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These are some of the many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of September, listed by year.  Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate.

70 CE, October - The Siege of Jerusalem concludes with the sacking and destruction of the Second Temple by the Roman Empire.

312 CE, October 28 - Constantine the Great defeats Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, becoming the sole Roman Emperor.

732 CE, October 10 - The Battle of Tours takes place in France, where Frankish forces under Charles Martel defeat the Umayyad Caliphate, halting their expansion into Europe.

787 CE, October - The Second Council of Nicaea is held, addressing the use of religious images in the Byzantine Empire.

846 CE, October - The Great Heathen Army of Vikings attacks Rome, sacking the city and its surroundings.

877 CE October 8 - The Battle of the Aisne takes place in present-day France, with Louis the Stammerer leading the West Franks against the Vikings.

992 CE,October - The founding of the Fatimid Caliphate by Imam Al-Mahdi Billah in North Africa.

1000 CE, October - The Icelandic parliament, Althing, is established, making it one of the oldest extant parliamentary institutions in the world.

1000 CE, October - The construction of the Brihadisvara Temple in India is completed, dedicated to the Hindu deity Shiva.

1000 CE October 18 - Leif Erikson, the Norse explorer, is believed to have landed in North America, possibly in present-day Canada.

1002 CE, October - King Æthelred the Unready orders the St. Brice's Day massacre, leading to the killing of many Danes in England.

1009 CE, October 18 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is destroyed by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.

1066 CE, October 14 - The Battle of Hastings takes place, resulting in William the Conqueror's victory over King Harold II of England.

1097 CE, October - The Crusaders lay siege to Antioch during the First Crusade.

1147 CE, October - The Second Crusade begins, with European forces launching campaigns to the Holy Land.

1200 CE, October - The Maya civilization reaches its peak in the Yucatan Peninsula, with cities like Chichen Itza flourishing.

1206 CE, October 15 - Genghis Khan is proclaimed the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.

1227 CE, October - The Mongol Empire, under Genghis Khan's leadership, conquers the Jin Dynasty in China.

1307 CE, October 13 - King Philip IV of France orders the arrest of the Knights Templar, leading to their persecution.

1415, October 25 - The Battle of Agincourt takes place during the Hundred Years' War, resulting in a significant English victory over the French.

1424, October - The Yongle Emperor of China moves the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, initiating the construction of the Forbidden City.

1435, October - The Congress of Arras is held, aiming to negotiate peace during the Hundred Years' War.

1448, October 17 - The Battle of Kosovo takes place between the Ottoman Empire and a coalition of Balkan states, with the Ottomans emerging victorious.

1453, October 29 - The Hundred Years' War comes to an end with the recapture of Bordeaux by the French, reclaiming their last possession in the conflict.

1466, October 8 - The Second Peace of Thorn is signed, ending the Thirteen Years' War and defining the borders between the Teutonic Knights and Poland-Lithuania.

1470, October - King Edward IV of England returns from exile, reclaiming the throne during the Wars of the Roses.

1483, October 2 - King Richard III of England is crowned, following the death of his nephew Edward V.

1485, October 22 - The Battle of Bosworth Field takes place, resulting in the defeat of Richard III and the ascension of Henry VII as King of England.

1486, October - The Malleus Maleficarum, a treatise on witchcraft, is first published in Germany.

1489, October 30 - The Treaty of Medina del Campo is signed, establishing a marriage alliance between the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal.

1492, October 12 -  Christopher Columbus and his crew make landfall in the present day Bahamas, marking the European discovery of the Americas.

1492, October 27 - The Alhambra Decree is issued by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, ordering the expulsion of Jews from the country.

1493, October - Christopher Columbus arrives back in Spain, concluding his first voyage to the New World.

1494, October - The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed between Spain and Portugal, dividing the newly discovered lands outside Europe.

1495, October 5 - King Charles VIII of France invades Italy, initiating the Italian Wars.

1497, October 19 - Italian explorer John Cabot lands in North America, possibly in Newfoundland.

1498, October 12 - Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reaches India, opening the sea route to the East.

1499, October - Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I dies in captivity, leading to the Ottoman Interregnum and subsequent rise of Selim I.

1501, October - Michelangelo begins work on his famous statue "David" in Florence, Italy.

1502, October - Christopher Columbus sets sail on his fourth and final voyage to the Americas.

1503, October - Pope Julius II lays the foundation stone for the new St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.

1512, October 28 - Michelangelo's artwork on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City is unveiled to the public.

1517, October 31 - Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, sparking the Protestant Reformation.

1520, October - The Aztec Empire's ruler, Moctezuma II, is taken captive by Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés.

1534, October 18 - The English Parliament passes the Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII the head of the Church of England.

1535, October - Jacques Cartier's second voyage to Canada concludes, with the establishment of a settlement at Quebec.

1540, October - The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) is formally approved by Pope Paul III.

1542, October - Explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo becomes the first European to set foot on the West Coast of the United States.

1552, October - Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible captures Kazan, an important victory in the Russo-Kazan Wars.

1562, October - The Edict of Saint-Germain is signed, granting limited religious freedom to French Protestants (Huguenots).

1571, October 7 - The Battle of Lepanto takes place, with the Holy League defeating the Ottoman Empire's navy in a significant naval battle.

1580, October 8 - The Spanish army captures Lisbon, effectively uniting the crowns of Portugal and Spain under Philip II.

1582, October 15 - The Gregorian calendar is introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, skipping several days to realign the calendar with astronomical events.

1586, October 25 - The trial of Mary, Queen of Scots, begins in England, eventually leading to her execution.

1597, October - Toyotomi Hideyoshi's forces emerge victorious in the Battle of Myeongnyang against the Japanese invasions of Korea.

1598, October 18 - The Treaty of Vervins is signed, ending the war between Spain and France.

1599, October - The Battle of Sellenberk takes place, marking a significant conflict during the Long War between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy.

1599, October 27 - The Treaty of Weissenburg is signed, ending the War of the Jülich Succession between Spain and the Dutch Republic.

1600, October - The Battle of Sekigahara takes place in Japan, leading to Tokugawa Ieyasu's rise to power and the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate.

1601, October - Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, dies under mysterious circumstances.

1602, October - Dutch navigator and merchant Willem Janszoon becomes the first recorded European to set foot on Australian soil.

1604, October 9 - Supernova Kepler's Star becomes visible, leading to Johannes Kepler's study of its movement.

1605, October 5 - The Battle of Kircholm occurs between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden.

1607, October 26 - The Dutch East India Company (VOC) is established to facilitate colonial trade.

1608, October 14 - English explorer Henry Hudson reaches the river that now bears his name during his search for the Northwest Passage.

1610, October - The Italian scientist Galileo Galilei discovers the four largest moons of Jupiter, now known as the Galilean moons.

1613, October 12 - The new Russian Tsar, Michael Romanov, is elected, marking the beginning of the Romanov dynasty.

1628, October 11 - The War of the Mantuan Succession begins, a conflict between France and the Habsburg Monarchy over control of the Duchy of Mantua.

1635, October 28 - The Treaty of Sztumska Wieś is signed, ending the Polish-Swedish War and recognizing Sweden's control over Livonia.

1639, October - The Treaty of Hartford ends the Pequot War between the Pequot tribe and English settlers in New England.

1641, October - The Irish Rebellion of 1641 begins, marking a significant conflict between Catholics and Protestants in Ireland.

1651, October 1 - English Parliamentarian forces under Oliver Cromwell decisively defeat the Royalists at the Battle of Worcester.

1660, October 13 - The Treaty of Oliva is signed, ending the Second Northern War and recognizing Swedish territorial losses.

1665, October - The Great Plague of London reaches its peak, causing widespread death and disruption.

1675, October - King Philip's War, a conflict between Native American tribes and English settlers, concludes with the Treaty of Casco.

1678, October - The Popish Plot, a fabricated conspiracy against King Charles II of England, emerges, leading to anti-Catholic sentiment.

1683, October 14 - The Battle of Vienna takes place, with the Holy League forces defeating the Ottoman Empire and ending their siege of Vienna.

1685, October - King Louis XIV of France revokes the Edict of Nantes, leading to the persecution of Huguenots and the weakening of religious tolerance.

1688, October 22 - The Glorious Revolution begins as William of Orange lands in England to challenge King James II's rule.

1692, October - The Salem witch trials conclude in Massachusetts with several executions and imprisonments.

