These are some of the many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of September, listed by year. Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate.
70 CE, October - The Siege of Jerusalem concludes with the sacking and destruction of the Second Temple by the Roman Empire.
312 CE, October 28 - Constantine the Great defeats Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, becoming the sole Roman Emperor.
732 CE, October 10 - The Battle of Tours takes place in France, where Frankish forces under Charles Martel defeat the Umayyad Caliphate, halting their expansion into Europe.
787 CE, October - The Second Council of Nicaea is held, addressing the use of religious images in the Byzantine Empire.
846 CE, October - The Great Heathen Army of Vikings attacks Rome, sacking the city and its surroundings.
877 CE October 8 - The Battle of the Aisne takes place in present-day France, with Louis the Stammerer leading the West Franks against the Vikings.
992 CE,October - The founding of the Fatimid Caliphate by Imam Al-Mahdi Billah in North Africa.
1000 CE, October - The Icelandic parliament, Althing, is established, making it one of the oldest extant parliamentary institutions in the world.
1000 CE, October - The construction of the Brihadisvara Temple in India is completed, dedicated to the Hindu deity Shiva.
1000 CE October 18 - Leif Erikson, the Norse explorer, is believed to have landed in North America, possibly in present-day Canada.
1002 CE, October - King Æthelred the Unready orders the St. Brice's Day massacre, leading to the killing of many Danes in England.
1009 CE, October 18 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is destroyed by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.
1066 CE, October 14 - The Battle of Hastings takes place, resulting in William the Conqueror's victory over King Harold II of England.
1097 CE, October - The Crusaders lay siege to Antioch during the First Crusade.
1147 CE, October - The Second Crusade begins, with European forces launching campaigns to the Holy Land.
1200 CE, October - The Maya civilization reaches its peak in the Yucatan Peninsula, with cities like Chichen Itza flourishing.
1206 CE, October 15 - Genghis Khan is proclaimed the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.
1227 CE, October - The Mongol Empire, under Genghis Khan's leadership, conquers the Jin Dynasty in China.
1307 CE, October 13 - King Philip IV of France orders the arrest of the Knights Templar, leading to their persecution.
1415, October 25 - The Battle of Agincourt takes place during the Hundred Years' War, resulting in a significant English victory over the French.
1424, October - The Yongle Emperor of China moves the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, initiating the construction of the Forbidden City.
1435, October - The Congress of Arras is held, aiming to negotiate peace during the Hundred Years' War.
1448, October 17 - The Battle of Kosovo takes place between the Ottoman Empire and a coalition of Balkan states, with the Ottomans emerging victorious.
1453, October 29 - The Hundred Years' War comes to an end with the recapture of Bordeaux by the French, reclaiming their last possession in the conflict.
1466, October 8 - The Second Peace of Thorn is signed, ending the Thirteen Years' War and defining the borders between the Teutonic Knights and Poland-Lithuania.
1470, October - King Edward IV of England returns from exile, reclaiming the throne during the Wars of the Roses.
1483, October 2 - King Richard III of England is crowned, following the death of his nephew Edward V.
1485, October 22 - The Battle of Bosworth Field takes place, resulting in the defeat of Richard III and the ascension of Henry VII as King of England.
1486, October - The Malleus Maleficarum, a treatise on witchcraft, is first published in Germany.
1489, October 30 - The Treaty of Medina del Campo is signed, establishing a marriage alliance between the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal.
1492, October 12 - Christopher Columbus and his crew make landfall in the present day Bahamas, marking the European discovery of the Americas.
1492, October 27 - The Alhambra Decree is issued by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, ordering the expulsion of Jews from the country.
1493, October - Christopher Columbus arrives back in Spain, concluding his first voyage to the New World.
1494, October - The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed between Spain and Portugal, dividing the newly discovered lands outside Europe.
1495, October 5 - King Charles VIII of France invades Italy, initiating the Italian Wars.
1497, October 19 - Italian explorer John Cabot lands in North America, possibly in Newfoundland.
