, September 7 - Pope Clement V moves the papal seat from Rome to Avignon, beginning the period known as the Avignon Papacy.

1314, September 24 - The Battle of Bannockburn takes place during the First War of Scottish Independence, resulting in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Scotland against the Kingdom of England.

1322, September 20 - The Battle of Mühldorf occurs during the Bavarian Civil War, where forces loyal to Emperor Louis IV defeat the Habsburgs, securing Louis' position as Holy Roman Emperor.

1340, September 29 - The Battle of Sluys takes place during the Hundred Years' War, with the English fleet under King Edward III achieving a major victory over the French fleet.

1346, September 26 - The Battle of Blanchetaque is fought during the Crécy campaign of the Hundred Years' War, where the English army successfully crosses the River Somme to engage the French forces.

1364, September 8 - The Treaty of Brétigny is signed, ending the first phase of the Hundred Years' War between England and France and granting significant territorial concessions to England.

1368, September 17 - The Ming dynasty is proclaimed in China, marking the end of the Yuan dynasty and the beginning of a new era of Chinese rule.

1380, September 8 - The Battle of Kulikovo takes place during the Mongol invasion of Russia, where the forces of Grand Prince Dmitry of Moscow defeat the Mongol army.

1394, September 17 -  King Charles VI of France ordered that all Jewish people be expelled from the kingdom. More

1396, September 25 - The Battle of Nicopolis occurs during the Crusade of Nicopolis, where the Ottoman Empire, led by Bayezid I, decisively defeats the combined European forces.

1399, September 30 - Henry Bolingbroke lands in England and begins his successful campaign to overthrow King Richard II, eventually becoming King Henry IV of England.

1400, September 29 - King Richard II of England dies under mysterious circumstances, leading to the ascension of Henry IV to the English throne.

1409, September 30 - The Council of Pisa opens, marking the beginning of the Western Schism in the Catholic Church, with multiple claimants to the papacy.

1422, September 1 - King Henry V of England dies, and his infant son Henry VI becomes the king, resulting in the minority rule and political instability in England.

1454, September 20 - The Treaty of Lodi is signed, bringing an end to the conflict between the Italian city-states of Milan, Florence, and Naples, establishing peace in the region.

1459, September 23 - The Battle of Blore Heath takes place during the Wars of the Roses in England, where the Yorkist forces, led by Richard Neville, defeat the Lancastrians.

1475, September 19 - The Battle of Sant'Andrea takes place during the Italian Wars, where the forces of Florence and Venice defeat the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples.

1480, September 27 - The Sistine Chapel is consecrated by Pope Sixtus IV, who commissioned the famous frescoes, including Michelangelo's ceiling.

1486, September 8 - The printing of the first edition of "Malleus Maleficarum," a treatise on witchcraft, is completed in Germany, contributing to the witch-hunt hysteria of the time.

1487, September 9 - Bartolomeu Dias sets sail from Portugal on an expedition to find a sea route to India, becoming the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa.

1492, September 2 - The Battle of Granada takes place, marking the final phase of the Spanish Reconquista, as the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella capture the city of Granada from the Moors.

1504, September 29 - Michelangelo's sculpture "David" is installed next to the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio, in Florence, Italy, replacing Donatello’s bronze sculpture of Judith and Holofernes”.

1513, September 25 - Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa becomes the first European to reach the Pacific Ocean after crossing the Isthmus of Panama.

1519, September 20 -  Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, with five ships and a crew of 270 men, sets sail from Sanlucar de Barrameda in southern Spain, on what become the first circumnavigation of the world and the first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic. Magellan himself died during the tumultuous three year voyage, with Spaniard Juan Sebastian Elcano completing the journey from the Phillipines back to Spain with a final crew of only 18 men on September 6 1522. Despite Magellan’s tragic end, his legacy has become synonymous with exploration and geography—including the Strait in South America that still bears his name. More

1522, September 6 - The expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan becomes the first to complete a circumnavigation of the globe, arriving back in Spain. Magellan himself died during the tumultuous three year voyage, with Spaniard Juan Sebastian Elcano completing the journey from the Phillipines back to Spain with a final crew of only 18 men ftom the original 270. More

1533, September 18 - Queen Elizabeth I is born, who would later become one of the most influential monarchs in English history.

1540, September 27 - Pope Paul III officially recognizes the Society of Jesus as a religious order by promulgating the bull Regimini Militantis Ecclesiae, which established the Jesuit Order. More

1542, September 28 -  Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo led the first European expedition that explored what is now the west coast of the United States. Cabrillo departed from the port of Navidad, Mexico on June 27, 1542. Three months later he arrived at "a very good enclosed port," which is known today as San Diego Bay. Cabrillo later died during the expedition at what is now San Miguel Island part of the Channel Islands off Santa Barbara But his crew continued on, led by Ferrelo, his first officer, possibly as far north as Oregon, before winter storms forced them back to Mexico. More

1555, September 25 - The Peace of Augsburg is signed, officially recognizing the division of Christianity and granting each prince in the Holy Roman Empire the right to choose their own religion.

1565, September 7 - The Great Siege of Malta ends, as the Ottoman Empire lifts its siege of the island after several months of intense fighting.

1565, September 8 - The Spanish Colonial Settlement of St. Augustine in Florida is inaugurated by the Spanish Admiral Don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés with 600 voyagers cheering. Menéndez named the colonial settlement St. Augustine in honor of the saint whose feast day fell on the day he first sighted land. It is the oldest continuously occupied settlement of European origin in the United States; established forty-two years before the English colonized Jamestown and fifty-five years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.

1571, September 29 - The Battle of Lepanto takes place, where a Holy League fleet defeats the Ottoman Empire in a major naval battle, halting Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean.

1580, September 24 - The Portuguese succession crisis is resolved when King Philip II of Spain is declared Philip I of Portugal, bringing Portugal under Spanish rule.

1598, September 22 - The Edict of Nantes is issued by King Henry IV of France, granting religious freedom to French Protestants and ending the French Wars of Religion.

1599, September 27 - The Treaty of Basel is signed, bringing an end to the War of the Spanish Succession and solidifying the rule of King Philip III of Spain.

1650, September 3 - The Battle of Dunbar takes place during the English Civil War, resulting in a decisive victory for the English Parliamentarians over the Scottish Covenanters.

1666, September 2-6 - The Great Fire of London breaks out and devastates much of the city, destroying thousands of buildings.

1609, September 12 - English explorer Henry Hudson discovers Manhattan Island and sails up the river that would later bear his name.

1619, September 20 - The first representative assembly in America, the House of Burgesses, meets in Jamestown, Virginia.

1620, September 16 - The Mayflower ship departs from Plymouth, England, with a group of English Pilgrims bound for the New World in search of a new life – some seeking religious freedom, others a fresh start in a different land. More  

1642, September 20 - The Battle of Edgehill takes place, marking the first major conflict of the English Civil War.

1666, September 2 - The Great Fire of London starts at a bakery in Pudding Lane shortly and spreads rapidly. It swept through central London for four days gutting the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall, while also extending past the wall to the west. More

1676, September 19 - The Battle of Lund takes place during the Scanian War, where Sweden defeats Denmark.

1683, September 12 - The Battle of Vienna occurs, as an alliance of European powers successfully repels the Ottoman Empire's siege of the city.

1692, September 19 - The last hangings resulting from the Salem witch trials take place in Massachusetts, United States.

1697, September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick is signed, ending the Nine Years' War between France and the Grand Alliance of European powers.

1698, September 11 - Tsar Peter I of Russia imposes a tax on beards as part of his efforts to modernize and Westernize the country.

1752, September 2 - The British Empire adopts the Gregorian calendar, skipping 11 days to correct the discrepancy with the Julian calendar.

1759, September 13 - The Battle of the Plains of Abraham occurs during the Seven Years' War, leading to the British capture of Quebec City and ultimately changing the course of Canadian history.

1776, September 7 - during the Revolutionary War, the American submersible craft Turtle attempts to attach a time bomb to the hull of British Admiral Richard Howe’s flagship Eagle in New York Harbor. It was the first use of a submarine in warfare. More

1776, September 9 - The Continental Congress formally declares the name of the new nation to be the “United States” of America. Formally replacing the term “United Colonies.” More

1776, September 22 - Revolutionary War Nathan Hale is executed by the British for spying. Born in Coventry in 1755, Hale attended Yale College and later became a schoolteacher. After hostilities erupted in Lexington and Concord in 1775, Hale joined a Connecticut militia and participated in the siege of Boston. More

1779, September 23 - John Paul Jones, commanding the U.S. ship Bonhomme Richard, wins the naval Battle of Flamborough Head  against the British ships of war Countess of Scarborough and Serapis, off the the coast of Yorkshire, England. The Americans suffered approximately 170 casualties, while the British suffered approximately 117 casualties and 2 captured ships. More

1779, September 27 - Without consulting Abigail, Adams accepts Congress' offer to return to Europe as minister plenipotentiary to negotiate peace with Britain, whenever America's enemy was ready to come to the table. Adams hadn't sought the post, but reveled in Congress' nearly unanimous decision to appoint him. More

1780 September 21 - Revolutionary War hero Benedict Arnold turned his back on his country and met secretly with British Major John Andre to discuss handing over West Point to the British, in return for the promise of 20,000 pounds and a British military command for Arnold. More 

1783, September 3 - The Treaty of Paris is signed, officially ending the American Revolutionary War and recognizing the United States as an independent nation. More

1787, September 17 - The U.S. Constitution is finally accepted and signed  The document consisted of a Preamble and  seven Articles. Some pointed to the missing bill of rights as a fatal flaw in the new document. A compromised was reached assuring that amendments would be immediately proposed to addressed the need for a bill of rights and the Constitution was signed by 39 of the 42 delegates still present at the convention when it was finished (Governor Edmund Randolph and George Mason, both from Virginia, and Elbridge Gerry from Massachusetts, declined to sign It). On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document, and it was subsequently agreed that government under the U.S. Constitution would begin on March 4, 1789 thus replacing the existing Articles of Confederation which had been adopted by the Continental Congress on 11/15/1777.
On September 25, 1789, the First Congress of the U.S. proposed 12 amendments to the Constitution with its own Preamble. Ten of the proposed 12 amendments were ratified by three-fourths of the State legislatures on December 15, 1791. They form what is now referred to as The Bill of Rights

1789, September 2 - The First Congress of the United States creates the Department of Treasury, a permanent institution for the management of government finances. Alexander Hamilton served as the first Secretary of the Treasury from 1789 to 1795. Hamilton was killed in a duel in 1804. More

1789, September 24 - The Judiciary Act of 1789 is signed into law by President George Washington. Officially titled "An Act to Establish the Judicial Courts of the United States." Article III of the Constitution established a Supreme Court, but left to Congress the authority to create lower federal courts as needed. The House of Representatives passed the Judiciary Act on Sept 17, 1789 and the Senate on July 17 1789. More

1789, September 25 - The United States Congress approves the Bill of Rights, comprising the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. More

1793, September 18 - President George Washington crosses the Potomac to lay the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol. More

1804, September 14 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition, exploring the western portion of the United States, reaches the Pacific Ocean.

1806, September 20 - After more than two years exploring the western wilderness, Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery arrived at the frontier village of La Charette, in modern Missouri. More

1810, September 16 - Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Catholic Parish priest, launches the Mexican War of Independence by issuing his "Grito de Dolores" (The Battle Cry of Dolores) from the church pulpit in the town of Dolores, calling for the end of of 300 years of the Spanish rule of Mexico, the redistribution of land and racial equality. Soon after, a peasant army was marching toward Mexico City. Hidalgo was later captured and later eventually executed, on July 30, 1811. Mexican Independence is officially celebrated on September 16.

1810, September 18 - Chiles Independence Day (Establishment of the Government Junta of Chile)

1812,  September 7 - The Battle of Borodino takes place during Napoleon's invasion of Russia, resulting in a costly victory for the French forces.

1812, September 14 - Napoleon and his Grande Armée enter the city of Moscow to find the city almost deserted and lacking the supplies they hoped to find for the French army. After waiting a few weeks for a surrender that never came and the threat of the approaching Russian winter, Napoleon orders the French army to leave Moscow.

1813, September 7 - The U.S. Receives The Nickname 'Uncle Sam".  During the War of 1812, Samuel Wilson, a meat packer from Troy, New York. was one of the suppliers to the U. S. Army. He labeled his barrels of beef with “U.S.” to indicate U.S. government property, but soldiers referred to the “U.S.” as Uncle Sam (Wilson). On September 7, 1813, a local newspaper picked up the story which eventually led to the widespread use of the nickname. Congress passed a resolution in 1961 that recognized Samuel Wilson as the inspiration for the symbol Uncle Sam.

1814, September 11- The battle of Plattsburgh, also called the Battle of Lake Champlain concludes  with an important American victory that saved New York from a British invasion via the Hudson River valley. The Americans included 1,500 regulars and about 2,500 militia commanded by Gen. Alexander Macomb, supported by a 14 ship American naval squadron under Commodore Thomas Macdonough. The British army of some 14,000 troops was commanded by Sir George Prevost. More

1814, September 14 - The poem "The Star-Spangled Banner" is written by Francis Scott Key during the bombardment of Fort
McHenry, later becoming the national anthem of the United States 1830, September 26 - The city of Liverpool, England, is proclaimed a borough by royal charter.