1697, October - The Treaty of Ryswick is signed, ending the Nine Years' War and restoring the status quo in Europe.

1699, October - The Treaty of Karlowitz is signed, marking the end of the Great Turkish War and resulting in territorial changes in southeastern Europe.

1608, October 2 - Fire destroys most of the Palace of Whitehall in London.

1609, October - Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei demonstrates his newly built telescope to Venetian lawmakers.

1616, October 9 - Dutch sea captain Dirk Hartog makes the second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil.

1701, October - The Collegiate School of Connecticut (later Yale University) is founded in New Haven, Connecticut.

 October 22 - The Acts of Union unite the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1708, October - The Siege of Lille during the War of the Spanish Succession concludes with the city's surrender to Allied forces.

1710, October 11 - The Port Royal earthquake strikes Jamaica, causing widespread destruction and loss of life.

1720, October - The South Sea Bubble, a financial crisis in England, reaches its peak, leading to economic turmoil.

1737, October 20 - The Battle of Soor takes place during the War of the Austrian Succession, with the Austrian army defeating the French.

1740, October 20 - Maria Theresa becomes the ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy following the death of her father, Emperor Charles VI.

1751, October - The St. Petersburg State University is founded by Empress Elizabeth of Russia.

1755, October - The Lisbon earthquake and tsunami strike Portugal, resulting in massive destruction and loss of life.

1760, October 25 - George III becomes King of Great Britain following the death of his grandfather, George II.

1777, October 17 - The British forces, led by General John Burgoyne, surrender to the American Continental Army at the Battle of Saratoga, a turning point in the American Revolutionary War.

1781, October 19 - The Siege of Yorktown concludes with the surrender of British General Cornwallis to American and French forces, effectively ending major combat in the American Revolutionary War.

1789, October - The French Revolution begins with the Women's March on Versailles, prompting King Louis XVI to return to Paris.

1793, October 16 - Marie Antoinette, the former Queen of France, is executed by guillotine during the French Revolution.

1797, October - The Treaty of Campo Formio is signed, ending the War of the First Coalition and marking significant territorial changes.

1799, October 9 - Napoleon Bonaparte stages a coup d'état, overthrowing the French Directory and establishing the French Consulate.

 October 23 - The Eddystone Lighthouse off the coast of Cornwall, England, is completely destroyed by a storm.

1707, October 28 - The Hōei earthquake strikes Japan, causing widespread damage and loss of life.

1746, October - The Battle of Rocoux occurs during the War of the Austrian Succession, with French forces defeating an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army.

1758, October - The Siege of Louisbourg during the French and Indian War ends with British forces capturing the fortress of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia.

1804, October 6 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition returns to St. Louis, completing their journey to explore and map the western portion of the United States.

1805, October 21 - The Battle of Trafalgar takes place, resulting in a British victory over the combined French and Spanish fleets during the Napoleonic Wars.

1812, October 13 - American forces under General William Henry Harrison defeat the British and Native American forces at the Battle of the Thames during the War of 1812.

1813, October 5 - The Battle of the Thames in present-day Ontario, Canada, sees British and Native American forces defeated by American forces.

1820, October 6 - Mexico officially becomes a republic as the Plan of Iguala is accepted, ending Spanish rule and establishing Mexican independence.

1825, October 26 - The Erie Canal opens providing overland water transportation between the ­­ Hudson River on the east and Lake Erie at the western end. Popularly known as “Clinton’s Folly,” the eight-year construction project was the vision of New York Governor DeWitt Clinton.

1827, October 20 - The Naval Battle of Navarino occurs, during which combined British, French, and Russian forces defeat the Ottoman Empire's fleet.

1835, October - The Texas Revolution begins with the Battle of Gonzales, a confrontation between Texian settlers and Mexican soldiers.

1843, October - Sir James Young Simpson discovers the anesthetic properties of chloroform, revolutionizing surgery and pain management.

1854, October 25 - The Charge of the Light Brigade takes place during the Battle of Balaclava in the Crimean War.

1854, October 16 - The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead, England, destroys a large portion of both towns.

1856, October - The Second Opium War between Britain and France against China begins with the Battle of Canton.

1860, October - The Second Opium War ends with the signing of the Convention of Peking, resulting in the opening of additional Chinese ports to foreign trade.

1867, October 18 - The United States formally takes possession of Alaska from Russia in a ceremony known as the Alaska Purchase.

1868, Cuba Independence Day . Coomemorates the beginning of the wars of independence.  

1871, October 8 - The Great Chicago Fire begins, resulting in widespread destruction of the city.

1879, October 12 - The First Anglo-Boer War begins as British forces invade the South African Republic (Transvaal).

1881, October 26 - The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral takes place in Tombstone, Arizona Territory, USA, involving the Earp brothers and Doc Holliday.

1886, October - The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, is dedicated on Liberty Island in New York Harbor.

1892, October 12 - The Pledge of Allegiance is first recited by students in many U.S. public schools as part of the Columbus Day celebration.

1898, October 25 - The United States defeats Spain in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, a decisive naval engagement during the Spanish-American War.

1899, October 11 - The Second Boer War begins between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics in South Africa.

1903, October 1 - The first modern World Series in baseball begins between the Boston Americans (now Red Sox) and the Pittsburgh Pirates.

1908, October 1 - Henry Ford introduces the Model T automobile to the market, revolutionizing the automotive industry.

1910, October 16 - The first airship flight across the English Channel takes place, with French aviator Ferdinand Ferber piloting the "Ferber I."

1917, October 25 - The October Revolution in Russia begins as the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, seizes power in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg).

1918, October 28 - The Ceck Republic Independence Day. Commemorates the Independence declaration by the Czechoslovak National Council.

1923, October 29 - The Ottoman Empire officially dissolves as the Republic of Turkey is declared under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

1929, October 29 - "Black Tuesday" marks the start of the Wall Street Crash of 1929, leading to the Great Depression.

1931, October 3 - The Empire State Building is officially opened in New York City, becoming the tallest building in the world at the time.

1932, October 3 - Iraq Independence day from the UK

1935, October 3 - Italy invades Ethiopia, initiating the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.

1945, October 24 - The United Nations is officially established following the signing of the UN Charter.

1949, October 1 - China National Day. Mao Zedong's formal proclamation of the establishment of the People's Republic of China

1957, October 4 - The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite, The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball (58 cm.or 22.8 inches in diameter), weighed only 83.6 kg. or 183.9 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race. More

1958, October 2 - Guinea Independance Day from France.

1960, October 1 - Cyprus Independance day. The eEffective date of the London-Zürich Agreements was 16 August 1960, but the public holiday was moved to October 1 to avoid summer heat and tourist season.

1960, October 1 - Nigeria Independance Day from the UK

1962, October 14 - The Cuban Missile Crisis begins as the United States discovers Soviet missile installations in Cuba.

1964, October 14 - Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his nonviolent struggle against racial inequality.

1966, October 4 - Lesotho Independance day from the UK

1968, October 12 - Equatorial Guinea Independence Day from Spain

1969, October 16 - The "Miracle Mets" win their first World Series, defeating the Baltimore Orioles in five games.

1970, October 10 - Fiji's Independence Day fom the UK. (Fiji Day) Commenmorates the signing of the Instruments of Independence.

1971, October 1 - Walt Disney World Resort opens in Orlando, Florida.

1973, October 6 - The Yom Kippur War begins as Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack against Israel.

1979, October 27 - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Independance Day from the UK

1981, October 6 - Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated by Islamic extremists during a military parade in Cairo.

1983, October 23 - The United States invades Grenada, known as Operation Urgent Fury, in response to a coup.

1989, October 18 - The Hungarian Republic is officially declared, marking the end of Communist rule.

1990, October 3 - Germany Day of Unity. Commemorates the Reunification of Germany which ended decades of division.

1994, October 1 - Palau Independance Day from the United States.

1999, October 27 - Gunmen storm the Armenian Parliament in Yerevan, resulting in the deaths of the Prime Minister and several members of parliament.

2001, October 7 - The United States launches Operation Enduring Freedom, marking the beginning of the War in Afghanistan.

2001, October 23 - Apple introduces the iPod, revolutionizing the way people listen to music.

2002, October 12 - Terrorist bombings in Bali, Indonesia, kill over 200 people and injure hundreds more.