1498, October 12 - Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reaches India, opening the sea route to the East.
1499, October - Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I dies in captivity, leading to the Ottoman Interregnum and subsequent rise of Selim I.
1501, October - Michelangelo begins work on his famous statue "David" in Florence, Italy.
1502, October - Christopher Columbus sets sail on his fourth and final voyage to the Americas.
1503, October - Pope Julius II lays the foundation stone for the new St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.
1512, October 28 - Michelangelo's artwork on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City is unveiled to the public.
1517, October 31 - Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, sparking the Protestant Reformation.
1520, October - The Aztec Empire's ruler, Moctezuma II, is taken captive by Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés.
1534, October 18 - The English Parliament passes the Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII the head of the Church of England.
1535, October - Jacques Cartier's second voyage to Canada concludes, with the establishment of a settlement at Quebec.
1540, October - The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) is formally approved by Pope Paul III.
1542, October - Explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo becomes the first European to set foot on the West Coast of the United States.
1552, October - Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible captures Kazan, an important victory in the Russo-Kazan Wars.
1562, October - The Edict of Saint-Germain is signed, granting limited religious freedom to French Protestants (Huguenots).
1571, October 7 - The Battle of Lepanto takes place, with the Holy League defeating the Ottoman Empire's navy in a significant naval battle.
1580, October 8 - The Spanish army captures Lisbon, effectively uniting the crowns of Portugal and Spain under Philip II.
1582, October 15 - The Gregorian calendar is introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, skipping several days to realign the calendar with astronomical events.
1586, October 25 - The trial of Mary, Queen of Scots, begins in England, eventually leading to her execution.
1597, October - Toyotomi Hideyoshi's forces emerge victorious in the Battle of Myeongnyang against the Japanese invasions of Korea.
1598, October 18 - The Treaty of Vervins is signed, ending the war between Spain and France.
1599, October - The Battle of Sellenberk takes place, marking a significant conflict during the Long War between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy.
1599, October 27 - The Treaty of Weissenburg is signed, ending the War of the Jülich Succession between Spain and the Dutch Republic.
1600, October - The Battle of Sekigahara takes place in Japan, leading to Tokugawa Ieyasu's rise to power and the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
1601, October - Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, dies under mysterious circumstances.
1602, October - Dutch navigator and merchant Willem Janszoon becomes the first recorded European to set foot on Australian soil.
1604, October 9 - Supernova Kepler's Star becomes visible, leading to Johannes Kepler's study of its movement.
1605, October 5 - The Battle of Kircholm occurs between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden.
1607, October 26 - The Dutch East India Company (VOC) is established to facilitate colonial trade.
1608, October 14 - English explorer Henry Hudson reaches the river that now bears his name during his search for the Northwest Passage.
1610, October - The Italian scientist Galileo Galilei discovers the four largest moons of Jupiter, now known as the Galilean moons.
1613, October 12 - The new Russian Tsar, Michael Romanov, is elected, marking the beginning of the Romanov dynasty.
1628, October 11 - The War of the Mantuan Succession begins, a conflict between France and the Habsburg Monarchy over control of the Duchy of Mantua.
1635, October 28 - The Treaty of Sztumska Wieś is signed, ending the Polish-Swedish War and recognizing Sweden's control over Livonia.
1639, October - The Treaty of Hartford ends the Pequot War between the Pequot tribe and English settlers in New England.
1641, October - The Irish Rebellion of 1641 begins, marking a significant conflict between Catholics and Protestants in Ireland.
1651, October 1 - English Parliamentarian forces under Oliver Cromwell decisively defeat the Royalists at the Battle of Worcester.
1660, October 13 - The Treaty of Oliva is signed, ending the Second Northern War and recognizing Swedish territorial losses.
1665, October - The Great Plague of London reaches its peak, causing widespread death and disruption.
1675, October - King Philip's War, a conflict between Native American tribes and English settlers, concludes with the Treaty of Casco.