1821, September 15 - Costa Rica Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - El Salvador Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - Guatemala Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - Honduras Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - Nicaragua Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1822, September 7 - Brazil Independance day from Portugal (Declaration of independence by Pedro I of Brazil)

1845, September 16 - Phineas Wilcox is stabbed to death by fellow Mormons in Nauvoo, Illinois, because he was believed to be a spy. Wilcox was one of the first victims of "blood atonement," a since abandoned Mormon doctrine, that certain sins were so so serious as to put the sinner "beyond the reach of the atoning blood of Christ"  For these fallen sinners, their "only hope" lay in having "their own blood shed to atone." More

1846, September 23 - Astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle is the first to identify Neptune as the eighth planet orbiting around the Sun. The discovery was made based on mathematical calculations of its predicted position due to observed perturbations in the orbit of the planet Uranus. The discovery was made using a telescope since Neptune is too faint to be visible to the naked eye, owing to its great distance from the Sun. Astronomers soon discovered a moon orbiting Neptune, but it took more than a century to discover a second one. Our knowledge of distant Neptune greatly increased from the scientific observations made during Voyager 2’s flyby in 1989, including the discovery of five additional moons and confirmation of dark rings orbiting the planet. More

1847, September 14 - During the Mexican-American War, General Winfield Scott captures Mexico City after a successful attack on the port city of Veracruz and a series of victories. More

1850, September 9 - California is admitted into the Union becoming the 31st State

1854, September 27 -  Two ships collided about fifty miles off the coast of Newfoundland, killing at least 322 people of the 400 who were onboard. The collision was caused by a sudden, heavy fog that obscured the view of both ships' Captains. The larger ship was the wood hulled paddle steamer called SS Arctic. The smaller ship was called the SS Vesta, an iron hulled, propeller driven French ship. More

1857, September 11 - A Mormon militia in southern Utah seized a wagon train from Arkansas and brutally murdered 120 people. Soon after, records of the event were destroyed and Mormon leaders attempted a cover-up. The "Mountain Meadows Massacre" still troubles the descendants of both the attackers and victims. More

1859, September 1 - The Carrington Event was the most intense geomagnetic storm in recorded history. It was associated with a very bright solar flare and it created strong auroral displays that were reported globally and caused sparking and even fires in multiple telegraph stations. The geomagnetic storm was most likely the result of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the Sun colliding with Earth's magnetosphere. A geomagnetic storm of this magnitude occurring today would cause widespread electrical disruptions, blackouts, and could cause an internet apocalypse, sending large numbers of people and businesses offline  due to extended outages of the electrical power grid. More

1859, September 11 - The Royal Charter storm wrecks over 130 ships along the coast of England and Wales, resulting in the loss of around 800 lives.

1862, September 17 - The Battle of Antietam takes place during the American Civil War, resulting in the bloodiest single day of battle in U.S. history. It showed that the Union could stand against the Confederate army in the Eastern theater. It also gave President Abraham Lincoln the confidence to issue the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. More

1862, September 22 - President Lincoln issued the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, declaring that as of January 1, 1863 "all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free."  More

1863, September 22 - The preliminary Emancipation Proclamation is issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, declaring that all
slaves in Confederate territory are to be set free.

1870, September 20 - The Papal States, the last remnants of the Papal territories, are incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy, marking the end of the temporal power of the Pope.

1886, September 4 - Goyathlay, also known as Geronimo, hands his rifle to a U.S. General bringing the Apache armed resistance to an end after his tribe had been relocated to a reservation in Arizona 14 years earlier. His military resistance with his tiny band of Chiricahuas made him feared by white settlers. After his surrender, Goyathlay and about 30 followers, including children, were sent to Fort Marion in St. Augustine, destined fto years of imprisonment. On his deathbed, he confessed to his nephew that he regretted his decision to surrender. His last words were reported to be: "I should have never surrendered. I should have fought until I was the last man alive." He dictated his autobiography "Geronimo's Story of his Life" to S.M Barrett Superintendent of Education, Lawton,  .

1888, September 8 - The first successful publication of The National Geographic Magazine is released.

1894, September 25 - US President Grover Cleveland signs Proclamation 369 - Granting Amnesty and Pardon for the Offenses of Polygamy, Bigamy, Adultery, or Unlawful Cohabitation to Members of the Church of Latter-Day Saints. More

1897, September 19 - The world's first recorded automobile accident occurs in New York City, involving a motor vehicle and a cyclist.

1898, September 21 - The United States captures the city of Manila during the Spanish-American War, establishing American control over the Philippines.

1901, September 6 - William McKinley, the 25th president of the United States, is shot and mortally wounded by anarchist Leon Czolgosz  at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.  President McKinley died days later on September 14. He was the third American president to be assassinated, following Abraham Lincoln in 1865 and James A. Garfield in 1881.President Theodore Roosevelt was immediately sworn in as president. More

1904, September 21 -  The Nez Perce chief Joseph died in 1904 in Nespelem, Washington, of an undiagnosed illness and what his doctor called "a broken heart." His tomb remains in Nespelem today. More

1908, September 16 - William Durant creates General Motors which included Buick and Oldsmobile. Less than 16 months after GM’s incorporation, Durant had purchased other companies including  Cadillac, Oakland (Pontiac), McLaughlin (GM Canada) and GMC. More 

1908, September 22 - Bulgaria Independence day from the Ottoman Empire.

1908, September 27 - The very first Ford Model T, finishes assembly at the Piquette plant in Detroit. The production card lists it as Model 2090, car #1. It had 4 cylinders, 2 levers (the second for reverse), and 2 foot pedals. About 1,000 of these early Ts were produced. More

1913, September 29 - Inventor Rudolf Diesel disappeared from a steamer in route to London. His body was recovered on the shore days later. The circumstances surrounding his death are still a mystery. Some believe he may have committed suicide, while others speculate that he was murdered by coal industrialists. More

1914, September 5 - The First Battle of the Marne begins during World War I, resulting in a French victory and halting the German
advance towards Paris.

1914, September 22 - The German U-boat U-9 sinks three Royal Navy cruisers of the 7th Cruiser Squadron. The cruisers  Aboukir, the Hogue and the Cressy were on patrol on the North Sea. The sinking eroded confidence in the British government and damaged the reputation of the Royal Navy, when many countries were still undecided about taking sides in the war.

1918, September 4 - About 4500 U.S. troops land at Arkhangelsk, Russia (Archangel) as part of an Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Starting at 4500 military personnel the U.S. troops, peaked to about 13000. By the time they left in late 1919, 150 U.S. soldiers had been killed in action and about 100 more died from illness or accidents. More

1918, September 29 - The Hindenburg Line is finally broken by the allied force with Australian and US troops spearheading this battle, given the task of breaking defenses in the center.  Advances were made, but it was a struggle between the two forces. The fighting lasted four days and resulted in heavy losses. More

1919, September 25 - The Paris Peace Conference officially ends World War I and establishes the League of Nations.

1923, September 1 - The powerful Kanto earthquake and the ensuing 39.5 feet tsunami kill more than 140,000 in Yokohama and Tokyo More

1928, September 15 - Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming accidently discovers penicillin leading to a breakthrough in the development of antibiotics. The following year, Fleming published his findings in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology and presented his discovery to the Medical Research Club. To his surprise, his peers showed little interest in his work. He recruited leading chemists and experts to help purify penicillin from the mold without any success. Penicillin was labelled a laboratory curiosity and Fleming gave up attempts to purify it. It wasn't until the 1940's fueled by the needs from WW2 and an unprecedented cooperation between the United States and Great Britain to produce penicillin that Penicillin became commercially available in 1943. More 

1932, September 16 - Gandhi announces a fast "unto death"  in protest of the British government's proposal to separate India's electoral system by caste which would aggravate the Indian caste and religious divisions, and in support of his goal to end the Hindu prejudice and discrimination against the untouchables. More

1938, September 29-30 - The Munich Agreement is signed by Germany, Italy, France, and the United Kingdom, allowing Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.

1939, September 1 - World War II effectively begins with Germany's invasion of Poland, More

1939, September 3 - France and the United Kingdom declare war on Germany

1939, September 17 - The Soviet Union invades Poland which was already in a state of war with Nazi Germany and occupies the Eastern part of Poland. At the end of September the division of Poland was confirmed by German–Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Demarcation which included a correction of the borders first drawn in the secret clause of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact. It was the beginning of a 2-year long occupation of Central Europe by two totalitarian regimes. More

1940, September 7 - The Blitz begins as German Luftwaffe planes bomb London, marking the start of a sustained aerial bombing campaign during World War II  on British towns and cities which went on until May 1941. More

1940, September 12 - Lascaux cave paintings are accidentally discovered by four boys examining a fox hole down which their dog had fallen on the hill of Lascaux.  The boys, in awe of what they had found, told their teacher, after which the process towards excavating the cave was set in motion. By 1948 the cave was ready to be opened to the public. More

1940, September 13 - Italy invaded Egypt from their colony in Libya. Having limited success, Hitler realized that Germany would have to support the Italians and on 11 February 1941 Major-General Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps landed at Tripoli. The British won some spectacular victories over the Italians, but found the Germans a much tougher nut to crack. More

1940, September 16 - The United States instituted the the first peacetime draft in United States' history. with the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, which required all men between the ages of 21 and 45 to register for the draft. Those who were selected from the draft lottery were required to serve at least one year in the armed forces. Once the U.S. entered WWII, draft terms extended through the duration of the fighting. By the end of the war in 1945, 50 million men between eighteen and forty-five had registered for the draft and 10 million had been inducted in the military. More

1940, September 27 - Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact, forming the Axis Powers alliance one year after the start of World War II. It created a defense alliance between the countries and was in part intended to deter the United States from entering the conflict. More

Tripartite Pact, agreement concluded by Germany, Italy, and Japan on September 27, 1940, one year after the start of World War II. It created a defense alliance between the countries and was largely intended to deter the United States from entering the conflict.

1941, September 8 - The Siege of Leningrad begins as German forces surround the city, leading to a brutal and prolonged siege that lasted for nearly 900 days. More

1941, September 9 - The first aerial bombing of the United States mainland by a foreign power. Japanese pilot Nobuo Fujita catapulted aboard a seaplane from the Japanese I-25 submarine near the coast of southern Oregon and headed east on a mission to drop an incendiary (fire) bomb on the thick forest and cause a massive fire that would shock Americans and divert resources from fighting the war. Once over forested land, Fujita released the bomb, which struck leaving a crater about three feet in diameter and about one foot deep. No major fire happened due to the wet conditions of the forest. More

1942, September 3 - The Battle of Stalingrad begins as German forces launch an offensive against the city, marking a turning point in World War II as the Soviet Union successfully defends and ultimately defeats the German army.

1942, September 12 - the RMS Laconia was sunk by the U-156 German Submarine. The ship was carrying 268 British soldiers and 80 civilians, and1,800 Italian prisoners of war who were being guarded by 160 Polish soldiers. Some 1,500 of Laconia’s passengers survived. primarily due to the efforts of the U-156 and three other German submarines which participated in the initial rescue operations.  More

1942, September 21 - The initial Superfortress XB-29 prototype first flew from Boeing Field in Seattle, Washington. The powerful Wright R-3350 engines experienced chronic overheating issues during testing, leading to the crash of the second prototype just north of Boeing Field on February 18, 1943. The first war debut took place in June 5, 1944, against Bangkok, as part of the  Allied campaign to liberate Burma from Japanese hands. More

1943, September 3 - Italy secretly signs an armistice with the Allies, effectively surrendering in World War II and leading to the collapse of Fascist rule in Italy. No public announcement was made until September 8. More

1943, September 3 - Montgomery’s 8th Army crosses the Strait of Messina from Sicily and lands at Calabria, beginning the invasion of the Italian mainland.

1943, September 9 - The Allied Fifth Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, USA, lands on Salerno, Italy, transported by the Western Naval Task Force, TF 80, commanded by Vice Admiral H. Kent Hewitt, USN.

1944, September 15 - Operation Stalemate II, The Battle of Peleliu: The 1st Marine Division lands on “White” and “Orange” beaches on the western side of the Island of Peleliu, three days after the Island underwent a heavy naval and air bombardment by the Third Fleet forces. Once ashore, the landing forces quickly realized that the pre-invasion bombardment had not been particularly effective. The cost of taking the island, was high.  On Peleliu, Marine casualties were 1,336 killed and 5,450 wounded while the 81st Infantry Division suffered 1,393 casualties including 208 killed in action. On Angaur, the 81st Infantry Division had 1,676 casualties, including 196 killed in action.  The Japanese lost an estimated 10,695 men, with an additional 301 taken as prisoners of war.

1944, September 17 - Operation Market Garden, a major Allied airborne operation, commences in the Netherlands with the goal of securing key bridges and opening a path into Germany. The operation ultimately falls short of its objectives.

1945, September 2 - Japan formally surrenders aboard the USS Missouri, marking the end of World War II and bringing about the official cessation of hostilities in the Pacific theater.