2003, October 28 - The Boston Red Sox win their first World Series championship in 86 years, breaking the "Curse of the Bambino."

2004, October 9 - The first official World Space Week is declared by the United Nations.

2004, October 28 - The European Space Agency's Huygens probe lands on Saturn's moon Titan.

2005, October 8 - The 7.6 magnitude Kashmir earthquake strikes northern Pakistan and India, causing widespread destruction and loss of life.

2006, October 9 - North Korea conducts its first nuclear test.

2007, October 14 - A suicide truck bomb detonates in Baghdad's busy market, killing over 500 people.

2008, October 3 - The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act is signed into law in the United States, establishing the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) to address the financial crisis.

2009, October 9 - President Barack Obama is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation.

2009, October 25 - Typhoon Morakot strikes Taiwan, causing significant flooding and landslides.

2010, October 13 - The Copiapó mining accident in Chile ends with the successful rescue of 33 trapped miners.

2010, October 27 - The 2010 North Sumatra earthquake and tsunami hit Indonesia, resulting in significant loss of life and devastation.

2011, October 20 - Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is captured and killed during the Libyan Civil War.

2012, October 29 - Hurricane Sandy makes landfall in the northeastern United States, causing widespread damage and power outages.

2013, October 1 - The Affordable Care Act, often referred to as Obamacare, begins its enrollment phase in the United States.

2013, October 5 - Former NSA contractor Edward Snowden is revealed as the source of leaked classified documents, exposing mass surveillance programs.

2014, October 22 - Canada's Parliament Hill in Ottawa is attacked by a lone gunman, resulting in the death of a soldier and the attacker.

2015, October 1 - A mass shooting takes place at Umpqua Community College in Oregon, USA, leaving multiple people dead and injured.

2016, October 1 - Hurricane Matthew, one of the most powerful Atlantic hurricanes in recent history, strikes the Caribbean and the southeastern United States.

2017, October 1 - A mass shooting occurs at the Route 91 Harvest music festival in Las Vegas, USA, leaving 58 people dead and hundreds injured.

2018, October 2 - Journalist Jamal Khashoggi is murdered inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey.

2018, October 29 - Lion Air Flight 610 crashes into the Java Sea shortly after takeoff from Jakarta, Indonesia, killing all 189 people on board.

2019, October 6 - The United States announces its withdrawal from Syria, leading to concerns about the situation in the region.

2019, October 9 - Turkey launches a military offensive into northern Syria against Kurdish forces.

2020, October 2 - U.S. President Donald Trump tests positive for COVID-19, leading to concerns about the virus's impact on political leadership.

2020, October 18 - Protests erupt in Nigeria against police brutality and the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS), leading to widespread demonstrations.

2020, October 29 - A powerful earthquake strikes the Aegean Sea, causing significant damage and loss of life in Turkey and Greece.

2021, October 15 - NASA's Lucy spacecraft launches to study Trojan asteroids, marking a significant step in asteroid research.

A Comment by Loy

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Loy • 10/01/2023 at 10:41AM • Like Profile

Wow, October 1 is an active day in history - many good and bad of my personal favorites is the Affordable Care Act - happy 10th anniversary!

These are some of many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of September, listed by year.  Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate.

476,  September 4 - Fall of the Western Roman Empire. Odoacer (Adovacar), a barbarian member of the Germanic tribe Siri and former commander in the Roman army enters the city of Rome unopposed and dethrones  emperor Romulus, becoming the first barbarian king of Italy. Although Roman rule continued in the East, the crowning of Odoacer marked the end of the original Roman Empire centered in Italy, although there was some resurgence and expansion of the power of Rome to the west.

1010 BCE, September - The Battle of Mount Gilboa takes place between the Israelites, led by King Saul, and the Philistines. The battle ends in a decisive victory for the Philistines and the death of King Saul and his sons.

1000 BCE, September - King David captures the city of Jerusalem, establishing it as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.

722 BCE, September - The Assyrian Empire conquers the northern kingdom of Israel, leading to the exile of the ten tribes of Israel and the collapse of the kingdom.

586 BCE, September - The city of Jerusalem is captured and destroyed by the Babylonian Empire under King Nebuchadnezzar II, leading to the Babylonian exile of the Israelites.

509 BCE, September - The Roman Republic is established after the overthrow of the last Etruscan king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbug, marking the beginning of the Roman Republic era.

490 BCE, September - The Battle of Marathon takes place between the Persian Empire and the city-state of Athens during the first Persian invasion of Greece. The Athenians, led by Miltiades, achieve a decisive victory over the Persians.

480 BCE, September - The Battle of Salamis occurs during the second Persian invasion of Greece. The Greek fleet, led by Themistocles, defeats the Persian fleet, halting the Persian advance.

480 BCE, September - The Battle of Salamis takes place during the Greco-Persian Wars. The Greek city-states, led by Themistocles, achieve a decisive naval victory over the Persian Empire, halting their advance.

480 BCE, September - The Battle of Plataea is fought between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire. The Greeks, led by Pausanias, achieve a significant victory, effectively ending the Persian invasion.

335 BCE, September - Alexander the Great completes his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire, including the capture of the Persian capital of Persepolis.

333 BCE, September - The Battle of Issus occurs between Alexander the Great of Macedonia and Darius III of Persia. Alexander achieves a decisive victory, securing his control over Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) and further weakening the Persian Empire.

331 BCE, September - The Battle of Gaugamela occurs between Alexander the Great of Macedonia and Darius III of Persia. Alexander achieves a decisive victory, further solidifying his control over the Persian Empire.

31 BCE, September 2 - The Battle of Actium takes place between the forces of Octavian (later known as Augustus) and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian emerges victorious, leading to the end of the Roman Republic and the establishment of the Roman Empire.

9 BCE, September 23 - The Roman general Publius Quinctilius Varus and his legions suffer a disastrous defeat at the hands of Germanic tribes in the Battle of Teutoburg Forest, resulting in the loss of three Roman legions.

9 CE, September - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest takes place in Germania. Germanic tribes led by Arminius ambush and defeat three Roman legions under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus, preventing further Roman expansion into Germania.

9 CE, September  - The Roman general Germanicus wins a significant victory over the Germanic tribes in the Battle of Idistaviso, consolidating Roman control in Germania.

14 CE, September 23rd - Emperor Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, dies in Nola, Italy. His stepson Tiberius succeeds him as the second Roman Emperor.

33 CE, September 14th - According to Christian tradition, Jesus Christ is crucified in Jerusalem, marking a significant event in the life and teachings of Jesus.

70 CE, September - The Siege of Jerusalem begins during the First Jewish-Roman War. Roman forces, led by Titus, lay siege to Jerusalem, eventually resulting in the destruction of the city and the Second Temple.

407 CE, September 24th - Vandals, Alans, and Suebi tribes cross the Rhine River into Gaul, marking the beginning of the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

476 CE, September 4th - Romulus Augustus, the last Roman emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed by Odoacer, a Germanic chieftain, leading to the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

610 CE, September - Muhammad receives his first revelation from the angel Gabriel, marking the beginning of the Islamic prophet's mission and the foundation of Islam.

622 CE, September 24th - The prophet Muhammad completes the Hijra ("Flight"), the migration from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution and establishing of the first Muslim community and later marking the beginning (Year 1) of the Muslim calendar.  More

641 CE, September 20th - Arab forces led by Caliph Umar conquer the city of Alexandria, Egypt, ending Byzantine control and marking a significant moment in the Arab conquests.

732 CE, September 10th - The Battle of Tours takes place in modern-day France, where Frankish forces led by Charles Martel defeat an invading Muslim army, halting the spread of Islam into Europe. 

853 CE, September 15th - Viking raiders sack the city of Bordeaux in present-day France, highlighting their expansion and impact in Europe.

877 CE, September 8th - Louis the Stammerer is crowned as the King of the West Franks, succeeding his father Charles the Bald. This event marks an important moment in the history of the Carolingian dynasty.

917 CE, September 20th - Byzantine forces led by Emperor Constantine VII defeat the Bulgarian army at the Battle of Achelous, securing Byzantine control over the Balkans.

919 CE, September - Henry the Fowler, the Duke of Saxony, is elected as the first king of East Francia (Germany), initiating the Ottonian dynasty.

927 CE, September - Simeon I of Bulgaria defeats the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Achelous, leading to the recognition of Bulgaria as an independent state.