1678, October - The Popish Plot, a fabricated conspiracy against King Charles II of England, emerges, leading to anti-Catholic sentiment.
1683, October 14 - The Battle of Vienna takes place, with the Holy League forces defeating the Ottoman Empire and ending their siege of Vienna.
1685, October - King Louis XIV of France revokes the Edict of Nantes, leading to the persecution of Huguenots and the weakening of religious tolerance.
1688, October 22 - The Glorious Revolution begins as William of Orange lands in England to challenge King James II's rule.
1692, October - The Salem witch trials conclude in Massachusetts with several executions and imprisonments.
1697, October - The Treaty of Ryswick is signed, ending the Nine Years' War and restoring the status quo in Europe.
1699, October - The Treaty of Karlowitz is signed, marking the end of the Great Turkish War and resulting in territorial changes in southeastern Europe.
1608, October 2 - Fire destroys most of the Palace of Whitehall in London.
1609, October - Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei demonstrates his newly built telescope to Venetian lawmakers.
1616, October 9 - Dutch sea captain Dirk Hartog makes the second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil.
1701, October - The Collegiate School of Connecticut (later Yale University) is founded in New Haven, Connecticut.
1707, October 22 - The Acts of Union unite the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1708, October - The Siege of Lille during the War of the Spanish Succession concludes with the city's surrender to Allied forces.
1710, October 11 - The Port Royal earthquake strikes Jamaica, causing widespread destruction and loss of life.
1720, October - The South Sea Bubble, a financial crisis in England, reaches its peak, leading to economic turmoil.
1737, October 20 - The Battle of Soor takes place during the War of the Austrian Succession, with the Austrian army defeating the French.
1740, October 20 - Maria Theresa becomes the ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy following the death of her father, Emperor Charles VI.
1751, October - The St. Petersburg State University is founded by Empress Elizabeth of Russia.
1755, October - The Lisbon earthquake and tsunami strike Portugal, resulting in massive destruction and loss of life.
1760, October 25 - George III becomes King of Great Britain following the death of his grandfather, George II.
1777, October 17 - The British forces, led by General John Burgoyne, surrender to the American Continental Army at the Battle of Saratoga, a turning point in the American Revolutionary War.
1781, October 19 - The Siege of Yorktown concludes with the surrender of British General Cornwallis to American and French forces, effectively ending major combat in the American Revolutionary War.
1789, October - The French Revolution begins with the Women's March on Versailles, prompting King Louis XVI to return to Paris.
1793, October 16 - Marie Antoinette, the former Queen of France, is executed by guillotine during the French Revolution.
1797, October - The Treaty of Campo Formio is signed, ending the War of the First Coalition and marking significant territorial changes.
1799, October 9 - Napoleon Bonaparte stages a coup d'état, overthrowing the French Directory and establishing the French Consulate.
1703, October 23 - The Eddystone Lighthouse off the coast of Cornwall, England, is completely destroyed by a storm.
1707, October 28 - The Hōei earthquake strikes Japan, causing widespread damage and loss of life.
1746, October - The Battle of Rocoux occurs during the War of the Austrian Succession, with French forces defeating an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army.
1758, October - The Siege of Louisbourg during the French and Indian War ends with British forces capturing the fortress of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia.
1804, October 6 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition returns to St. Louis, completing their journey to explore and map the western portion of the United States.
1805, October 21 - The Battle of Trafalgar takes place, resulting in a British victory over the combined French and Spanish fleets during the Napoleonic Wars.
1812, October 13 - American forces under General William Henry Harrison defeat the British and Native American forces at the Battle of the Thames during the War of 1812.
1813, October 5 - The Battle of the Thames in present-day Ontario, Canada, sees British and Native American forces defeated by American forces.
1820, October 6 - Mexico officially becomes a republic as the Plan of Iguala is accepted, ending Spanish rule and establishing Mexican independence.
1825, October 26 - The Erie Canal opens providing overland water transportation between the Hudson River on the east and Lake Erie at the western end. Popularly known as “Clinton’s Folly,” the eight-year construction project was the vision of New York Governor DeWitt Clinton.