1945, September 2 - Ho Chi Minh, the Vietnamese Communist leader —seizes an opportunity to escape decades of French rule and declares Vietnam independence on the same day Japan surrenders to the Allies. In a deliberate appeal for American support, he opened his speech with the words: “All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among them are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness." The U.S did not support the Vietnamese struggle and instead adopted a neutral policy when on the same year, France went to war to recolonize Vietnam and in 1950, President Harry S. Truman authorized financial and military assistance to the French. All leading to the eventual U.S military involvement.
Vietnam's official estimate of war dead is as many as 2 million civilians on both sides and some 1.1 million North Vietnamese and Viet Cong fighters. The U.S. military has estimated that between 200,000 and 250,000 South Vietnamese soldiers died in the war. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. is inscribed with the names of 58,200 members of U.S. armed forces who had died or were missing as a result of the war including at least 100 names of servicemen who were actually Canadian citizens. Other countries that fought for South Vietnam on a smaller scale also suffered soldiers deaths; South Korea more than 4,000 dead, Thailand about 350, Australia more than 500, and New Zealand 37 deaths. These deaths, were in addition to the estimated 50,000 French losses during the first Indochina war. More

1945, September 2 - Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. More

1945, September 22 - General Patton declares during a Press interview ,that he had “never seen the necessity of the denazification program,” asserting that 98 per cent of the Nazis were just camp followers. In October 1945 he was relieved of his duties by the Allied High Command and recalled to the US.

1946, September 30th - The International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg delivers its verdicts, with several high-ranking Nazi officials found guilty of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other atrocities committed during World War II.

1947, September 2nd - The Partition of India takes effect, leading to the creation of the independent nations of India and Pakistan and resulting in widespread violence and mass migrations.

1948, September 17th - The Organization of American States (OAS) is founded in Bogota, Colombia, with the goal of promoting democracy, peace, and cooperation among the countries of the Americas.

1948, September 17 - The Nuremberg Trials of Nazi war criminals begin in Nuremberg, Germany.

1949, September 21st - The People's Republic of China is proclaimed by Chairman Mao Zedong, marking the establishment of a communist government in China.

1949. September 23 - US President Truman announces that the Soviet Union had tested a nuclear device several weeks earlier. The White House did not explain how the United States had detected the test, which had occurred on 29 August 1949 at Semipalatinsk, in northeastern Kazakhstan. More

1950, September 15 - On September 15, 1950, the soldiers, sailors, and Marines of X Corps landed at Inchon. Even though the Inchon plans had been leaked in U.S. media and throughout Japan, North Korea was unprepared for the landing. More

1952, September 2 - The Old Man and the Sea, written by Ernest Hemingway, is published and later wins the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.

1954, September 24 - The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is established, aimed at preventing the spread of communism in the region.

1955, September 19 - Argentina's President Peron is deposed after a revolt by the army and navy. He had ben reelected to his second term by a wide margin in 1952. He left Argentina and lived in exile and returned to Argentina in 1973 and was soon elected President for a third time More

1955, September 23 - The television series "The Mickey Mouse Club" premieres on American television, becoming an iconic part of
popular culture.

1957, September 4 - When integration began on September 4, 1957, the Arkansas National Guard was called in to "preserve the peace". Originally at orders of the governor, they were meant to prevent the black students from entering due to claims that there was "imminent danger of tumult, riot and breach of peace" However, President Eisenhower issued Executive Order 10730, which federalized the Arkansas National Guard and ordered them to support the integration on September 23 of that year, after which they protected the African American students. More

1957, September 19 - The US Military conducts the first-ever underground nuclear explosion as part of Operation Plumbbob. The test took place in Nevada. More

1959, September 14 - The Soviet spacecraft Luna 2 reaches the moon and crashes on its surface, making it the first spacecraft to contact another solar system body. More

1960, September 18 - Fidel Castro arrives in New York to address the UN General Assembly. His brief trip put the Cuban leader on the world stage. Days after his return to Cuba, the US imposed a trade embargo that would last more than half a century. Diplomatic relations with the island were severed in January 1961. More 

1960, September 22 - Mali Independence Day from France

1960, September 26 - The first-ever televised U.S. presidential debate takes place between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon.

1963, September 15 - The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, is bombed by white supremacists, resulting in the deaths of four young African-American girls.

1964, September 21 - Malta Independence Day from the U.K.

1966, September 30 -  Botswana Independence day from the UK (Effective date of the Botswana Independence Act 1966)

1968, September 6 - Eswatini Independence day from the UK

1969, September 1 - Libya's King Idris is removed from power in a coup d'état led by Muammar Qaddafi and the Free Patriotic Officers Movement Qaddafi remain in control of Libya October 20, 2011 when he was also deposed in a violent coup inspired by the Arab Spring protests.

1969, September 2 - The first ATM in the U.S goes live at one of Chemical Bank’s New York branches.. The bank was concerned that people would reject the idea of a cash machine that handled their money and saw such an expense as a big risk. However, the public quickly accepted the new machines and people were even willing to pay a small fee to use them. More

1970, September 1st - The deadliest hurricane of the 20th century, Hurricane Celia, makes landfall in Texas, causing widespread destruction and resulting in 11 deaths.

1970, September 21 - Oman gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1972, September 5th - The Palestinian terrorist group Black September attacks the Israeli Olympic team at the Munich Summer Olympics, resulting in the deaths of 11 Israeli athletes and coaches.

1973, September 11th - A military coup takes place in Chile, led by General Augusto Pinochet, overthrowing democratically elected socialist President Salvador Allende. This event marks the beginning of a brutal military dictatorship that would last for nearly 17 years during which over 2,300 people were killed, more than 30,000 tortured, and sent tens of thousands into exile. Reportedly, President Allende shot himself to death as troops stormed the burning palace. Many declassified documents have been released over the years which point to U.S involvement in Chile's Coup, while many other documents potentially central to understanding the exact role of the U.S. in Chile, during the 1960s and 1970s remain classified.

1973,  September 24 - Guinea-Bissau Independence day from Portugal.

1974, September 8th - President Gerald Ford grants a full pardon to former President Richard Nixon “a full, free, and absolute pardon ... for all offenses against the United States which he, Richard Nixon, has committed or may have committed or taken part in” while in office.“

1975, September 15 - Elizabeth Ann Seton is canonized (officially made a saint), by Pope Paul VI becoming the first native-born saint of the United States. More

1975, September 16 Papua New Guinea Independence Day from Australia

1975, September 30th - The Indonesian province of East Timor declares its independence from Portugal, leading to an Indonesian invasion and subsequent occupation that lasted until 1999.

1976, September 9 - Mao Zedong dies in Beijing at age 82. Mao's CCP-flag-draped body lay in state at the Great Hall of the People for one week where an estimated one million people, including diplomatic envoys, leaders of foreign communist parties, and foreign nationals in China paid their final respects. A three-minute moment of silence was observed in honor of the leader at the start of the 30-minute public funeral in Tiananmen Square, with reports that nearly all of China’s 800 million residents stood in silent tribute. 

1976,
September 17 - NASA Space Shuttle Enterprise Makes its Public Debut. More

1976, September 22nd - Former Argentine President Juan Perón returns to Argentina after 18 years of exile, reclaiming the presidency later that same year.

1977, September 7 - The Panama Canal Treaty is signed, stating that the Panama Canal Zone would cease to exist on the first of October, 1979, and the Canal itself would be turned over to the Panamanians at the end of 1999. A companion treaty stated that the U.S. could use its military to defend the Panama Canal against any threat to its neutrality. It took more than six months before the Senate voted. More

1977, September 15th - The Voyager 1 spacecraft is launched by NASA to explore the outer solar system. It would later become the first human-made object to reach interstellar space.

1978, September 17th - The Camp David Accords are signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, leading to a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.

1978, September 25 - A Boeing 727-214 airliner, operated by Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) as Flight 182, collides with a Cessna 172 during the landing approach at Lindbergh Field (SAN), today known as San Diego International Airport and crashes into a residential neighborhood. All 135 persons aboard the 727, both persons on the Cessna, and seven persons on the ground were killed. Another nine persons on the ground were injured. Twenty-two homes in a four-block area were destroyed or damaged. More

1979, September 7th - The Soviet Union launches the space probe Venera 12, which successfully lands on Venus and transmits data back to Earth.

1980, September 22nd - Iraq invades western Iran along the countries join border, initiating the Iran-Iraq War, which lasted for eight years and resulted in significant loss of life and economic damage.  More

1981, September 21 -  Belize Independence day from the UK (Effective day of the Belize Act 1981)

1981, September 4th - The Solidarity movement in Poland is officially recognized by the government after a wave of strikes and protests, marking a significant step in the fight for workers' rights and democracy.

1981, September 19 - Saint Kitts and Nevis Independence Day from the UK

1982, September 14th - The massacre of Sabra and Shatila takes place in Beirut, Lebanon, where Lebanese Christian militia, under the supervision of Israeli forces, kill hundreds to thousands of Palestinian refugees.

1983, September 1st - Korean Air Flight 007 is shot down by Soviet Union forces after it strays into Soviet airspace, resulting in the deaths of all 269 passengers and crew on board. More

1984, September 20th - The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) carries out a bombing in Brighton, England, targeting the Conservative Party conference. Although Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher survives, five people are killed in the attack.

1985, September 19th - An 8.1 magnitude earthquake strikes Mexico City, causing widespread devastation and resulting in the deaths of 10,000 people, 30,000 injured and thousands left homeless. More

1986, September 26th - The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act is passed by the United States Congress, imposing economic sanctions against South Africa in protest against its apartheid policies.

1987, September 24th - The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is signed, aiming to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of ozone-depleting substances.

1988, September 5th - The ceasefire in the Iran-Iraq War is declared, ending eight years of conflict and marking the end of one of the longest and deadliest wars of the 20th century.

1989, September 11th - Hungary opens its border with Austria, allowing thousands of East German refugees to flee to the West. This event contributed to the eventual fall of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of Germany.

1987, September 11 - The "Star Trek: The Next Generation" television series premieres, becoming a highly successful continuation of the Star Trek franchise.

1991, September 1 - Uzbekistan Independence Day from the Soviet Union

1991, September 8 - North Macedonia Independence Day from Yugoslavia

1991, September 9 -Tajikistan Independence Day from the Soviet Union

1991, September 21 - Armenia Independence Day from the Soviet Union. (1991 Armenian independence referendum)

1991, September 27 - Turkmenistan Independence Day from the Soviet Union

1993, September 13 - The Oslo Accords are signed between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), aiming to establish peace in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Negotiator Mahmoud Abbas signed a Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements at the White House. Israel accepted the PLO as the representative of the Palestinians, and the PLO renounced terrorism and recognized Israel’s right to exist in peace. More

1994, September 28 - The Passenger ferry, Estonia, sinks resulting in 852 lives lost. The official disaster report, published in 1997, said the fatal event started when the locks on the ferry’s bow door failed from the strain of the waves. Conspiracy theories questioning the official report pointed to an explosion onboard the ferry or a collision with an unidentified submarine. A new official investigation of the MS Estonia wreck was launched in the wake of the Swedish documentary, “Estonia: The Discovery that Changes Everything”, which premiered in 2020 and showed that the sunken cruise ferry had a large wide hole in the hull.  More

1995, September 19 -  The New York Times and The Washington Post publish the 35,000-word manifesto of Unabomber Ted Kaczynski, which called for revolution against a corrupt industrial-technological society and was instrumental in identifying and capturing him. Kaczynski entered Harvard University when he was 16-year-old on a scholarship, after skipping the sixth and 11th grades. During Kaczynski’s sophomore year at Harvard, in 1959, he was recruited for a psychological experiment that, unbeknownst to him, would last three years. The Washington Post and others have reported that the experiment run by Harvard psychologist Henry A. Murray was backed by the Central Intelligence Agency. More 

1997, September 6 - The funeral of Princess Diana takes place in London, with millions of people around the world watching the event on television.

1999, September 21 - An earthquake of  7.6 magnitude on the Richter scale occurs in Taiwan The death toll from Taiwan's devastating earthquake was 2,375 . I caused billions of dollars in damages and left an estimated 100,000 homeless.. More

2000, September 28th - The second Intifada, a period of intensified Israeli-Palestinian conflict, begins with the visit of Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, sparking protests and escalating violence in the region.

2001, September 11th - The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. take place, resulting in the loss of nearly 3,000 people in those cataclysmic hours, and significant damage to infrastructure.

2001, September 20th - The War in Afghanistan begins when the United States, supported by its allies, launches military operations against the Taliban regime in response to the 9/11 attacks.

2004, September 1st - The Beslan school siege begins in North Ossetia, Russia. A group of armed militants takes over a school, resulting in a prolonged hostage crisis and the tragic deaths of more than 330 people, including many children.

2005, September 2nd - Hurricane Katrina makes landfall in the United States, primarily affecting the Gulf Coast region. The hurricane causes widespread destruction and flooding, resulting in the loss of thousands of lives and significant damage to property.

2008, September 15th - Lehman Brothers, one of the largest investment banks in the world, files for bankruptcy, marking the beginning of the global financial crisis that would have far-reaching effects on the global economy.

2004, September 13th - The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine, establishing a framework for collective action to prevent genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity.

2007, September 13 - The United Nations adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples; setting a global standard for the treatment of Indigenous Peoples.  While the Declaration is not legally binding, it is a vital step in securing Indigenous rights worldwide. It has since been ratified by 143 countries. More
 
2007, September 26th - Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) experiences widespread protests led by Buddhist monks and activists, known as the Saffron Revolution, demanding democratic reforms and an end to military rule.