935 CE, September 27th - The Battle of Andernach takes place between East Francia (Germany) and West Francia (France), marking a conflict over the division of the Carolingian Empire.

937 CE, September 17th - The Battle of Brunanburh takes place in England, where King Athelstan of England secures a decisive victory against a coalition of Viking and Scottish forces.

955 CE, September 10th - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, leads the East Frankish (German) forces to victory against the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld, halting their invasion of Central Europe.

962 CE, September 7th - Otto I is crowned as the Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, marking the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the Ottonian dynasty.

962 CE, September 26th - The Byzantine Empire defeats an army of the Emirate of Sicily at the Battle of Garigliano, solidifying Byzantine control over Southern Italy.

969 CE, September 2nd - The Fatimid Caliphate captures the city of Cairo, establishing it as their new capital and solidifying their control over Egypt.

972 CE, September 11th - Emperor Otto I holds a synod in Quedlinburg, Germany, where he confirms the appointment of his son Otto II as co-emperor and heir.

972 CE, September - The Battle of Cedynia occurs between the forces of the Piast dynasty and the Holy Roman Empire, leading to the establishment of Poland as an independent state.

980 CE, September 24th - The Byzantine emperor Basil II defeats the Bulgarian army at the Battle of Thessalonica, leading to the subjugation of Bulgaria under Byzantine rule.

991 CE, September 11th - The Battle of Maldon takes place in England, where the Anglo-Saxons are defeated by Viking raiders.

992 CE, September 10th - Holy Roman Emperor Otto III visits Rome and meets with Pope John XV, marking a significant moment of cooperation between the Holy Roman Empire and the Papacy.

994 CE, September 15th - The Battle of Swold takes place between the Norwegian king Olaf Tryggvason and a coalition of Swedish and Danish forces, resulting in Olaf's defeat and death.

996 CE, September 4th - Otto III, the Holy Roman Emperor, issues a document known as the "Privilege of Otto III," granting certain rights and privileges to the bishopric of Merseburg, Germany.

999 CE, September 9th - King Olaf II of Norway is killed in the Battle of Svolder, against an alliance of the Kings of Denmark and Sweden and Olaf's enemies in Norway,  leading to the temporary downfall of Christianity in Norway. 

1000, September 9 - The Battle of Svolder takes place in the Baltic Sea, resulting in a decisive victory for the combined Viking fleets of Denmark and Sweden over the Norwegian fleet, solidifying Danish and Swedish control over the region.

1002, September 29 - King Æthelred the Unready orders the massacre of Danes living in England, known as the St. Brice's Day massacre, as a response to a perceived Danish threat.

1004, September 15 - The Battle of Maldon occurs in Essex, England, where an English force led by Byrhtnoth is defeated by Viking raiders.

1014, September 23 - The Battle of Clontarf takes place near Dublin, Ireland, where the forces of Brian Boru, High King of Ireland, defeat the Viking forces of Dublin and their allies, although Brian Boru is killed in the battle.

1031, September 1 - The Battle of Stiklestad is fought in Norway, resulting in the death of King Olaf II Haraldsson, who would later be canonized as Saint Olaf.

1066, September 25 - The Battle of Stamford Bridge takes place in England, where King Harold II of England defeats an invading Norwegian army led by King Harald Hardrada, the Last Great Viking King Of Norway, securing his position before the Battle of Hastings.

1066, September 28 - William the Conqueror invades England after seven months of preparation for his invasion force, landing unopposed at Pevensey with about 7,000 men (including 2,000-3,000 cavalry). He quickly build fortifications at Hastings in preparation to fight the English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson. The" Battle of Hastings" was fought on October 14, 1066 beginning the Norman Conquest of England.  More 
1071, September 7 - The Battle of Manzikert occurs in eastern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), where the Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Empire, leading to significant territorial losses for the Byzantines and opening Anatolia to Turkish conquest.

1091, September 9 - The Battle of Alnwick is fought in Northumberland, England, between Scottish and English forces, resulting in a Scottish victory and expanding their influence in northern England.

1098, September 21 - The Siege of Antioch begins during the First Crusade as Crusader forces surround the city of Antioch in present-day Turkey, initiating a prolonged siege.

1099, September 20 - The Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, capture the city of Jerusalem from the Fatimid Caliphate, marking the conclusion of the First Crusade.

1101, September 20 - The Crusaders, led by Sigurd I of Norway, arrive in Lisbon, Portugal, and establish a temporary alliance with King Afonso I against the Moors.

1106, September 27 - The Battle of Tinchebray takes place in Normandy, France, where King Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, securing his control over Normandy.

1110, September 29 - The Crusader army of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem is ambushed by Muslim forces near Beirut, Lebanon, resulting in heavy losses.

1120, September 25 - The White Ship Disaster occurs off the coast of Normandy, France, when the vessel carrying the heir to the English throne, William Adelin, sinks, resulting in his death and a succession crisis in England.

1130, September 26 - Roger II is crowned King of Sicily, establishing the Kingdom of Sicily and becoming its first Norman ruler.

1146, September 10 - Pope Eugenius III declares the Second Crusade at the Council of Vézelay in France, calling for a military campaign to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims.

1159, September 7 - The Treaty of Benevento is signed, ending the long-standing conflict between the papacy and the Kingdom of Sicily.

1167, September 29 - The Battle of Monte Porzio takes place near Rome, Italy, as forces loyal to Pope Alexander III defeat the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.

1176, September 29 - The Battle of Legnano is fought in Lombardy, Italy, where the Lombard League defeats the forces of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, resulting in a significant setback for imperial power.

1192, September 2 - The Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Richard the Lionheart of England and Saladin, ending the Third Crusade and securing a truce in the Holy Land.

1202, September 8 - The Fourth Crusade sets sail from Venice to reclaim the Holy Land but eventually deviates and ends up sacking the city of Constantinople.

1209, September 22 - The Siege of Carcassonne ends during the Albigensian Crusade, with the city surrendering to Simon de Montfort, leader of the Crusader forces.

1215, September 15 - King John of England puts his seal on the Magna Carta, a document that outlines rights and limitations on royal power.

1229, September 18 - The Treaty of Meaux-Paris is signed, officially ending the Albigensian Crusade and granting amnesty to the Cathars in Languedoc, France.

1238, September 23 - The Battle of the Puig takes place during the Reconquista, where forces of the Kingdom of Aragon defeat the Almohad Caliphate in Valencia, Spain.

1241, September 11 - The Battle of Legnica occurs during the Mongol invasion of Europe, resulting in a decisive Mongol victory over the Polish and German forces.

1260, September 3 - The Battle of Ain Jalut takes place between the Mongol Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, resulting in a significant Mongol defeat.

1283, September 1 - The Treaty of Rheinfelden is signed, ending the conflict between the House of Habsburg and the Swiss Confederation, establishing peace in the region.

1297, September 11 - The Battle of Stirling Bridge is fought during the First War of Scottish Independence, where Scottish forces led by William Wallace defeat the English army.

1297, September 22 - The Treaty of Alcañices is signed between the Kingdom of León and the Kingdom of Portugal, resolving territorial disputes and establishing peace between the two kingdoms.

1209, September 22 - The Massacre at Béziers takes place during the Albigensian Crusade, as Crusaders led by Simon de Montfort sack the city of Béziers, resulting in a large number of deaths.

1217, September 2 - The Battle of South Foreland occurs during the First Barons' War, where English naval forces defeat a French fleet off the coast of Kent.

1227, September 18 - Genghis Khan, the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, dies while on campaign in Western Xia (modern-day China).

1241, September 9 - The Battle of Legnica takes place during the Mongol invasion of Europe, where a combined Polish-German force is defeated by the Mongols.

1248, September 1 - The construction of the Cologne Cathedral in Germany begins. It would take over 600 years to complete.

1260, September 3 - The Battle of Ain Jalut occurs, as the Mamluks of Egypt decisively defeat the Mongols, halting their westward expansion.
1271, September 17 - Marco Polo sets off on his journey to the East, embarking on a 24-year exploration of Asia and becoming one of the most famous European explorers.

1282, September 4 - The War of the Sicilian Vespers ends with the Peace of Caltabellotta, granting independence to the Kingdom of Sicily from the Angevin Kingdom of Naples.

1283, September 8 - The Battle of Evesham takes place during the Second Barons' War in England, resulting in a decisive victory for King Edward I over rebel forces.