1827, October 20 - The Naval Battle of Navarino occurs, during which combined British, French, and Russian forces defeat the Ottoman Empire's fleet.
1835, October - The Texas Revolution begins with the Battle of Gonzales, a confrontation between Texian settlers and Mexican soldiers.
1843, October - Sir James Young Simpson discovers the anesthetic properties of chloroform, revolutionizing surgery and pain management.
1854, October 25 - The Charge of the Light Brigade takes place during the Battle of Balaclava in the Crimean War.
1854, October 16 - The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead, England, destroys a large portion of both towns.
1856, October - The Second Opium War between Britain and France against China begins with the Battle of Canton.
1860, October - The Second Opium War ends with the signing of the Convention of Peking, resulting in the opening of additional Chinese ports to foreign trade.
1867, October 18 - The United States formally takes possession of Alaska from Russia in a ceremony known as the Alaska Purchase.
1868, Cuba Independence Day . Coomemorates the beginning of the wars of independence.
1871, October 8 - The Great Chicago Fire begins, resulting in widespread destruction of the city.
1879, October 12 - The First Anglo-Boer War begins as British forces invade the South African Republic (Transvaal).
1881, October 26 - The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral takes place in Tombstone, Arizona Territory, USA, involving the Earp brothers and Doc Holliday.
1886, October - The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, is dedicated on Liberty Island in New York Harbor.
1892, October 12 - The Pledge of Allegiance is first recited by students in many U.S. public schools as part of the Columbus Day celebration.
1898, October 25 - The United States defeats Spain in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, a decisive naval engagement during the Spanish-American War.
1899, October 11 - The Second Boer War begins between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics in South Africa.
1903, October 1 - The first modern World Series in baseball begins between the Boston Americans (now Red Sox) and the Pittsburgh Pirates.
1908, October 1 - Henry Ford introduces the Model T automobile to the market, revolutionizing the automotive industry.
1910, October 16 - The first airship flight across the English Channel takes place, with French aviator Ferdinand Ferber piloting the "Ferber I."
1917, October 25 - The October Revolution in Russia begins as the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, seizes power in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg).
1918, October 28 - The Ceck Republic Independence Day. Commemorates the Independence declaration by the Czechoslovak National Council.
1923, October 29 - The Ottoman Empire officially dissolves as the Republic of Turkey is declared under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
1929, October 29 - "Black Tuesday" marks the start of the Wall Street Crash of 1929, leading to the Great Depression.
1931, October 3 - The Empire State Building is officially opened in New York City, becoming the tallest building in the world at the time.
1932, October 3 - Iraq Independence day from the UK
1935, October 3 - Italy invades Ethiopia, initiating the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.
1945, October 24 - The United Nations is officially established following the signing of the UN Charter.
1949, October 1 - China National Day. Mao Zedong's formal proclamation of the establishment of the People's Republic of China
1957, October 4 - The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite, The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball (58 cm.or 22.8 inches in diameter), weighed only 83.6 kg. or 183.9 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race. More
1958, October 2 - Guinea Independance Day from France.
1960, October 1 - Cyprus Independance day. The eEffective date of the London-Zürich Agreements was 16 August 1960, but the public holiday was moved to October 1 to avoid summer heat and tourist season.
1960, October 1 - Nigeria Independance Day from the UK
1962, October 14 - The Cuban Missile Crisis begins as the United States discovers Soviet missile installations in Cuba.
1964, October 14 - Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his nonviolent struggle against racial inequality.
1966, October 4 - Lesotho Independance day from the UK
1968, October 12 - Equatorial Guinea Independence Day from Spain
1969, October 16 - The "Miracle Mets" win their first World Series, defeating the Baltimore Orioles in five games.
1970, October 10 - Fiji's Independence Day fom the UK. (Fiji Day) Commenmorates the signing of the Instruments of Independence.