2008, September 29th - The stock market experiences a significant drop as the Dow Jones Industrial Average falls 777.68 points, the largest single-day point decline at that time, reflecting the deepening financial crisis and concerns over the global economy.

2009, September 1st - The Eurozone officially enters a recession, as confirmed by the European Union's statistical agency Eurostat, following the global financial crisis that began in 2008.

2009, September 11th - The 9/11 Memorial Museum opens to the public in New York City, commemorating the victims of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and preserving the history and memory of the tragic event.

2009, September 23rd - The military junta in Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) releases pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest after almost 15 years of confinement, allowing her to participate in political activities once again.

2009, September 25th - The King of Pop, Michael Jackson, passes away at the age of 50, leaving a lasting legacy as one of the most influential musicians in history.

2009, September 29th - NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) successfully impact the Moon's surface as part of a mission to search for water ice in the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar poles.

2009, September 29th - The H1N1 influenza virus, also known as the swine flu, is declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The virus spreads rapidly worldwide, resulting in widespread illness and increased public health measures.

2010, September 4 - The 2010 Canterbury earthquake strikes Christchurch, New Zealand.

2010, September 8 - A massive pipeline explosion in San Bruno, California.

2011,  September 17 - The Occupy Wall Street movement begins in New York City.

2011, September 20th - The "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy is officially repealed.

2011, September 11 - The U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi, Libya, is attacked.

2012, September 14 - Protests erupt in various countries in response to an anti-Islamic video.

2012, September 25 - World leaders adopt the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development at the United Nations.

2013, September 14th - A terrorist attack occurs at the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya.

2014, September 20 - The Colombian government and FARC sign a peace agreement.

2014, September 18 - Scotland holds a referendum on independence from the United Kingdom.

2015, September 25 - Hurricane Maria devastates Puerto Rico.

2015, September 30 - The U.S., Canada, and Mexico agree to the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).

2016, September 28 - The International Criminal Court convicts Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi.

2017, September 19 - A powerful earthquake strikes Mexico.

2017, September 20 - Hurricane Maria devastates Puerto Rico.

2018, September 29 - Indonesia is struck by a massive earthquake and tsunami.

2018, September 30 - The U.S., Canada, and Mexico agree to the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).

2019. September 20 - Millions participate in a Global Climate Strike, led by Greta Thunberg.

2019, September 23 - Greta Thunberg delivers a speech at the United Nations Climate Action Summit. 

Online History Resources

These are some of the many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of August, listed by year. Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate.


63 BCE, August - The Roman general Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) captures Jerusalem, bringing it under Roman control.

29 BCE, August - Octavian (later known as Augustus) celebrates three days of triumph in Rome, marking the end of the Final War of the Roman Republic.

79, August 24 - Vesuvius, an active volcano in southern Italy, erupted and destroyed the cities of Pompeii, Stabiae, Oplontis and Herculaneum and several other settlements. Although exact toll is unknown, more than 1,000 people are thought to have died in the eruption. The eruption ejected a cloud of stones, ashes and volcanic gases to a height of 21 miles (33 km). Vesuvius is the only volcano on Europe's mainland to have erupted in the last hundred years. It is regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because 3 Million people live near enough to be affected by an eruption, with at least 600,000 in the danger zone.

325, August 25 - The First Council of Nicaea ends. The Council was a meeting of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I. It was specifically called to make a decision about Arianism—the belief that God created Jesus, and that Jesus was not eternal or one with God. Arianism was growing in popularity, even among church leaders threatening to tear the church apart. More

410, August 24 - The Visigoths, led by King Alaric, sack the city of Rome, marking the first time in almost 800 years that the city falls to an enemy force.

1057, August 15 - Malcolm Canmore slains King Macbeth of Scotland at the Battle of Lumphananand. His father, King Duncan I, had been murdered by Macbeth 17 years earlier. Following the battle  Macbeth's stepson, Lulach, was crowned King, before being killed by Malcolm who then recovered the Scottish throne as Malcolm III.  All the kings of Scotland since Malcolm himself and all the kings of England since the accession of Henry II descend from Malcolm and his English wife Margaret, the grandchild of Edmund Ironside.  More

1204, August 1 - The Fourth Crusade concludes with the sack of Constantinople, leading to the division and weakening of the Byzantine Empire.

1209, August 15 - The Massacre at Béziers takes place during the Albigensian Crusade, where the Catholic Crusaders sack the city of Béziers in southern France.

1214, August 24 - The Battle of Bouvines occurs during the Fourth Crusade, where the forces of Philip II of France defeat an alliance of European powers led by Emperor Otto IV.

1227, August 15 - 31  - Genghis Khan, (actually named Borjigin Temujin), the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, dies in Mongolia some time in late August. 1227. At the time of his death, the Mongol Empire was 2.5 times larger by territory than the Roman Empire. A study published in 2003 in The American Journal of Human Genetics suggested that Genghis Khan DNA can be found in one in 200 men today. The cause of his death is shrouded in mystery and it is now believed that it was caused by the bubonic plague.

1248, August 15 - The Seventh Crusade, led by King Louis IX of France, reaches Egypt and begins the siege of Damietta.

1258, August 29 - The Mongol Empire, under the leadership of Hulagu Khan, captures and sacks the city of Baghdad, leading to the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate.

1261, August 15 - The Byzantine Empire recaptures the city of Constantinople from the Latin Empire, marking the end of the Fourth Crusade.

1270, August 25 - The Eighth Crusade, led by King Louis IX of France, departs from Aigues-Mortes, France, with the goal of conquering Tunis.

1281, August 15 - The Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty of China successfully repels a second invasion attempt by the Japanese forces in the Battle of Kōan.

1291, August 1 - Swiss National Day - Alliance against the Holy Roman Empire in 1291.

1291, August 20 - The Siege of Acre ends, resulting in the fall of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the complete expulsion of European Christian forces from the Holy Land.

1305, August 7 - William Wallace, Scottish leader of the resistance against English rule, is captured by English forces near Glasgow.

1314, August 23-24 - The Battle of Bannockburn takes place, where Scottish forces led by Robert the Bruce defeat the English army, securing Scottish independence.

1346, August 26 - The Battle of Crécy occurs during the Hundred Years' War, where the
English army, led by Edward III, defeats the French forces.

1350, August 14 - The St. Mary Magdalene's flood devastates the Netherlands, England, and
Germany, causing significant loss of life and destruction.

1396, August 17 - The Battle of Nicopolis takes place, marking the final major crusade of the Middle Ages and resulting in a victory for the Ottoman Empire over an alliance of European forces.

1485, August 22 - The Battle of Bosworth Field. The last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England. The battle was won by an alliance of Lancastrians and disaffected Yorkists. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory and subsequent marriage to a Yorkist princess. His opponent Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed during the battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field battle one of the defining moments of English history.

1492, August 3 - Christopher Columbus sets sail from Palos de la Frontera, Spain, with three ships, Niña, Pinta and Santa Maria. Searching for a westerly route to the Far East. Instead, on October 12th, he lands in the Bahamas, thinking it was an outlying Japanese island.

1498, August 1 - Explorer Christopher Columbus lands on South America at the Paria Peninsula in present-day Venezuela. He Thinking it was an island, he claims it for Spain and christened it "Isla Santa". 

1521, August 13 - Spanish conquistador Hernándo Cortés succeeds in bringing about the fall of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire after over two months of fighting. Cortes' conquests began with Cuba in 1511, Mexico’s Bay of Campeche in 1519, and then deeper into Mexico.

1572, August 24 - Thousands of Protestant Huguenots are massacred in France by Catholics, in what became known as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.

1583, August 5 - Sir Humphrey Gilbert, a British navigator and explorer takes possession of the area around St. John’s harbor, Newfoundland in the name of the Queen. He was later lost at sea in a storm off the Azores on his return trip to England.

1619, August 20 -  First enslaved Africans arrive in Virginia; Two English pirate ships, the Treasurer and White Lion. each carrying 20-30 African slaves land in the Jamestown colony within four days of each other. The slaves had been taken from a Portuguese slave ship, the San Juan Bautista, carrying 350 African slaves in route to Veracruz, Mexico.
Virginia’s first enslaved people spoke Bantu languages, and their homelands were the kingdoms of Ndongo and Kongo. They are the first recorded Africans to arrive in England's mainland American colonies. marking the beginning of what evolved into a legalized system of slavery that lasted two and a half centuries. More

1753, August 4 - George Washington becomes a Master Mason n his hometown of Fredericksburg, Virginia. He was twenty one years old. More

1776, August 2 - Most of the 55 members of the Continental Congress signed the parchment copy of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia.

1782, August 7 -  General George Washington announces the Badge of Military Merit. The Badge was designed by Washington in the form of a purple heart, it was intended as a military order for soldiers who exhibited, "not only instances of unusual gallantry in battle, but also extraordinary fidelity and essential service in any way". It is believed that only three people received the Badge of Military Merit during the American Revolutionary War, In 1932, the United States War Department  authorized the new Purple Heart Medal ,officially considered the "successor decoration" to the Badge of Military Merit. 

1784, August 14 - Russians led by Grigorii Shelikhov established the first permanent Russian outpost in Alaska on Kodiak Island at Three Saints Bay. More 

1789, August 26 - The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen is adopted in France, laying the groundwork for the French
Revolution.

1791, August 19 - Benjamin Banneker, the son of a free Black American woman and a formerly enslaved African man from Guinea, writes a letter to Thomas Jefferson, then-Secretary of State. On the letter, Banneker criticizes Jefferson’s hypocritical stance on slavery in respectful but unambiguous terms, using Jefferson’s own words to make his case for the abolition of slavery. Jefferson brief  response thanked him for the letter, expressed his ambivalence about slavery ("…no body [sic] wishes more sincerely than I do to see such proofs as you exhibit in your letter, that nature has given to our black brethren, talents equal to those of the other colours of men") and endorsed Banneker’s accomplishments. More 

1792, August 10 - Louis XVI of France and his wife, Marie-Antoinette are imprisoned and the French monarchy is effectively overthrown, as the French Revolution (1787–99) continues. They were both executed by guillotine in 1793.

1792, August 29 - In one of the worst maritime disasters, 900 men drowned on the British battleship Royal George. A gust of wind allowed water to flood into open gun ports as the ship was being repaired. The ship sank within minutes.

1794, August 26 - President George Washington leads a militia force of 12,950 men towards Western Pennsylvania to subdue the Whiskey Rebellion, warning locals "not to abet, aid, or comfort the Insurgents aforesaid, as they will answer the contrary at their peril." More

1809, August 10 - Ecuador Independence Day - Celebration of the first Ecuadorian patriot uprising against Spanish rule and original proclamation of independence. The movement failed and the leaders of the movement were executed. On 1822 Ecuador won independence from Spain as part of the confederation of Gran Colombia on the decisive Battle of Pichincha. The confederation of Gran Colombia was comprised of what is now the countries of Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela. On May 13, 1830, Ecuador seceded and became a separate independent republic.

1814, August 24 - British forces capture Washington, D.C., during the War of 1812 and burn down the White House, the Capitol, and other public buildings along with a number of private homes. The burning was in retaliation for the earlier American burning of York (Toronto).

1821, August 10 - Missouri is admitted into the Union becoming the 24th State

1821, August 24 - Spain recognizes Mexico independence with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba, Spain finally recognized the independence of the First Mexican Empire. More

1825, August 6 - Bolivia declaration of Independence.

1825, August 25 - Uruguay Independence day from the Empire of Brazil. Declaration of independence and union with the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.

1833, August 28 - Slavery is abolished throughout the British Empire, including in the British colonies of the Caribbean and North America.

1838, Slavery is abolished in Jamaica where it had been introduced in 1509.

1844. August 8 - Brigham Young is chosen to lead the Mormon Church. More

1876, August 1 -  Colorado is admitted into the Union and becomes the 38th State

1856, August 23 - Eunice Newton Foote makes first public scientific mention of the upcoming "Greenhouse effect". Her paper , titled “Circumstances Affecting the Heat of the Sun’s Rays,” was presented at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Foote' s short paper included a prescient conclusion; “An atmosphere of that gas (Carbon Dioxide) would give to our earth a high temperature,” describing the phenomenon we now call the greenhouse effect, the main cause of climate change. More

1858, August 16 - The first successful transatlantic telegraph line is completed. Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom sends a telegraph  to U.S. President James Buchanan. Near-instantaneous communication between Europe and North America. Become a reality.  