1297, September 11 - The Battle of Stirling Bridge occurs during the First War of Scottish Independence, where Scottish forces led by William Wallace defeat the English.

1305, September 7 - Pope Clement V moves the papal seat from Rome to Avignon, beginning the period known as the Avignon Papacy.

1314, September 24 - The Battle of Bannockburn takes place during the First War of Scottish Independence, resulting in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Scotland against the Kingdom of England.

1322, September 20 - The Battle of Mühldorf occurs during the Bavarian Civil War, where forces loyal to Emperor Louis IV defeat the Habsburgs, securing Louis' position as Holy Roman Emperor.

1340, September 29 - The Battle of Sluys takes place during the Hundred Years' War, with the English fleet under King Edward III achieving a major victory over the French fleet.

1346, September 26 - The Battle of Blanchetaque is fought during the Crécy campaign of the Hundred Years' War, where the English army successfully crosses the River Somme to engage the French forces.

1364, September 8 - The Treaty of Brétigny is signed, ending the first phase of the Hundred Years' War between England and France and granting significant territorial concessions to England.

1368, September 17 - The Ming dynasty is proclaimed in China, marking the end of the Yuan dynasty and the beginning of a new era of Chinese rule.

1380, September 8 - The Battle of Kulikovo takes place during the Mongol invasion of Russia, where the forces of Grand Prince Dmitry of Moscow defeat the Mongol army.

1394, September 17 -  King Charles VI of France ordered that all Jewish people be expelled from the kingdom. More

1396, September 25 - The Battle of Nicopolis occurs during the Crusade of Nicopolis, where the Ottoman Empire, led by Bayezid I, decisively defeats the combined European forces.

1399, September 30 - Henry Bolingbroke lands in England and begins his successful campaign to overthrow King Richard II, eventually becoming King Henry IV of England.

1400, September 29 - King Richard II of England dies under mysterious circumstances, leading to the ascension of Henry IV to the English throne.

1409, September 30 - The Council of Pisa opens, marking the beginning of the Western Schism in the Catholic Church, with multiple claimants to the papacy.

1422, September 1 - King Henry V of England dies, and his infant son Henry VI becomes the king, resulting in the minority rule and political instability in England.

1454, September 20 - The Treaty of Lodi is signed, bringing an end to the conflict between the Italian city-states of Milan, Florence, and Naples, establishing peace in the region.

1459, September 23 - The Battle of Blore Heath takes place during the Wars of the Roses in England, where the Yorkist forces, led by Richard Neville, defeat the Lancastrians.

1475, September 19 - The Battle of Sant'Andrea takes place during the Italian Wars, where the forces of Florence and Venice defeat the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples.

1480, September 27 - The Sistine Chapel is consecrated by Pope Sixtus IV, who commissioned the famous frescoes, including Michelangelo's ceiling.

1486, September 8 - The printing of the first edition of "Malleus Maleficarum," a treatise on witchcraft, is completed in Germany, contributing to the witch-hunt hysteria of the time.

1487, September 9 - Bartolomeu Dias sets sail from Portugal on an expedition to find a sea route to India, becoming the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa.

1492, September 2 - The Battle of Granada takes place, marking the final phase of the Spanish Reconquista, as the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella capture the city of Granada from the Moors.

1504, September 29 - Michelangelo's sculpture "David" is installed next to the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio, in Florence, Italy, replacing Donatello’s bronze sculpture of Judith and Holofernes”.

1513, September 25 - Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa becomes the first European to reach the Pacific Ocean after crossing the Isthmus of Panama.

1519, September 20 -  Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, with five ships and a crew of 270 men, sets sail from Sanlucar de Barrameda in southern Spain, on what become the first circumnavigation of the world and the first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic. Magellan himself died during the tumultuous three year voyage, with Spaniard Juan Sebastian Elcano completing the journey from the Phillipines back to Spain with a final crew of only 18 men on September 6 1522. Despite Magellan’s tragic end, his legacy has become synonymous with exploration and geography—including the Strait in South America that still bears his name. More

1522, September 6 - The expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan becomes the first to complete a circumnavigation of the globe, arriving back in Spain. Magellan himself died during the tumultuous three year voyage, with Spaniard Juan Sebastian Elcano completing the journey from the Phillipines back to Spain with a final crew of only 18 men ftom the original 270. More

1533, September 18 - Queen Elizabeth I is born, who would later become one of the most influential monarchs in English history.

1540, September 27 - Pope Paul III officially recognizes the Society of Jesus as a religious order by promulgating the bull Regimini Militantis Ecclesiae, which established the Jesuit Order. More

1542, September 28 -  Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo led the first European expedition that explored what is now the west coast of the United States. Cabrillo departed from the port of Navidad, Mexico on June 27, 1542. Three months later he arrived at "a very good enclosed port," which is known today as San Diego Bay. Cabrillo later died during the expedition at what is now San Miguel Island part of the Channel Islands off Santa Barbara But his crew continued on, led by Ferrelo, his first officer, possibly as far north as Oregon, before winter storms forced them back to Mexico. More

1555, September 25 - The Peace of Augsburg is signed, officially recognizing the division of Christianity and granting each prince in the Holy Roman Empire the right to choose their own religion.

1565, September 7 - The Great Siege of Malta ends, as the Ottoman Empire lifts its siege of the island after several months of intense fighting.

1571, September 29 - The Battle of Lepanto takes place, where a Holy League fleet defeats the Ottoman Empire in a major naval battle, halting Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean.

1580, September 24 - The Portuguese succession crisis is resolved when King Philip II of Spain is declared Philip I of Portugal, bringing Portugal under Spanish rule.

1598, September 22 - The Edict of Nantes is issued by King Henry IV of France, granting religious freedom to French Protestants and ending the French Wars of Religion.

1599, September 27 - The Treaty of Basel is signed, bringing an end to the War of the Spanish Succession and solidifying the rule of King Philip III of Spain.

1650, September 3 - The Battle of Dunbar takes place during the English Civil War, resulting in a decisive victory for the English Parliamentarians over the Scottish Covenanters.

1666, September 2-6 - The Great Fire of London breaks out and devastates much of the city, destroying thousands of buildings.

1609, September 12 - English explorer Henry Hudson discovers Manhattan Island and sails up the river that would later bear his name.

1619, September 20 - The first representative assembly in America, the House of Burgesses, meets in Jamestown, Virginia.

1620, September 16 - The Mayflower ship departs from Plymouth, England, with a group of English Pilgrims bound for the New World in search of a new life – some seeking religious freedom, others a fresh start in a different land. More  

1642, September 20 - The Battle of Edgehill takes place, marking the first major conflict of the English Civil War.

1666, September 2 - The Great Fire of London starts at a bakery in Pudding Lane shortly and spreads rapidly. It swept through central London for four days gutting the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall, while also extending past the wall to the west. More

1676, September 19 - The Battle of Lund takes place during the Scanian War, where Sweden defeats Denmark.

1683, September 12 - The Battle of Vienna occurs, as an alliance of European powers successfully repels the Ottoman Empire's siege of the city.

1692, September 19 - The last hangings resulting from the Salem witch trials take place in Massachusetts, United States.

1697, September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick is signed, ending the Nine Years' War between France and the Grand Alliance of European powers.

1698, September 11 - Tsar Peter I of Russia imposes a tax on beards as part of his efforts to modernize and Westernize the country.

1752, September 2 - The British Empire adopts the Gregorian calendar, skipping 11 days to correct the discrepancy with the Julian calendar.

1759, September 13 - The Battle of the Plains of Abraham occurs during the Seven Years' War, leading to the British capture of Quebec City and ultimately changing the course of Canadian history.