1971, October 1 - Walt Disney World Resort opens in Orlando, Florida.
1973, October 6 - The Yom Kippur War begins as Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack against Israel.
1979, October 27 - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Independance Day from the UK
1981, October 6 - Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated by Islamic extremists during a military parade in Cairo.
1983, October 23 - The United States invades Grenada, known as Operation Urgent Fury, in response to a coup.
1989, October 18 - The Hungarian Republic is officially declared, marking the end of Communist rule.
1990, October 3 - Germany Day of Unity. Commemorates the Reunification of Germany which ended decades of division.
1994, October 1 - Palau Independance Day from the United States.
1999, October 27 - Gunmen storm the Armenian Parliament in Yerevan, resulting in the deaths of the Prime Minister and several members of parliament.
2001, October 7 - The United States launches Operation Enduring Freedom, marking the beginning of the War in Afghanistan.
2001, October 23 - Apple introduces the iPod, revolutionizing the way people listen to music.
2002, October 12 - Terrorist bombings in Bali, Indonesia, kill over 200 people and injure hundreds more.
2003, October 28 - The Boston Red Sox win their first World Series championship in 86 years, breaking the "Curse of the Bambino."
2004, October 9 - The first official World Space Week is declared by the United Nations.
2004, October 28 - The European Space Agency's Huygens probe lands on Saturn's moon Titan.
2005, October 8 - The 7.6 magnitude Kashmir earthquake strikes northern Pakistan and India, causing widespread destruction and loss of life.
2006, October 9 - North Korea conducts its first nuclear test.
2007, October 14 - A suicide truck bomb detonates in Baghdad's busy market, killing over 500 people.
2008, October 3 - The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act is signed into law in the United States, establishing the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) to address the financial crisis.
2009, October 9 - President Barack Obama is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation.
2009, October 25 - Typhoon Morakot strikes Taiwan, causing significant flooding and landslides.
2010, October 13 - The Copiapó mining accident in Chile ends with the successful rescue of 33 trapped miners.
2010, October 27 - The 2010 North Sumatra earthquake and tsunami hit Indonesia, resulting in significant loss of life and devastation.
2011, October 20 - Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is captured and killed during the Libyan Civil War.
2012, October 29 - Hurricane Sandy makes landfall in the northeastern United States, causing widespread damage and power outages.
2013, October 1 - The Affordable Care Act, often referred to as Obamacare, begins its enrollment phase in the United States.
2013, October 5 - Former NSA contractor Edward Snowden is revealed as the source of leaked classified documents, exposing mass surveillance programs.
2014, October 22 - Canada's Parliament Hill in Ottawa is attacked by a lone gunman, resulting in the death of a soldier and the attacker.
2015, October 1 - A mass shooting takes place at Umpqua Community College in Oregon, USA, leaving multiple people dead and injured.
2016, October 1 - Hurricane Matthew, one of the most powerful Atlantic hurricanes in recent history, strikes the Caribbean and the southeastern United States.
2017, October 1 - A mass shooting occurs at the Route 91 Harvest music festival in Las Vegas, USA, leaving 58 people dead and hundreds injured.
2018, October 2 - Journalist Jamal Khashoggi is murdered inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey.
2018, October 29 - Lion Air Flight 610 crashes into the Java Sea shortly after takeoff from Jakarta, Indonesia, killing all 189 people on board.
2019, October 6 - The United States announces its withdrawal from Syria, leading to concerns about the situation in the region.
2019, October 9 - Turkey launches a military offensive into northern Syria against Kurdish forces.
2020, October 2 - U.S. President Donald Trump tests positive for COVID-19, leading to concerns about the virus's impact on political leadership.
2020, October 18 - Protests erupt in Nigeria against police brutality and the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS), leading to widespread demonstrations.
2020, October 29 - A powerful earthquake strikes the Aegean Sea, causing significant damage and loss of life in Turkey and Greece.
2021, October 15 - NASA's Lucy spacecraft launches to study Trojan asteroids, marking a significant step in asteroid research.