1861, August 5 - The Revenue Act is signed by President Lincoln imposing the first federal income tax. The action was prompted by the financial requirements of the Civil War. At first, Congress placed a flat 3-percent tax on all incomes over $800,and later modified this principle to include a graduated tax. Congress repealed Lincoln’s tax law in 1871, but in 1909 passed the 16th Amendment, which set in place the federal income-tax system used today. Congress ratified the 16th Amendment in 1913. More

1862, August 22 - Abraham Lincoln replies to Horace Greeley's New York Tribune editorial entitled “The Prayer of Twenty Millions". More

1864, August 5 - Battle of Mobile Bay -- Admiral David G. Farragut, leads a fleet of fourteen wooden ships and four ironclads and delivers a much needed victory for the Union and immortalizes the phase "Damn the torpedoes! - Full speed ahead!” Farragut became the first U.S. Navy’s full admiral. At the time of his death in 1870, he had served a total of 59 years in uniform. More

1864, August 22 - The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), created in 1863 comes into being as the draft convention submitted to the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick of Armies in the Field, conference is adopted by 12 nations at meeting.  "The ICRC is an independent, neutral organization ensuring humanitarian protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and other situations of violence." More

1866, August 20 - President Johnson issued a proclamation announcing the end of the American Civil War: "And I do further proclaim that the said insurrection is at an end and that peace, order, tranquility, and civil authority now exists in and throughout the whole of the United States of America." The proclamation  officially closed a costly, bloody, and deadly chapter in its nation's history that started at Fort Sumter several years and incurred the loss of 620,000 Union and Confederate soldiers. More 

1873, August 24, Mount of the Holy Cross was first photographed by William Henry Jackson. Stories had circulated for years of a mountain with a large cross etched in its side. Jackson climbed the western slope of the Rocky Mountains with more than 100 pounds of photography equipment and capture his most famous photograph. He later painted the iconic image in watercolor.

1879, August 28 - Zulu King Cetshwayo, the last king of the independent Zulu nation was captured by the British during the Zulu war and taken into custody. Two years later he was allowed to travel to London and met Queen Victoria. He was permitted to return to South Africa to rule a portion of the former Zulu kingdom in 1883. More

1883,  August 26 - One of the most catastrophic volcanic eruptions in recorded history takes place on the Indonesian island of Krakatoa (Krakatau). The first eruption sends a cloud of gas and debris into the air and it is followed by increasingly powerful explosions culminating in a gigantic blast around 10 am on August 27, sending ash and debris 50 miles into the air blanketing 300,000 square miles (800,000 square kilometers) and plunging the area into darkness for two and a half days. The explosions were heard 2,000 miles away. Tidal waves 120 ft. high killed 36,000 persons on nearby islands, while five cubic miles of earth were blasted into the air up to a height of 50 miles. More

1890, August 6 -  New York executed William Kemmler. It was the first time ever a state used the electric chair to carry out an execution. States have carried out 158 executions by electric chair since 1973. Tennessee was the most recent state to use the electric chair, taking place in 2020.

1896, August 16 - Gold was discovered in Rabbit Creek, a tributary of the Klondike River in Alaska, resulting in the Great Klondike
Gold Rush.

1898, August 12 - A cease-fire agreement to stop the hostilities in the Spanish - American War was signed. Spain formally agreed to to the cession of Cuba, Puerto Rico and Manila in the Philippines to the United States pending a final peace treaty. The war officially ended four months later, when the U.S. and Spanish governments signed the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. More

1911, August 20 - A telegram reading “This message sent around the world” is sent by the New York Times to test how fast a commercial message could be sent around the world.  it traveled over 28,000 miles and was relayed by 16 different operators. It arrived back at The Times only 16.5 minutes later. The building where the message originated is now called One Times Square and is best known for where the ball drops on New Year’s Eve.

1911, August 21 - Theft of the Mona Lisa: The Mona Lisa becomes the world's most famous missing painting. It was returned two years later. More

1914, August 1 - World War I starts. Germany declares war on Russia on August 1 and on France on August 3. Austria-Hungary, with German encouragement, had declared war on Serbia on 28 July. Russia's support of Serbia brought France into the conflict.  Germany's violation of Belgian neutrality and British fears of German domination in Europe brought Britain and its empire into the war on 4 August. More

1914, August 4 - President Woodrow Wilson declared U.S. neutrality as World War erupts .  The conflict eventually became a matter of principles: whether to uphold the freedom of the seas, to make the world safe for democracy in the face of autocracy, or to establish a new world order ensuring permanent peace and governed by rational law. The United States declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917. More 

1914, August 5 -  The first electric traffic signal is installed in Cleveland, Ohio at the corner of East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue. It was shaped like a birdhouse and had just green and red lights, with a buzzer that indicated when the light was about to change. A police officer named Lester Wire came up with the idea that revolutionized traffic engineering. He later sold the patent to General Electric. In 1923, inventor Garrett Morgan patented the three-position traffic signal, which is where we get today’s yellow light. More

1914, August 15 - The Panama Canal had its inaugural passage when the U.S. vessel  SS Ancon, passed through its gates and is opened to traffic, In the 1880s, the French  attempted to build the canal to connect the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. the project  was halted because of poor planning, a breakout of disease among the crew, and financial problems that drove the contractor’s company to bankruptcy in 1889. More

1914, August 15 - Japan issues an ultimatum to Germany demanding the withdraw of its warships from Chinese and Japanese waters and to hand over Tsingtao. This was refused and on  August 23, 1914 Japan declared war on Germany.  More

1914, August 26 - The WW1 Battle of Tannenberg between the Germans and the Russians begins. The German forces, led by Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, handed Russia a crushing defeat. More

1916, August  - 27 Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary. and enters WW1 on the side of the Allies. The decision was motivated primarily by the desire to claim the region of Transylvania and its majority ethnic Romanian population from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

1918, August 30 - Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin is shot by Fanya Kaplan, a member of the Social Revolutionary party. Lenin was seriously wounded but survived the attack which was the third assassination attempt on his life. More

1919, August 11 - Germany's Weimar constitution was passed by the National Assembly. The design of a new Democratic constitution began in late 1918, following the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II and the collapse of the monarchy. The Weimar Republic, Germany's 12-year experiment with democracy, came to an end 12 years later when the Nazis came to power in January 1933 and established a dictatorship. More

1919, August 19 - Afghan Independence Day (Afghan Victory Day) It commemorates the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919

1920, August 18 - 1920 - The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, granting women the right to vote. More

1923, August 2 -  President Warren G. Harding died suddenly in San Francisco while on a Western speaking tour. He was succeeded the next day by Calvin Coolidge.

1926, August 6 - Gertrude Ederle becomes first woman to swim English Channel. She swam across the Channel in 14 hours and 34 minutes, beating the men's record by two hours. More

1934, August 2 - Adolf Hitler becomes absolute dictator of Germany under the title of Fuhrer, or “Leader after German President Paul von Hindenburg death. More

1934, August 11 - The first batch of 137 prisoners arrives at Alcatraz, arriving by railroad from the United States Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas, to Santa Venetia, California. In 1850, a presidential order set aside the island for possible use as a United States military reservation. and the U.S. Army had used the island for more than 80 years. In 1933, the island was transferred to the U.S. Department of Justice for use by the Federal Bureau of Prisons to open a maximum-security, minimum-privilege penitentiary to deal with the most incorrigible inmates in Federal prisons. More

1934, August 19 -  Hitler becomes President of Germany; 89.9 percent of German voters approved granting Chancellor Adolf Hitler additional powers, including the office of president.

1935. August 14 - President Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act to provide for the general welfare by establishing a system of Federal old-age benefits, and by enabling the several States to make more adequate provision for aged persons, blind persons, dependent and crippled children, maternal and child welfare, public health, and the administration of their unemployment compensation laws; to establish a Social Security Board; to raise revenue; and for other purposes.

1936, August 1 - Hitler declares the Berlin Olympics, the eleventh Olympiad of the modern era, to be open.

1939, August 2 - Albert Einstein writes a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt regarding the possibility of atomic weapons. Six years later, on August 6, 1945, the first Atomic Bomb, developed by the U.S., was dropped on the Japanese port of Hiroshima.

1941, August 12 - FDR and Churchill meet for the first time as leaders of their respective nations on board naval vessels anchored in Placentia Bay, off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada. The document released as a result of the meeting is referred to as "The Atlantic Charter." It was not an official document, but rather a joint statement expressing the war aims of the two countries--one technically neutral and the other at war.  More

1942, August 4 - The United States signed the Mexican Farm Labor Agreement with Mexico. An executive order called the Mexican Farm Labor Program established the Bracero Program. This series of diplomatic accords between Mexico and the United States permitted millions of Mexican men to work legally in the United States on short-term labor contracts. The Bracero Program ended  on December 31, 1964. More

1942, August 7 - American forces land on the Solomon Islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida. on the morning of August 7,1942. After some fierce fighting, the US Marines cleared Tulagi and Florida by August 9. The main forces on Guadalcanal met little resistance on their way inland to secure the airfield at Lunga Point,  Almost immediately, however, Japanese naval aircraft attacked transport and escort ships, and Japanese reinforcements arrived in the area. More

1942, August 19-25 - The Dieppe Raid, an Allied amphibious assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France, ends in a heavy defeat and high casualties.

1943, August 1 - A race riot takes place in Harlem, New York City, lasting two days, after a white police officer, James Collins, shot and wounded Robert Bandy, an African American soldier; and rumors circulated that the soldier had been killed.

1943, August 17 - During World War II in Europe, the Allies completed the conquest of the island of Sicily after 38 days.

1944, August 1 - The Warsaw Uprising starts. The Polish Home Army), a non-Communist underground resistance movement, led by Polish General Tadeusz Bor-Komorowski, takes action to liberate the city from the German occupation and reclaim Polish independence, encouraged by the appearance of the Soviet Red Army along the east bank of the Vistula River. and the perceived weakness of the German military. However the Red army made no efforts to aid the rebels in Warsaw and by October 2, 1944, the Germans had suppressed the uprising, deporting civilians to concentration and forced-labor camps and reducing Warsaw to ruins. After the Germans eventually left, the Red Army came into Warsaw and established a Communist regime. More

1944, August 23 - Romania King Michael announces that Romania had unilaterally ceased all military actions against the Allies, accepted the Allied armistice offer and joined the war against the Axis powers. As no formal armistice offer had been extended yet, the Red Army occupied most of Romania as enemy territory prior to the signing of the Moscow Armistice of September 12, 1944.

1944, August 25 - The four-year Nazi occupation of Paris comes to an end. French infantry assaulted German general Choltitz’s headquarters in the early afternoon, taking the garrison commander prisoner. His captors took Choltitz to French General Leclerc where the men signed a formal surrender document and Paris was finally liberated. German general Dietrich von Choltitz had spared Paris from the destruction ordered by Hitler. More

1945, August 6 - The United States drops an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The bomb dropped by the American B-29 bomber Enola Gay, detonated about 1,800 ft. above ground, killing over 105,000 persons and destroying the city. Another estimated 100,000 persons later died as a result of radiation effects.

1945, August 8 - Soviet Russia declared war on Japan and sent troops into Japanese-held Manchuria.

1945, August 9 - The United States drops an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Nagasaki. An American B-29 bomber headed for the city of Kokura, but because of poor visibility then chose a secondary target, Nagasaki. The bomb detonated killing an estimated 70,000 persons and destroying about half the city.

1945, August 14 - Believing that continuation of the war would only result in further loss of Japanese lives, delegates of Emperor Hirohito accepted Allied surrender terms originally issued at Potsdam on July 26, 1945, with the exception that the Japanese Emperor's sovereignty would be maintained. The formal surrender ceremony occurred later, on September 2, 1945, on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.

1945, August 15 - South Korea and North Korea celebrate this day as their National Liberation Day as the Korean peninsula was freed from Japanese rule.

1945, August 17 - Proclamation of Indonesian Independ e from the Empire of Japan and the Netherlands.

1947, August 7 - Norwegian scientist Thor Heyerdahl and five companions sail the Kon-Tiki, raft  from Peru to the islands east of Tahiti. Heyerdahl was interested in demonstrating the possibility that ancient people from the Americas could have colonized Polynesia; to do so, he constructed the raft from locally available balsa logs at Callao, Peru, and in three and a half months traversed some 4,300 miles (6,900 km) of ocean. The Kon-Tiki has been preserved in a museum in Oslo, Norway.

1947, August 14 - Pakistan achieved independence one day prior to Indian independence. India was partitioned, and an East and West Pakistan were created from Muslim majority areas.

1947, August 15, India was declared independent from British colonialism, and the reins of control were handed over to the leaders of the Country. 

1949, - The Soviet Union successfully tested their first nuclear device, called RDS-1 or “First Lightning” (codenamed “Joe-1” by the United States), at Semipalatinsk.  As the Cold War intensified, both the Soviet Union and the United States embarked upon efforts to rapidly develop and grow their respective nuclear arsenals. The US launched its hydrogen bomb program in the early 1950s and the USSR followed suit and initiated their own hydrogen bomb program. More

1950, Aug 25 -  President Harry S. Truman issues an executive order putting America’s railroads under the control of the U.S. Army, Truman said that “governmental seizure [of the railroads] is imperative” to protect American citizens as well as “essential to the national defense and security of the nation.” Truman acted in anticipation of an imminent strike by railroad workers, two months after the United Nations, led by the United States, had intervened in Korea to repel an invasion by communist-led North Korea. More 

1952, August 11 - Hussein was proclaimed king of Jordan succeeding to the throne three months before his 17th birthday. A three-man regency council made up of the prime minister and heads of the Senate and the House of Representatives was appointed until he became 18. He was enthroned on 2 May 1953, the same day that his cousin Faisal II assumed his constitutional powers as king of Iraq. More

1953, August 19 - A CIA supported coup d'état by the Iranian military topples the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh. It favored strengthening the monarchical rule of the shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Sixty years later, in 2013, the National Security Archive released declassified CIA documents on the United States' role in the controversial operation. American and British involvement in Mosaddeq's ouster had long been public knowledge, but the released documents were the CIA's first formal acknowledgement that the agency helped to plan and execute the coup and participated in smoothing over the aftermath. More

1957, August 31 -  Malayan Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom.