1776, September 7 - during the Revolutionary War, the American submersible craft Turtle attempts to attach a time bomb to the hull of British Admiral Richard Howe’s flagship Eagle in New York Harbor. It was the first use of a submarine in warfare. More

1776, September 9 - The Continental Congress formally declares the name of the new nation to be the “United States” of America. Formally replacing the term “United Colonies.” More

1776, September 22 - Revolutionary War Nathan Hale is executed by the British for spying. Born in Coventry in 1755, Hale attended Yale College and later became a schoolteacher. After hostilities erupted in Lexington and Concord in 1775, Hale joined a Connecticut militia and participated in the siege of Boston. More

1779, September 23 - John Paul Jones, commanding the U.S. ship Bonhomme Richard, wins the naval Battle of Flamborough Head  against the British ships of war Countess of Scarborough and Serapis, off the the coast of Yorkshire, England. The Americans suffered approximately 170 casualties, while the British suffered approximately 117 casualties and 2 captured ships. More

1779, September 27 - Without consulting Abigail, Adams accepts Congress' offer to return to Europe as minister plenipotentiary to negotiate peace with Britain, whenever America's enemy was ready to come to the table. Adams hadn't sought the post, but reveled in Congress' nearly unanimous decision to appoint him. More

1780 September 21 - Revolutionary War hero Benedict Arnold turned his back on his country and met secretly with British Major John Andre to discuss handing over West Point to the British, in return for the promise of 20,000 pounds and a British military command for Arnold. More 

1783, September 3 - The Treaty of Paris is signed, officially ending the American Revolutionary War and recognizing the United States as an independent nation. More

1787, September 17 - The U.S. Constitution is finally accepted and signed  The document consisted of a Preamble and  seven Articles. Some pointed to the missing bill of rights as a fatal flaw in the new document. A compromised was reached assuring that amendments would be immediately proposed to addressed the need for a bill of rights and the Constitution was signed by 39 of the 42 delegates still present at the convention when it was finished (Governor Edmund Randolph and George Mason, both from Virginia, and Elbridge Gerry from Massachusetts, declined to sign It). On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document, and it was subsequently agreed that government under the U.S. Constitution would begin on March 4, 1789 thus replacing the existing Articles of Confederation which had been adopted by the Continental Congress on 11/15/1777.
On September 25, 1789, the First Congress of the U.S. proposed 12 amendments to the Constitution with its own Preamble. Ten of the proposed 12 amendments were ratified by three-fourths of the State legislatures on December 15, 1791. They form what is now referred to as The Bill of Rights

1789, September 2 - The First Congress of the United States creates the Department of Treasury, a permanent institution for the management of government finances. Alexander Hamilton served as the first Secretary of the Treasury from 1789 to 1795. Hamilton was killed in a duel in 1804. More

1789, September 24 - The Judiciary Act of 1789 is signed into law by President George Washington. Officially titled "An Act to Establish the Judicial Courts of the United States." Article III of the Constitution established a Supreme Court, but left to Congress the authority to create lower federal courts as needed. The House of Representatives passed the Judiciary Act on Sept 17, 1789 and the Senate on July 17 1789. More

1789, September 25 - The United States Congress approves the Bill of Rights, comprising the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. More

1793, September 18 - President George Washington crosses the Potomac to lay the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol. More

1804, September 14 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition, exploring the western portion of the United States, reaches the Pacific Ocean.

1806, September 20 - After more than two years exploring the western wilderness, Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery arrived at the frontier village of La Charette, in modern Missouri. More

1810, September 16 - Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Catholic Parish priest, launches the Mexican War of Independence by issuing his "Grito de Dolores" (The Battle Cry of Dolores) from the church pulpit in the town of Dolores, calling for the end of of 300 years of the Spanish rule of Mexico, the redistribution of land and racial equality. Soon after, a peasant army was marching toward Mexico City. Hidalgo was later captured and later eventually executed, on July 30, 1811. Mexican Independence is officially celebrated on September 16.

1810, September 18 - Chiles Independence Day (Establishment of the Government Junta of Chile)

1812,  September 7 - The Battle of Borodino takes place during Napoleon's invasion of Russia, resulting in a costly victory for the French forces.

1812, September 14 - Napoleon and his Grande Armée enter the city of Moscow to find the city almost deserted and lacking the supplies they hoped to find for the French army. After waiting a few weeks for a surrender that never came and the threat of the approaching Russian winter, Napoleon orders the French army to leave Moscow.

1813, September 7 - The U.S. Receives The Nickname 'Uncle Sam".  During the War of 1812, Samuel Wilson, a meat packer from Troy, New York. was one of the suppliers to the U. S. Army. He labeled his barrels of beef with “U.S.” to indicate U.S. government property, but soldiers referred to the “U.S.” as Uncle Sam (Wilson). On September 7, 1813, a local newspaper picked up the story which eventually led to the widespread use of the nickname. Congress passed a resolution in 1961 that recognized Samuel Wilson as the inspiration for the symbol Uncle Sam.

1814, September 11- The battle of Plattsburgh, also called the Battle of Lake Champlain concludes  with an important American victory that saved New York from a British invasion via the Hudson River valley. The Americans included 1,500 regulars and about 2,500 militia commanded by Gen. Alexander Macomb, supported by a 14 ship American naval squadron under Commodore Thomas Macdonough. The British army of some 14,000 troops was commanded by Sir George Prevost. More

1814, September 14 - The poem "The Star-Spangled Banner" is written by Francis Scott Key during the bombardment of Fort
McHenry, later becoming the national anthem of the United States 1830, September 26 - The city of Liverpool, England, is proclaimed a borough by royal charter.

1821, September 15 - Costa Rica Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - El Salvador Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - Guatemala Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - Honduras Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1821, September 15 - Nicaragua Independance Day (Act of Independence of Central America)

1822, September 7 - Brazil Independance day from Portugal (Declaration of independence by Pedro I of Brazil)

1845, September 16 - Phineas Wilcox is stabbed to death by fellow Mormons in Nauvoo, Illinois, because he was believed to be a spy. Wilcox was one of the first victims of "blood atonement," a since abandoned Mormon doctrine, that certain sins were so so serious as to put the sinner "beyond the reach of the atoning blood of Christ"  For these fallen sinners, their "only hope" lay in having "their own blood shed to atone." More

1846, September 23 - Astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle is the first to identify Neptune as the eighth planet orbiting around the Sun. The discovery was made based on mathematical calculations of its predicted position due to observed perturbations in the orbit of the planet Uranus. The discovery was made using a telescope since Neptune is too faint to be visible to the naked eye, owing to its great distance from the Sun. Astronomers soon discovered a moon orbiting Neptune, but it took more than a century to discover a second one. Our knowledge of distant Neptune greatly increased from the scientific observations made during Voyager 2’s flyby in 1989, including the discovery of five additional moons and confirmation of dark rings orbiting the planet. More

1847, September 14 - During the Mexican-American War, General Winfield Scott captures Mexico City after a successful attack on the port city of Veracruz and a series of victories. More

1850, September 9 - California is admitted into the Union becoming the 31st State

1854, September 27 -  Two ships collided about fifty miles off the coast of Newfoundland, killing at least 322 people of the 400 who were onboard. The collision was caused by a sudden, heavy fog that obscured the view of both ships' Captains. The larger ship was the wood hulled paddle steamer called SS Arctic. The smaller ship was called the SS Vesta, an iron hulled, propeller driven French ship. More

1857, September 11 - A Mormon militia in southern Utah seized a wagon train from Arkansas and brutally murdered 120 people. Soon after, records of the event were destroyed and Mormon leaders attempted a cover-up. The "Mountain Meadows Massacre" still troubles the descendants of both the attackers and victims. More

1859, September 1 - The Carrington Event was the most intense geomagnetic storm in recorded history. It was associated with a very bright solar flare and it created strong auroral displays that were reported globally and caused sparking and even fires in multiple telegraph stations. The geomagnetic storm was most likely the result of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the Sun colliding with Earth's magnetosphere. A geomagnetic storm of this magnitude occurring today would cause widespread electrical disruptions, blackouts, and could cause an internet apocalypse, sending large numbers of people and businesses offline  due to extended outages of the electrical power grid. More

1859, September 11 - The Royal Charter storm wrecks over 130 ships along the coast of England and Wales, resulting in the loss of around 800 lives.

1862, September 17 - The Battle of Antietam takes place during the American Civil War, resulting in the bloodiest single day of battle in U.S. history. It showed that the Union could stand against the Confederate army in the Eastern theater. It also gave President Abraham Lincoln the confidence to issue the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. More

1862, September 22 - President Lincoln issued the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, declaring that as of January 1, 1863 "all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free."  More

1863, September 22 - The preliminary Emancipation Proclamation is issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, declaring that all
slaves in Confederate territory are to be set free.

1870, September 20 - The Papal States, the last remnants of the Papal territories, are incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy, marking the end of the temporal power of the Pope.