1958, August 3 - The USS Nautilus, the first U.S. nuclear submarine, reaches the geographic North Pole traveling 1000 miles under sea from Point Barrow, Alaska and then on to Iceland, pioneering a new and shorter route from the Pacific to the Atlantic and Europe. 

1959, August 21 - Hawaii is admitted to the union becoming the 50th State.

1960, August 1 -  Benin's Independence day. (Previously Dahomey) Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July creating the independent Republic of Dahomey.

1960, August 3, Niger Independance Day - Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July.

1960, August 5 - Burkina Faso Independence Day. Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July and creation of the independent Republic of Upper Volta. On 4 August 1984, it changed its name to Burkina Faso.

1960, August 7 - Ivory Coast Independence Dat Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July

1960, August 11 - Chad's Independence day. Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 12 July

1960, August 15 - Republic of the Congo Independence Day -  Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 12 July.

1960, August 17 - Gabon independence day, officially the Gabonese Republic recognized, ending French colonial rule.

1961, August 13 - East Germany begins to seal off the around Berlin. First, a wire barrier was constructed and a few days later the wire was replaced by a six-foot-high, 96-mile-long wall of concrete blocks. It hoped this measure would put an end to the mass exodus to Berlin. More

1962, August 4 - Nelson Mandela, Apartheid opponent, was arrested by security police in South Africa. He was tried and sentenced to five years in prison. In 1964, he was retried for sabotage , high treason and conspiracy to overthrow the government He was sentenced to life in prison. A worldwide campaign to free him began in the 1980s and resulted in his release on February 11, 1990, at age 71 after 27 years in prison. In 1993, Mandela shared the Nobel Peace Prize with South Africa's President F.W. de Klerk for their peaceful efforts to bring a nonracial democracy to South Africa. In April 1994, black South Africans voted for the first time in an election that brought Mandela the presidency of South Africa.

1962, August 6 - Jamaica achieved independence after centuries of British and Spanish rule.

1962, August 31 - Trinidad and Tobago independence day. Effective date of the Trinidad and Tobago Independence Act 1962.

1963, August 5 - The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. After Senate approval, the treaty that went into effect on October 10, 1963, banned nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water. More

1963, August 28 - Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his iconic "I Have a Dream" speech during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Over 250,000 persons attended the Civil Rights rally in Washington, D.C.

1963, August 30 - The hotline between Washington and Moscow came into operation 10 months after the Cuban Missile Crisis. The first implementation used Teletype equipment. It changed to fax machines in 1986 and in 2008 to a secure computer link over which secured messages are exchanged.

1964, August 2 - The Gulf of Tonkin incident occurs, leading to increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. August 7, 1964 - Following an attack on two U.S. destroyers the U.S. Congress approved the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, granting President Lyndon B. Johnson authority "to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression."

1964, Aug 4 - The bodies of three lynched civil rights workers (James Chaney, Michael Schwerner, and Andrew Goodman) were found in Neshoba County, Mississippi. They had been tortured and murdered by the KKK with help from the deputy sheriff near Philadelphia. M in .after disappearing more than a month before. More

1965, Aug 6 -  The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The Act suspended literacy, knowledge and character tests which were designed to keep African Americans from voting in the South. It also authorized the appointment of Federal voting examiners and barred discriminatory poll taxes. Congress renewed the in 1975, 1984 and 1991.

1965, August 9 -  Proclamation of Singapore independence from Malaysia

1965, August 11 – 16: - Six days of riots began in the Watts area of Los Angeles, triggered by an incident between a white member of the California Highway Patrol and an African American motorist. Thirty-four deaths were reported and more than 3,000 people arrested. Damage to property was estimated at $40 million.

1967, August 30 - The U.S. Senate confirms  the appointment of Thurgood Marshall to the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall became the first African American to be confirmed as a Supreme Court justice.

1968, August Supreme Court 20 - The Soviet Union led Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia to crack down on reformist trends in Prague. Although the Soviet Union's action successfully halted the pace of reform in Czechoslovakia, it had unintended consequences for the unity of the communist bloc. More

1969, August 17 - Hurricane Camille made landfall late in the evening along the Mississippi Gulf Coast near Waveland, MS. Camille is one of only four Category 5 hurricanes ever to make landfall in the continental United States. The combination of winds, surges, and rainfalls caused 256 deaths (143 on the Gulf Coast and 113 in the Virginia floods) and $1.421 billion in damage. Three deaths were reported in Cuba. More 

1969, August 30 - North Vietnam's president, Ho Chi Minh response to President Nixon's letter is received at the White House three days before Ho Chi Minh death in Hanoi on September 2, 1969 from a heart attack at the age of 79. More 

1974, August 7 - French high-wire artist Philippe Petit walks between the Twin Towers at 1,350 feet above ground with no net. More

1974, August 9 – Richard M Nixon resigns the presidency as a result of the Watergate scandal. Facing possible impeachment by Congress, he became the only U.S. President ever to resign. Gerald Ford automatically assumed the presidency, taking the oath of office in the East Room of the White House and becoming the 38th U.S. President. This made him the only person to become the nation's chief executive without being elected to the presidency or the vice presidency. More

1975, August 3 - A  707 passenger flight chartered by the national airline of Morocco, Royal Air Maroc, flying in heavy fog crashed into a mountain on approach to Agadir Inezgane , Morocco Airport . All 188 passengers and crew on board were killed. The cause of the crash was determined to be pilot error.

1975, August 8 - The term "Global Warming" is used for the first time in a science publication. The article by geochemist Wallace Broecker of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory: "Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?" More

1980, August 14-15 - The Solidarity movement in Poland, led by Lech Walesa, signs the Gdansk Agreement with the communist government, marking a significant milestone in the fight for workers' rights. Solidarity opposed Communist rule and was outlawed the following year. Seven years later, the re-legalization of Solidarity occurred and the government agreed to hold partially free parliamentary elections. Solidarity candidates scored stunning victories, paving the way for the downfall of Communism there.

1981, August 13 -  President Reagan signs the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA), the 185-page that fulfilled his campaign promise to cut taxes. The act helped accelerate economic growth but it is blamed for being a major contributor to the growth of Income inequality in the U.S. which is now at heights not seen for a century. More

1983, August 21 - Filipino opposition leader Benigno S. Aquino, Jr., was assassinated at the Manila airport while leaving his plane. Public outcry ultimately led to the collapse of the government of Ferdinand E. Marcos and the inauguration of Corazon C. Aquino, widow of the slain man, as president.

1985, August 2 -  Delta Air Lines Flight 191 crashes at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. The National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) determined that the cause of the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar airplane crash was wind-shear associated with an intense thunderstorm downdraft that occurred at the north end of the airport along runway 17. Today we know this intense, localized downburst as a microburst, a weather phenomenon that was not well understood at the time of the accident.

1985, August 12 - Japan Air Lines Flight 123 flight from Tokyo to Osaka, Japan crashes in the area of Mount Takamagahara, 62 miles from Tokyo. The Boeing 747  suffered a severe structural failure and decompression 12 minutes into the flight  and crashed 32 minutes later after flying under minimal control for that time. 524 people died in the accident. All four survivors were seriously injured. The crash of Flight 123 is the deadliest single-aircraft accident in aviation history.

1986, August 22 - A volcanic eruption under Lake Nios in Cameroon caused deadly fumes which killed more than 1,500 persons.

1987, August 16 -  A DC-9 Super 82 on Northwest Flight 255 crashes minutes aftertakeoff at Detroit Metropolitan Airport in Michigan. The flight was headed to California with a Phoenix stopover.  A four-year-old girl was the sole survivor of the accident,156 people died. The crash was caused by pilot error. More

1990, August 2 - Iraq invades Kuwait, lea ding to the Gulf War and international in tervention to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation.

1991, August 19 - Soviet hard-line Communists staged a coup, temporarily removing Mikhail Gorbachev from power. The coup failed within 72 hours as democratic reformer Boris Yeltsin rallied the Russian people. Yeltsin then became the leading power in the country. The Communist Party was soon banned and by December the Soviet Union itself disintegrated.

1991, August 24 - Ukraine declares independence from the Soviet Union, leading to its dissolution later that year.

1991, August 27 - Moldovia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.

1991, August 31 - Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan declares independence from the Soviet Union and a democratic government is established. 

1998, August 7 - The U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are bombed with truck bombs. The terrorist attacks killed 224 people, among them, 12 Americans, and wounded more than 4,500. The U.S. accuses Saudi exile Osama bin Laden, of masterminding the bombings. On August 20, U.S. President Bill Clinton ordered cruise missiles launched against bin Laden’s terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and to a pharmaceutical plant in Sudan, believed to be manufacturing and distributing chemical weapons. More

1998, August 17 - The United States launches cruise missile strikes against suspected Al-Qaeda targets in Afghanistan and Sudan in
retaliation for the 1998 embassy bombings.

1999, August 17 - The catastrophic magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake struck the Kocaeli Province of Turkey, causing extensive damage and approximately 17,000 deaths. Named for the quake’s proximity to the northwestern city of İzmit, It is widely remembered as one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern Turkish history. More

2000, August 12 - The Russian nuclear submarine Kursk sinks to the bottom of the Barents Sea while on a naval exercise inside the Arctic Circle. The entire 118-strong crew perished According to the Russian navy, it had not been carrying nuclear warheads. The cause of the disaster remains unknown although it was attributed to an accidental torpedo explosion. The wreck was brought up from the seabed by a Dutch salvage team more than a year after the accident. More

2002, - August 5 - The turret of the Civil War ironclad USS Monitor is lifted out of the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Hatteras N.C. The historic warship sank on December 31 1862 during a storm as it was being towed around Cape Hatteras on its way to Beaufort, North Carolina, to join a fleet being assembled for an attack on Charleston. Many of the sailors were rescued, but 16 of its crew members perished, More

2003, August 14 - A major power blackout affects parts of the northeastern and midwestern United States, as well as Ontario, Canada, leaving millions without electricity.

2005, August 29 - Hurricane Katrina makes landfall in Louisiana, causing catastrophic damage and flooding in New Orleans and other parts of the Gulf Coast.

2006, August 24 - The International Astronomical Union (IAU) redefines the definition of a planet, resulting in the demotion of
Pluto to the status of a "dwarf planet."

2008, August 8 - The opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics takes place, marking the first time China hosts the Olympic
Games.

2011, August 5 - NASA's Juno spacecraft launches on a mission to study the planet Jupiter

2011, Aug 5 - Standard & Poor’s credit rating agency downgrades the United States debt from its highest rating of AAA to a lesser AA+ rating, marking the first-ever decline of credit worthiness for the U.S. The agency cited America’s $14 trillion outstanding debt and an ineffective political leadership to address the debt reduction. This downgraded rating remains in effect as of January 1, 2023.

2014, August 9 - The shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, sparks protests and civil unrest, leading to a national conversation on racial tensions and police violence in the United States.

2016, August 5-21 - The Summer Olympics are held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showcasing athletes from around the world.

2017, August 21 - A total solar eclipse, visible across a large portion of the United States, captivates millions of people.

2019, August 5 - India revokes the special autonomous status of Jammu and Kashmir, escalating tensions between India and Pakistan over the disputed region.

2020, August 4 - A massive explosion at the port of Beirut in Lebanon causes widespread devastation and loss of life.


Online History Resources

46 BC, July 2 - Julius Caesar defeats Pompey the Great at the Battle of Dyrrhachium during the Roman Civil War.

64 CE, 64 July 18 - The Great Fire of Rome begins during the reign of Emperor Nero, lasting for several days and resulting in significant destruction.

365, July 21 - Crete earthquake - An estimated 8.5 magnitude underseas earthquake and resulting Tsunami causes widespread destruction in central and southern Macedonia (Modern Greece), Africa northern Libya, Egypt, Cyprus, Sicily and Hispania (Spain). On Crete, nearly all towns were destroyed. More

 711, July 19 - The Umayyad conquest of Hispania begins as Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar. the Islamic Arabs and Moors of Berber descent in northern Africa crossed the Strait of Gibraltar onto the Iberian Peninsula, and in a series of raids they conquered Visigothic Christian Hispania.

 756, July 28 - The Papal States are established as Pepin the Short, King of the Franks, donates land to Pope Stephen II, creating a temporal domain for the papacy.

 939, July 12 - The Battle of Simancas takes place between the Kingdom of León and the Caliphate of Córdoba, resulting in a victory for León and the decline of the Caliphate's power in the region.

 987, July 3 -  Hugh Capet is crowned King of France, marking the beginning of the Capetian dynasty.

1002, July 23 - The Holy Roman Emperor Otto III dies in his palace in Paterno, Italy, at the age of 21.

1009, July 15 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is destroyed by Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.

1027, July 6 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as the Holy Roman Emperor in Rome.

1054, July 16 - The Great Schism occurs: Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople (now called Istanbul) was excommunicated from the Christian church based in Rome, Italy. The resulting split divided the European Christian church into two major branches: the Western Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. 

1060, July 22 - Henry I of France is crowned King of France in Reims.

1099, July 15 - The First Crusaders launch an assault on Jerusalem, ultimately leading to the capture of the city and the establishment of the Crusader states.

1100, July 31- King William II of England, also known as William Rufus, is killed in a hunting accident in the New Forest.