1886, September 4 - Goyathlay, also known as Geronimo, hands his rifle to a U.S. General bringing the Apache armed resistance to an end after his tribe had been relocated to a reservation in Arizona 14 years earlier. His military resistance with his tiny band of Chiricahuas made him feared by white settlers. After his surrender, Goyathlay and about 30 followers, including children, were sent to Fort Marion in St. Augustine, destined fto years of imprisonment. On his deathbed, he confessed to his nephew that he regretted his decision to surrender. His last words were reported to be: "I should have never surrendered. I should have fought until I was the last man alive." He dictated his autobiography "Geronimo's Story of his Life" to S.M Barrett Superintendent of Education, Lawton,  .

1888, September 8 - The first successful publication of The National Geographic Magazine is released.

1894, September 25 - US President Grover Cleveland signs Proclamation 369 - Granting Amnesty and Pardon for the Offenses of Polygamy, Bigamy, Adultery, or Unlawful Cohabitation to Members of the Church of Latter-Day Saints. More

1897, September 19 - The world's first recorded automobile accident occurs in New York City, involving a motor vehicle and a cyclist.

1898, September 21 - The United States captures the city of Manila during the Spanish-American War, establishing American control over the Philippines.

1901, September 6 - William McKinley, the 25th president of the United States, is shot and mortally wounded by anarchist Leon Czolgosz  at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.  President McKinley died days later on September 14. He was the third American president to be assassinated, following Abraham Lincoln in 1865 and James A. Garfield in 1881.President Theodore Roosevelt was immediately sworn in as president. More

1904, September 21 -  The Nez Perce chief Joseph died in 1904 in Nespelem, Washington, of an undiagnosed illness and what his doctor called "a broken heart." His tomb remains in Nespelem today. More

1908, September 16 - William Durant creates General Motors which included Buick and Oldsmobile. Less than 16 months after GM’s incorporation, Durant had purchased other companies including  Cadillac, Oakland (Pontiac), McLaughlin (GM Canada) and GMC. More 

1908, September 22 - Bulgaria Independence day from the Ottoman Empire.

1913, September 29 - Inventor Rudolf Diesel disappeared from a steamer in route to London. His body was recovered on the shore days later. The circumstances surrounding his death are still a mystery. Some believe he may have committed suicide, while others speculate that he was murdered by coal industrialists. More

1914, September 5 - The First Battle of the Marne begins during World War I, resulting in a French victory and halting the German
advance towards Paris.

1914, September 22 - The German U-boat U-9 sinks three Royal Navy cruisers of the 7th Cruiser Squadron. The cruisers  Aboukir, the Hogue and the Cressy were on patrol on the North Sea. The sinking eroded confidence in the British government and damaged the reputation of the Royal Navy, when many countries were still undecided about taking sides in the war.

1918, September 4 - About 4500 U.S. troops land at Arkhangelsk, Russia (Archangel) as part of an Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Starting at 4500 military personnel the U.S. troops, peaked to about 13000. By the time they left in late 1919, 150 U.S. soldiers had been killed in action and about 100 more died from illness or accidents. More

1918, September 29 - The Hindenburg Line is finally broken by the allied force with Australian and US troops spearheading this battle, given the task of breaking defenses in the center.  Advances were made, but it was a struggle between the two forces. The fighting lasted four days and resulted in heavy losses. More

1919, September 25 - The Paris Peace Conference officially ends World War I and establishes the League of Nations.

1923, September 1 - The powerful Kanto earthquake and the ensuing 39.5 feet tsunami kill more than 140,000 in Yokohama and Tokyo More

1928, September 15 - Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming accidently discovers penicillin leading to a breakthrough in the development of antibiotics. The following year, Fleming published his findings in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology and presented his discovery to the Medical Research Club. To his surprise, his peers showed little interest in his work. He recruited leading chemists and experts to help purify penicillin from the mold without any success. Penicillin was labelled a laboratory curiosity and Fleming gave up attempts to purify it. It wasn't until the 1940's fueled by the needs from WW2 and an unprecedented cooperation between the United States and Great Britain to produce penicillin that Penicillin became commercially available in 1943. More 

1932, September 16 - Gandhi announces a fast "unto death"  in protest of the British government's proposal to separate India's electoral system by caste which would aggravate the Indian caste and religious divisions, and in support of his goal to end the Hindu prejudice and discrimination against the untouchables. More

1938, September 29-30 - The Munich Agreement is signed by Germany, Italy, France, and the United Kingdom, allowing Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.

1939, September 1 - World War II effectively begins with Germany's invasion of Poland,

1939, September 3 - France and the United Kingdom declare war on Germany

1939, September 17 - The Soviet Union invades Poland which was already in a state of war with Nazi Germany and occupies the Eastern part of Poland. At the end of September the division of Poland was confirmed by German–Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Demarcation which included a correction of the borders first drawn in the secret clause of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact. It was the beginning of a 2-year long occupation of Central Europe by two totalitarian regimes. More

1940, September 7 - The Blitz begins as German Luftwaffe planes bomb London, marking the start of a sustained aerial bombing campaign during World War II  on British towns and cities which went on until May 1941. More

1940, September 12 - Lascaux cave paintings are accidentally discovered by four boys examining a fox hole down which their dog had fallen on the hill of Lascaux.  The boys, in awe of what they had found, told their teacher, after which the process towards excavating the cave was set in motion. By 1948 the cave was ready to be opened to the public. More

1940, September 13 - Italy invaded Egypt from their colony in Libya. Having limited success, Hitler realized that Germany would have to support the Italians and on 11 February 1941 Major-General Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps landed at Tripoli. The British won some spectacular victories over the Italians, but found the Germans a much tougher nut to crack. More

1940, September 16 - The United States instituted the the first peacetime draft in United States' history. with the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, which required all men between the ages of 21 and 45 to register for the draft. Those who were selected from the draft lottery were required to serve at least one year in the armed forces. Once the U.S. entered WWII, draft terms extended through the duration of the fighting. By the end of the war in 1945, 50 million men between eighteen and forty-five had registered for the draft and 10 million had been inducted in the military. More

1940, September 27 - Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact, forming the Axis Powers alliance one year after the start of World War II. It created a defense alliance between the countries and was in part intended to deter the United States from entering the conflict. More

Tripartite Pact, agreement concluded by Germany, Italy, and Japan on September 27, 1940, one year after the start of World War II. It created a defense alliance between the countries and was largely intended to deter the United States from entering the conflict.

1941, September 8 - The Siege of Leningrad begins as German forces surround the city, leading to a brutal and prolonged siege that lasted for nearly 900 days. More

1941, September 9 - The first aerial bombing of the United States mainland by a foreign power. Japanese pilot Nobuo Fujita catapulted aboard a seaplane from the Japanese I-25 submarine near the coast of southern Oregon and headed east on a mission to drop an incendiary (fire) bomb on the thick forest and cause a massive fire that would shock Americans and divert resources from fighting the war. Once over forested land, Fujita released the bomb, which struck leaving a crater about three feet in diameter and about one foot deep. No major fire happened due to the wet conditions of the forest. More

1942, September 3 - The Battle of Stalingrad begins as German forces launch an offensive against the city, marking a turning point in World War II as the Soviet Union successfully defends and ultimately defeats the German army.

1942, September 12 - the RMS Laconia was sunk by the U-156 German Submarine. The ship was carrying 268 British soldiers and 80 civilians, and1,800 Italian prisoners of war who were being guarded by 160 Polish soldiers. Some 1,500 of Laconia’s passengers survived. primarily due to the efforts of the U-156 and three other German submarines which participated in the initial rescue operations.  More

1942, September 21 - The initial Superfortress XB-29 prototype first flew from Boeing Field in Seattle, Washington. The powerful Wright R-3350 engines experienced chronic overheating issues during testing, leading to the crash of the second prototype just north of Boeing Field on February 18, 1943. The first war debut took place in June 5, 1944, against Bangkok, as part of the  Allied campaign to liberate Burma from Japanese hands. More

1943, September 3 - Italy secretly signs an armistice with the Allies, effectively surrendering in World War II and leading to the collapse of Fascist rule in Italy. No public announcement was made until September 8. More

1943, September 3 - Montgomery’s 8th Army crosses the Strait of Messina from Sicily and lands at Calabria, beginning the invasion of the Italian mainland.

1943, September 9 - The Allied Fifth Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, USA, lands on Salerno, Italy, transported by the Western Naval Task Force, TF 80, commanded by Vice Admiral H. Kent Hewitt, USN.