1209, July 22 - The Massacre at Béziers takes place during the Albigensian Crusade, with Crusaders led by Simon de Montfort sacking the city and killing thousands.

1215, July 15 - The signing of the Magna Carta takes place at Runnymede, England, marking a crucial step towards the limitation of monarchic powers.

1223, July 18 - Louis VIII of France is crowned as the King of France in Reims Cathedral.

1230, July 29 - The Treaty of San Germano is signed between Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX, ending the Papal-Imperial conflict.

1237, July 28 - The Battle of Posada takes place between the Mongol Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, resulting in a Hungarian victory.

1242, July 5 - The Battle of Lake Peipus occurs between the Teutonic Knights and the Novgorod Republic, with the Novgorod forces emerging victorious.

1253, July 10 - Mindaugas is crowned as the first and only King of Lithuania, establishing the Kingdom of Lithuania.

1260, July 3 - The Battle of Ain Jalut occurs between the Mongol Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate, resulting in a decisive Mamluk victory and halting the Mongol expansion into the Middle East.

1290, July 18 - The Edict of Expulsion is issued in England, ordering the expulsion of all Jews from the country.

1307, July 22 - King Philip IV of France orders the arrest of the Knights Templar, marking the beginning of their persecution and eventual dissolution.

1392, July 17 - The Joseon Dynasty is established in Korea with the crowning of King Taejo as the first king of Joseon.

1389, July 15 - The Battle of Kosovo takes place between the Ottoman Empire and an alliance of Balkan states led by Serbia, resulting in a costly but inconclusive outcome.

1456, July 5 - The Siege of Belgrade (Nándorfehérvár) by Sultan Mehmet II begins. Hungarian forces led by John Hunyadi a Hungarian nobleman and warlord of Vlach lineage, defended the city, ultimately compelling the wounded Sultan Mehmet II to lift the siege and retreat. The battle had significant consequences, as it stabilized the southern frontiers of the Kingdom of Hungary for more than half a century and delaying the Ottoman advance in Europe.

1499, July 22 - The Swiss Confederation defeats the forces of the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Dornach. More

1520, July 8 - The Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés and his troops reach Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec Empire.

1536, July 9 - Anne Boleyn is executed in England for high treason.

1567, July 24 -  Abdication of Mary, Queen of Scots.   After failing to quash a rebellion of Scottish peers, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favor of her one-year-old son. More

1588, July 29 - The Spanish Armada is defeated. The Spanish fleet was led by the Duke of Medina Sidonia and its purpose was to  overthrow Elizabeth I, to reinstate Catholicism in England , to end England's support for the Dutch Republic, and prevent attacks by English and Dutch privateers against Spanish interests in the Americas. The English fleet was under the command of Charles Howard, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham. His second in command was Sir Francis Drake. The Spanish Armada defeat is considered one of England's greatest military achievements. More

1609, July 2 - The Dutch explorer Henry Hudson sails into what is now New York Harbor, later establishing Dutch claims to the region.

1620, July 22 - The Mayflower departs from England on its voyage to North America, carrying the Pilgrims who would establish the Plymouth Colony.

1643, July 2 - The Battle of Adwalton Moor takes place during the English Civil War, resulting in a decisive victory for the Parliamentarian forces.

1652, July 4 - The Battle of Plymouth takes place during the First Anglo-Dutch War, with the English fleet under Admiral Robert Blake repelling a Dutch attack on Plymouth.

1663, July 3 - King Charles II of England grants a charter establishing the Carolina Colony, named in honor of his father, Charles I.

1664, July 23 - The Siege of New Amsterdam ends when the Dutch surrender to the English, who then rename the settlement New York.

1670, July 30 - The Hudson's Bay Company receives a royal charter from King Charles II, granting it exclusive trading rights in the Hudson Bay region of North America.

1688, July 10 - The Siege of Derry begins during the Williamite War in Ireland, as the predominantly Protestant city resists a Catholic Jacobite army.

1690, July 1 - The Battle of the Boyne takes place in Ireland, resulting in a victory for Protestant King William III over Catholic King James II and securing Protestant rule in Ireland.

1715, July 31 - The Urca de Lima and 9 other treasure ships on their way back to Spain from Havana were all lost in a hurricane off the Atlantic coast. More than 700 seamen, including the Spanish commander, drowned. More than $15 million worth of treasure sank to the bottom of the ocean. Spain managed to recover about $4 million of the treasure. The rest remained on the ocean floor for more than 250 years. More

1718, July 28 - The city of New Orleans is founded by French colonists under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville.

1742, July 26 - The Battle of Dettingen occurs during the War of the Austrian Succession, marking the last time a reigning British monarch, King George II, personally leads his troops in battle.

1769, July 16 - Fr. Junípero Serra founds Mission San Diego de Alcalá. This is the first of the California Missions.  Fr. Junipero Sierra founded eight more of the 21 California missions: Carmel, San Antonio, San Gabriel, San Luis Obispo, San Francisco (Mission Dolores). San Juan Capistrano, Santa Clara, and San Buenaventura,  Serra’s missions helped strengthen Spain’s control of Alta California.

1775, July 3 - George Washington took command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1775, July 26 - Benjamin Franklin appointed first Postmaster General by the Continental Congress before the Declaration of Independence was even signed. More

1776, July 4 - The United States declares independence from Great Britain.

1777, July 31 -  The Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army. His Masonic membership opened many doors in Philadelphia and Lafayette's advocates included the recently arrived American envoy to France, Benjamin Franklin, urged Congress to accommodate the young Frenchman who had offered to serve without pay.

1779, July 16 - The United States Congress establishes the Badge of Military Merit, later known as the Purple Heart, to honor soldiers wounded in battle.

1788, July 26 - New York ratifies the U.S. Constitution and becomes the 11th of the original 13 states to join the Union.

1789, July 14 - The fall of the Bastille takes place. Many consider this event the start of the French Revolution. It is now commemorated in France as a national holiday. More

1790, July 16 - President George Washington signs the Residence Act bill which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The bill declared that the exact location was to be selected by President Washington. The initial shape of the federal district was a square from land donated by Maryland and Virginia, measuring 10 miles (16 km) on each side and totaling 100 square miles (259 km2). More

1796, July 11 - The United States takes possession of Detroit from the British during the American Revolutionary War, in accordance with the terms of the Jay Treaty.

1799, July 2 - The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta, providing a key to deciphering ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. More

1803, July 4 - The Louisiana Purchase is announced in the United States.

1809, July 2 - Shawnee Chief Tecumseh calls on all Native peoples to unite and resist the growing loss land to the white settlers. proposing that if united,  the various tribes had enough strength to stop the white settlers. More

1810, July 20 - Colombian Declaration of Independence from Spain.

1811, July 5 - Venezuela declares its independence from Spain

1816, July 9 - Argentina declares its independence from Spain

1821, July 28 - Peru declares its independence from Spain.

1838, July 2 -  Enslaved Africans on the Cuban schooner Amistad rise up against their captors and gaining control of the ship, which had been transporting them to a sugar plantation at Puerto Principe, Cuba. More

1840, July 23 - The British North America was approved by the British Parliament. The Act, also known as the Act of Union it was and proclaimed on February 10, 1841, in Montreal. It abolished the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and established a new political entity, the Province of Canada to replace them. More

1847, July 24 - Pioneer Day . Completing a treacherous thousand-mile exodus, an ill and exhausted Brigham Young and fellow members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints arrived in Utah’s Great Salt Lake Valley. The Mormon, as they were commonly known, pioneers viewed their arrival as the founding of a Mormon homeland. hence Pioneer Day. More

1847, July 26 - Liberia declaration of Independence.

1862, July 1 - President Abraham Lincoln signed the first income tax bill, establishing a 3% income tax on annual incomes of $600-$10,000 and a 5% tax on incomes over $10,000.

1863, July 1-3 - The Battle of Gettysburg takes place in Pennsylvania. The loss ended Confederate general Robert E. Lee’s ambitious second quest to invade the North and bring the Civil War to a swift end. With more than 50,000 estimated casualties, the three-day engagement was the bloodiest single battle of the conflict. More

1863, July 7 - Kit Carson begins his campaign against the Navajo that resulted in their removal from the Four Corners area to southeastern New Mexico.

1866, July 30, The New Orleans Massacre:  a mob of ex-Confederates led an armed attack on a group of Louisiana Republicans and their African American supporters as they convened in the Mechanics Institute Building in New Orleans., site of a reconvened Louisiana Constitutional Convention 38 people were killed and 146 wounded. More

1867, July 1 - Canada Day, formerly known as Dominion Day, is the National Day of Canada. A federal statutory holiday, it celebrates the anniversary of Canadian Confederation which occurred on July 1, 1867, when the three separate colonies of the United Canadas, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into a single dominion within the British Empire called Canada.

1868, July 28 - The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is officially adopted, having been ratified by the requisite number of states. The  Amendment granted citizenship to all persons "born or naturalized in the United States," including formerly enslaved people, and provided all citizens with “equal protection under the laws,” extending the provisions of the Bill of Rights to the states. 

1881, July 2 - President James A. Garfield was shot and mortally wounded as he entered a railway station in Washington, D.C. He died on September 19th.

1881, July 19 - Sitting Bull and his people return to the United States from Canada to surrender. More

1890, July 3 -  Idaho is admitted into the Union becoming the 43rd State. 

1890, July 10 - Wyoming is admitted into the Union  becoming the 44th State.

1893, July 1 - President Grover Cleveland undergoes a secret operation on a friend’s yacht to remove a cancerous growth from his mouth. The entire left side of his jaw was removed along with a small portion of his soft palate. Two weeks later, he was fitted with a rubber prosthesis which he wore until his death in 1908. The secrecy was mostly maintained for 24 years until  one of the doctors wrote an article describing what had transpired. More

1898, July 21 - Guam was ceded to the United States by Spain.

1898, July 25 - During the Spanish-American War, the U.S. invaded Puerto Rico, which was then a Spanish colony. In 1917, Puerto Rico became an unincorporated Territory of the U.S. and Puerto Ricans became American citizens. Partial self-government was granted in 1947 allowing citizens to elect their own governor. In 1951, Puerto Ricans wrote their own constitution and elected a non-voting commissioner to represent them in Washington. More

1900, July 19 - Italian King Umberto I was killed in Monza by Italian-American anarchist Gaetano Bresci. He was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel III. More

1903, July 15 - Ernest Pfennig, a Chicago dentist, orders the first Original Model A Ford car. The car is delivered a week later on July 23, 1903. A total of1,750 cars were made from 1903 through 1904 and sold at an average price of $850 More

1908, July 26 - The Bureau of Investigation, forerunner of the FBI, is established.

1911, July 24 - American archeologist Hiram Bingham reaches the ruins of Machu Picchu. Although widely credited with being the first westerner to reach the site, other reports indicate a other Europeans had seen it before Bingham, but he was the one who revealed it to the world at large. Local Peruvians, including the expedition's guide, Melchor Arteaga knew of the site. Nine years before Bingham's expedition, Agustin Lizárraga, a local farmer searching for new land for agriculture with some family members came upon Machu Pichu and carved an inscription on a wall in the Temple of the Three Windows that said: "Agustín Lizárraga, July 14th 1902". More 

1914, July 28 - World War I outbreak of hostilities between Austria-Hungary and Serbia begin.

1914, July 31 - Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAdoo closes the New York Stock Exchange to stop the European liquidation of American securities caused by the outbreak of WWI.  After several days of selloffs, about $3 billion (equivalent to $90 billion in 2023) of foreign portfolio investments had been sold. All of the world’s financial markets also closed. The Sock market remained closed for four months opening again on December 12, 1914. Bond trading had restarted on November 28, 1914. The liquidation of European-held securities transformed the United States from a debtor nation to a creditor nation for the first time in its history. More  

1915, July 24 - The  excursion boat S.S. Eastland, known as the "Speed Queen of the Great Lakes rolles over into the Chicago river at the wharf's edge. More than 2,500 passengers and crew members were on board that day – and 844 people lost their lives, including 22 entire families. More

1917, July 2 -  Following King Constantine I abdication, under pressure from the Allies, Greece  ends three years of neutrality by entering World War I alongside Britain, France, Russia and Italy. 

1918, July 15 -  The Second Battle of the Marne  was the last major German offensive on the Western Front during the First World War. It lasted a year ending on July 18, 1919.

1918, July 16 - Russia’s last Imperial Family; Nicholas and Alexandra, and their five children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia and Alexey, were murdered by the Bolsheviks. More

1921, July 27 - The Insulin hormone is successfully isolated by Canadian doctors Frederick Banting and Charles Best. More

1921, July 28 - Hitler becomes Party Chairman and leader of the Nazis.

1932, July 28 - The Bonus Army,  a group of 43,000 demonstrators – 17,000 veterans of U.S. involvement in World War I, their families, and affiliated groups gathered in Washington, D.C., to demand early cash redemption of their service bonus certificates. They were forcibly disbanded by the U.S. Army in Washington, D.C. 

1933, July 22 - Wiley Post completes a solo flight around the world in the Lockheed 5C Vega Winnie Mae. This record-breaking flight demonstrated several significant new aviation technologies. More

1936, July 17 - The Spanish Civil War begins.  In a matter of days, a well-planned military uprising splits the county in half, with one zone controlled by the government (known as Republicans, Loyalists, or Reds), and the other by the rebels (also referred to as Nationalists, Fascists, or Whites)  An estimated half million people perished during the civil war which lasted until 1939. Franco ruled Spain as a dictator for almost 40 years until his death in 1975.  More 

1940
, July 10 - The Battle of Britain begins as Nazi Germany launches air attacks on southern England. More

1941, July 7 - The Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, code-named Operation Barbarossa, begins.

1941, July 26 - U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8832, freezing Japanese assets in the United States and eleven days later, on August 1, declares an embargo on oil and gasoline exports to Japan, bringing commercial relations between the nations to an effective end. On December 7 the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. More at: WWII Museum and the The Independent Institute   

1943, July 10 - American and British forces invade Sicily by air and sea. 

1943, July 12 - Battle of Kursk: Russia stops the German advance. More

1943, July 19,  Approximately 700 aircrafts of the USAAF flew over Rome and dropped 9.000 bombs on the city. This raid was intended to only damage the freight yard and the steel factory in the San Lorenzo district of Rome, but it also struck apartments and the Papal Basilica, killing 1500 people. More

1943, July 24 - Operation Gomorrah begins. 791 British bombers took off under cover of darkness tow. ard Hamburg, Germany. The air fleet was composed of British Lancaster, Stirling, Wellington, and Halifax bombers flying in six waves. Each wave had between 100 to 120 aircraft hoping to concentrate as much destruction as possible.  More

1943, July 25 - Mussolini is deposed. The Fascist Grand Council ousted Mussolini from office and placed him under arrest two weeks after the Allied attack on Sicily. King Victor Emmanuel of Italy then ordered Marshal Pietro Badoglio to form a new government.

1943, July 28 - During World War II, a firestorm killed 42,000 civilians in Hamburg, Germany. after 2,326 tons of bombs and incendiaries were dropped by the Allies. 

1944, July 20 - German military leaders attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler and take control of the government. Their plot fails. More

1945, July 16 - The first atomic bomb “ nicknamed “Gadget,” is successfully tested at the Trinity Site in Alamogordo, New Mexico. Gadget detonated with between 15 and 20 kilotons of force, slightly more than the Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The Atomic Age had begun. More

1945, July 17 - The Potsdam Conference begins. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (replaced on July 26 by Prime Minister Clement Attlee), and U.S. President Harry Truman— start a multi day meeting in Potsdam, Germany, to negotiate terms for the end of World War II. During the conference, President Truman informed the Soviet leader that the United States had successfully detonated the first atomic bomb on July 16, 1945. Reportedly, Stalin, was already well-informed about the U.S. nuclear program thanks to the Soviet intelligence network. More

1945, July 30 - The USS Indianapolis is torpedoed by a Japanese submarine and sinks within minutes. Only 316 of the 1,196 men on board survived. The Indianapolis had just completed its major mission; the delivery to Tinian Island in the South Pacific of a key components of the atomic bomb that would be dropped a week later at Hiroshima.

1947, July 18 - President Harry Truman signs the second Presidential Succession Act. The original act of 1792 had placed the Senate president pro tempore and Speaker of the House in the line of succession, but in 1886 Congress had removed them. The 1947 Executive order reinserted those officials but placed the Speaker ahead of the president pro tempore. In 1965, Senator Birch Bayh of Indiana and Representative Emanuel Celler of New York introduced joint resolutions in the Senate and House of Representatives aimed at clarifying and defining in the Constitution, the rules on Presidential succession and inability. Congress approved the 25th Amendment on 1965. The states completed ratification by February 10, 1967, and President Lyndon Johnson certified the amendment on February 23, 1967.

1947, July 26 - President Harry Truman signs The National Security Act of 1947 . The Act mandated a major reorganization of the foreign policy and military establishments of the U.S. Government and created many of the institutions that Presidents found useful when formulating and implementing foreign policy, including the National Security Council (NSC).

1948, July 20 - The second peacetime draft began with passage of the Selective Service Act of 1948 after the STSA expired. The new law required all men of age 18 to 26 to register. It also created the system for the "Doctor Draft", aimed at inducting health professionals into military service. More

1948, July 26 - President Harry S. Truman signs executive order 9981 banning segregation in the Armed Forces. More

1949, July 27 - First flight of the de Havilland DH 106 Comet, world's first commercial jet airliner to reach production. More

1951,  July 27 - The Korean War armistice is signed, ending three years of fighting and establishing a demilitarized zone between North and South Korea. 1951. No peace treaty is signed .

1952, July 23 - The Egyptian army led by by Mohamed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser launched a revolution toppling King Farouk in a coup d'état by the Free Officers Movement and, changing Egypt from a monarchy to a republic. The Revolution ushered in a wave of revolutionary politics in the Arab World, and contributed to the escalation of decolonization and the development of Third World solidarity during the Cold War. More

1952, July 25 - Puerto Rico becomes a U.S. commonwealth.

1953, July 26 - Fidel Castro's revolutionary "26th of July Movement." begins and culminates by overthrowing dictator Fulgencio
Batista in 1959. Although he once declared that Cuba would never again be ruled by a dictator, Castro's government became a Communist dictatorship.

1953, July 27 - The Korean War ended with the signing of an armistice by U.S. and North Korean delegates at Panmunjom, Korea. It brought an end to the hostilities that lasted just over three years and killed 2.5 million people. More

1955, July 17 -  Disneyland opens for its first guests.; a special 'International Press Preview' event, which was only open to invited guests. More

1956, July 26 - Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the foreign-owned Suez Canal Company, which administered the canal and was owned primarily by British and French shareholders. On October 29, Israel invades the Egyptian Sinai.  and on November 5, Britain and France landed paratroopers along the Suez Canal. Political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. The episode humiliated the United Kingdom and France and strengthened Nasser. It later became clear that Israel, France and Britain had conspired to plan the invasion. More

1958, July 29 - NASA is established by U.S. Congress legislation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration began operations on October 1, 1958.

1960, July 1 - The Somali republic was formed on July 1, 1960, as a unification of the Trust Territory of Italian Somaliland, and British Somaliland. The independence day of Somalia is a national holiday observed annually in Somalia and the diaspora worldwide.

1962, July 1 - Rwanda gains independence from Belgium. Independence Day in Rwanda is a somewhat muted affair. Kwibohora, (July 4) is celebrated as Rwanda Liberation Day. On this day in 1994 the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) secured the capital of Kigali and ended the 1994 Genocide Against the Tutsi in Rwanda.

1962, July 1 - Burundi gains its freedom from Belgium.

1962, July 10 - The U.S. Patent Office issued Patent No. 3,043,625 to “Nils Ivar Bohlin, Goteborg, (Volvo) for the three-point seatbelt. Volvo was so convinced of its safety potential safety that it made the patent available for other manufacturers, and motorists, to benefit from.

1964, July 2 - U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act into law, outlawing discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

1964, July 6Malawi Independence Day.

1964, July 23 - President de Gaulle proposes at a news conference in the Salle des Fetes of the Elysee Palace, that the United States, the Soviet Union, Communist China and France agree to get out and stay out of the Indochinese peninsula as a means of ending the fighting in Laos and South Vietnam. He also proposes, once the fighting had ended, a massive program of economic and technical aid to the peoples of North and South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. More

1964, July 29 -  Ranger 7, an unmanned U.S. lunar probe reaches the Moon and takes the first close-up images of earths' satellite. During its final 17 minutes of flight, it sent back 4,316 images of the lunar surface. The last image taken 2.3 seconds before impact had a resolution of just half-a-meter.  More

1965, July 26 - Maldives Independence Day

1965, July 29 - The 1st Brigade, 101st Airborne Division, arrives in Vietnam. More

1965, July 30 - Medicare is signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson at the Truman Library in Independence, Missouri. His gesture drew attention to the 20 years it had taken Congress to enact government health insurance for senior citizens after Harry Truman had proposed it. In fact, Medicare’s history dated back even further. More

1969, July 20 - American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin land the Apollo 11 mission Lunar Module “Eagle” in the Sea of Tranquility and become the first humans to walk on the moon. More

1971, July 1 - The Twenty-Sixth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18.

1973, July 10 - The Bahamas gains its independence by the United Kingdom Government, Order in Council.  This date is now celebrated as the country's Independence Day.

1975, July 5 - Cape Verde Independence Day from Portugal - Effective date of the Agreement Between Portugal and Partido Africano para a Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde (PAIGC) signed on 18 December 1974.[

1975, July 5 - Guinea-Bissau Independence Day - Declaration of independence during the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence.[52]

1975, July 6 - Comoros Independence Day from France. Unilateral declaration of independence by the Chamber of Deputies of Comoros following the 1974 Comorian independence referendum.[

1976, July 4 - The United States celebrates its bicentennial with a day of parades, concerts, and fireworks.

1976, July 20 - Viking 1 Lands on Mars' on the western slope of Chryse Planitia (the Plains of Gold). Viking 1 found a place in history when it became the first U.S. mission to land a spacecraft safely on the surface of Mars and return images of the surface. More

1976, July 28 - A 7.8 earthquake razes the Chinese city of Tangshan located about 68 miles east of Beijing. The official death toll,  reported was 242,000 persons, but it may have been twice as high. At least 700,000 more people were injured and the property damage was extensive.

1978, July 25 - Louise Brown gives birth to the world’s first "test-tube baby", in Oldham, northwest England. More 

1979, July 12 - Kiribati Independence Day

1980, July 30 - Vanuatu, achieves independence from the United Kingdom and France under Prime Minister Walter Lini.

1982, July 9 - Pan Am Flight 759, a Boeing 727 flight from Miami to San Diego, with stops in New Orleans and Las Vegas. crashed in the New Orleans suburb of Kenner after being forced down shortly after takeoff due to wind shear which the pilots were not informed about prior to takeoff. All 145 on board, as well as 8 people on the ground, were killed. More

1985, July 10 - French secret service agents planted two bombs and sank the Greenpeace Flagship The Rainbow Warrior. One crew member was killed. More

1985, July 13 - Live Aid, a global rock concert for famine relief in Ethiopia, is held in London and Philadelphia.

1988, July 3 - The U.S. cruiser USS Vincennes shoots down the Iranian passenger jet, Iran Air 655, with a surface-to-air missile, killing 290 people. More

1990, July 27 - The Jamaat al Muslimeen attempted coup d'état in Trinidad and Tobago.

1994, July 4 - Rwandan Patriotic Front troops capture the Rwandan capital of Kigali, ending the Rwandan Genocide.

1994, July 12 - Germany's Constitutional Court ended the ban on sending German troops to fight outside the country which  had been in effect since the end of World War II. The ruling allowed German troops to join in United Nations and NATO
peace-keeping missions. On July 14, German military units marched in Bastille Day celebrations in Paris, the first appearance of German troops there since World War II.

1995, July 23 - Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp separately discover the Comet Hale–Bopp. The comet becomes visible to the naked eye a year later and stays visible for a record 18 months, due to its massive nucleus size. This is twice as long as the Great Comet of 1811, the previous record holder. Accordingly, Hale–Bopp was dubbed the great comet of 1997. Sadly, 39 people who were part of the "Heaven's Gate" cult in San Diego committed mass suicide as the comet came close to Earth. More

1996, July 17 - TWA Flight 800 departed Kennedy International Airport in New York bound for Paris but exploded in mid-air 12 minutes after takeoff.  All 212 passengers and 17 crew members on board were killed. Although it could not be determined with certainty, the likely ignition source was a short circuit.  Problems with the aircraft's wiring were found, including evidence of arcing in the fuel quantity indication system (FQIS) wiring that enters the tank. More

1997, July 1 - Hong Kong is handed over from Britain to China, ending over 150 years of British rule.

2000, July 25 - Air France Flight 4590, a Concorde passenger jet on an international charter flight from Paris to New York, crashes shortly after takeoff,. All 109 people on board and four on the ground were killed. It was the only fatal Concorde accident during its 27-year operational history. More

2005, July 7 - A series of coordinated terrorist attacks in London, England, kill 52 people and injure over 700.

2009, July 7 - The United Nations declares a famine in parts of southern Somalia, the first time the term has been used in almost 20 years.

2011, July 9 - South Sudan gains independence from Sudan ending a decades-long civil war and becoming the world's newest country.

2013,  July 3 - Egypt's first democratically elected president, Mohamed Morsi, is overthrown in a military coup.

2014, July 17 -  Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 shot down over Ukraine by a Russian-made surface-to-air missile, fired by Moscow-backed separatists. In January of 2023, the European Court of Human Rights confirmed Russia's involvement in the downing of flight MH17. More

2015, July 14 - Iran and six world powers reach a historic nuclear deal in Vienna, Austria.to limit Iran's nuclear program in exchange for lifting economic sanctions.

2016, July 14 - Terrorist Attack in the city of Nice kills 86 people and injures 434 others. More

Note: These are some of the many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of May, listed by year. Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate. Online History Resources

Cecilia Payne's work on the nature of variable stars showed that the wide variation in stellar spectra is due mainly to the different ionization states of the atoms and hence different surface temperatures of the stars, not to different amounts of the elements. Concluding that stars were composed primarily of hydrogen and helium. Her groundbreaking work from almost 100 years ago, was initially rejected because it contradicted the scientific wisdom of the time, which held that there were no significant elemental differences between the Sun and Earth. Independent observations eventually proved she was correct. More

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