1944, September 15 - Operation Stalemate II, The Battle of Peleliu: The 1st Marine Division lands on “White” and “Orange” beaches on the western side of the Island of Peleliu, three days after the Island underwent a heavy naval and air bombardment by the Third Fleet forces. Once ashore, the landing forces quickly realized that the pre-invasion bombardment had not been particularly effective. The cost of taking the island, was high.  On Peleliu, Marine casualties were 1,336 killed and 5,450 wounded while the 81st Infantry Division suffered 1,393 casualties including 208 killed in action. On Angaur, the 81st Infantry Division had 1,676 casualties, including 196 killed in action.  The Japanese lost an estimated 10,695 men, with an additional 301 taken as prisoners of war.

1944, September 17 - Operation Market Garden, a major Allied airborne operation, commences in the Netherlands with the goal of securing key bridges and opening a path into Germany. The operation ultimately falls short of its objectives.

1945, September 2 - Japan formally surrenders aboard the USS Missouri, marking the end of World War II and bringing about the official cessation of hostilities in the Pacific theater.

1945, September 2 - Ho Chi Minh, the Vietnamese Communist leader —seizes an opportunity to escape decades of French rule and declares Vietnam independence on the same day Japan surrenders to the Allies. In a deliberate appeal for American support, he opened his speech with the words: “All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among them are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness." The U.S did not support the Vietnamese struggle and instead adopted a neutral policy when on the same year, France went to war to recolonize Vietnam and in 1950, President Harry S. Truman authorized financial and military assistance to the French. All leading to the eventual U.S military involvement.
Vietnam's official estimate of war dead is as many as 2 million civilians on both sides and some 1.1 million North Vietnamese and Viet Cong fighters. The U.S. military has estimated that between 200,000 and 250,000 South Vietnamese soldiers died in the war. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. is inscribed with the names of 58,200 members of U.S. armed forces who had died or were missing as a result of the war including at least 100 names of servicemen who were actually Canadian citizens. Other countries that fought for South Vietnam on a smaller scale also suffered soldiers deaths; South Korea more than 4,000 dead, Thailand about 350, Australia more than 500, and New Zealand 37 deaths. These deaths, were in addition to the estimated 50,000 French losses during the first Indochina war. More

1945, September 2 - Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. More

1945, September 22 - General Patton declares during a Press interview ,that he had “never seen the necessity of the denazification program,” asserting that 98 per cent of the Nazis were just camp followers. In October 1945 he was relieved of his duties by the Allied High Command and recalled to the US.

1946, September 30th - The International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg delivers its verdicts, with several high-ranking Nazi officials found guilty of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other atrocities committed during World War II.

1947, September 2nd - The Partition of India takes effect, leading to the creation of the independent nations of India and Pakistan and resulting in widespread violence and mass migrations.

1948, September 17th - The Organization of American States (OAS) is founded in Bogota, Colombia, with the goal of promoting democracy, peace, and cooperation among the countries of the Americas.

1948, September 17 - The Nuremberg Trials of Nazi war criminals begin in Nuremberg, Germany.

1949, September 21st - The People's Republic of China is proclaimed by Chairman Mao Zedong, marking the establishment of a communist government in China.

1949. September 23 - US President Truman announces that the Soviet Union had tested a nuclear device several weeks earlier. The White House did not explain how the United States had detected the test, which had occurred on 29 August 1949 at Semipalatinsk, in northeastern Kazakhstan. More

1950, September 15 - On September 15, 1950, the soldiers, sailors, and Marines of X Corps landed at Inchon. Even though the Inchon plans had been leaked in U.S. media and throughout Japan, North Korea was unprepared for the landing. More

1952, September 2 - The Old Man and the Sea, written by Ernest Hemingway, is published and later wins the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.

1954, September 24 - The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is established, aimed at preventing the spread of communism in the region.

1955, September 19 - Argentina's President Peron is deposed after a revolt by the army and navy. He had ben reelected to his second term by a wide margin in 1952. He left Argentina and lived in exile and returned to Argentina in 1973 and was soon elected President for a third time More

1955, September 23 - The television series "The Mickey Mouse Club" premieres on American television, becoming an iconic part of
popular culture.

1957, September 4 - When integration began on September 4, 1957, the Arkansas National Guard was called in to "preserve the peace". Originally at orders of the governor, they were meant to prevent the black students from entering due to claims that there was "imminent danger of tumult, riot and breach of peace" However, President Eisenhower issued Executive Order 10730, which federalized the Arkansas National Guard and ordered them to support the integration on September 23 of that year, after which they protected the African American students. More

1957, September 19 - The US Military conducts the first-ever underground nuclear explosion as part of Operation Plumbbob. The test took place in Nevada. More

1959, September 14 - The Soviet spacecraft Luna 2 reaches the moon and crashes on its surface, making it the first spacecraft to contact another solar system body. More

1960, September 18 - Fidel Castro arrives in New York to address the UN General Assembly. His brief trip put the Cuban leader on the world stage. Days after his return to Cuba, the US imposed a trade embargo that would last more than half a century. Diplomatic relations with the island were severed in January 1961. More 

1960, September 22 - Mali Independence Day from France

1960, September 26 - The first-ever televised U.S. presidential debate takes place between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon.

1963, September 15 - The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, is bombed by white supremacists, resulting in the deaths of four young African-American girls.

1964, September 21 - Malta Independence Day from the U.K.

1966, September 30 -  Botswana Independence day from the UK (Effective date of the Botswana Independence Act 1966)

1968, September 6 - Eswatini Independence day from the UK

1969, September 1 - Libya's King Idris is removed from power in a coup d'état led by Muammar Qaddafi and the Free Patriotic Officers Movement Qaddafi remain in control of Libya October 20, 2011 when he was also deposed in a violent coup inspired by the Arab Spring protests.

1969, September 2 - The first ATM in the U.S goes live at one of Chemical Bank’s New York branches.. The bank was concerned that people would reject the idea of a cash machine that handled their money and saw such an expense as a big risk. However, the public quickly accepted the new machines and people were even willing to pay a small fee to use them. More

1970, September 1st - The deadliest hurricane of the 20th century, Hurricane Celia, makes landfall in Texas, causing widespread destruction and resulting in 11 deaths.

1970, September 21 - Oman gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1972, September 5th - The Palestinian terrorist group Black September attacks the Israeli Olympic team at the Munich Summer Olympics, resulting in the deaths of 11 Israeli athletes and coaches.

1973, September 11th - A military coup takes place in Chile, led by General Augusto Pinochet, overthrowing democratically elected socialist President Salvador Allende. This event marks the beginning of a brutal military dictatorship that would last for nearly 17 years during which over 2,300 people were killed, more than 30,000 tortured, and sent tens of thousands into exile. Reportedly, President Allende shot himself to death as troops stormed the burning palace. Many declassified documents have been released over the years which point to U.S involvement in Chile's Coup, while many other documents potentially central to understanding the exact role of the U.S. in Chile, during the 1960s and 1970s remain classified.

1973,  September 24 - Guinea-Bissau Independence day from Portugal.

1974, September 8th - President Gerald Ford grants a full pardon to former President Richard Nixon “a full, free, and absolute pardon ... for all offenses against the United States which he, Richard Nixon, has committed or may have committed or taken part in” while in office.“

1975, September 15 - Elizabeth Ann Seton is canonized (officially made a saint), by Pope Paul VI becoming the first native-born saint of the United States. More

1975, September 16 Papua New Guinea Independence Day from Australia

1975, September 30th - The Indonesian province of East Timor declares its independence from Portugal, leading to an Indonesian invasion and subsequent occupation that lasted until 1999.

1976, September 9 - Mao Zedong dies in Beijing at age 82. Mao's CCP-flag-draped body lay in state at the Great Hall of the People for one week where an estimated one million people, including diplomatic envoys, leaders of foreign communist parties, and foreign nationals in China paid their final respects. A three-minute moment of silence was observed in honor of the leader at the start of the 30-minute public funeral in Tiananmen Square, with reports that nearly all of China’s 800 million residents stood in silent tribute. 

September 17 - NASA Space Shuttle Enterprise Makes its Public Debut. More

1976, September 22nd - Former Argentine President Juan Perón returns to Argentina after 18 years of exile, reclaiming the presidency later that same year.

1977, September 7 - The Panama Canal Treaty is signed, stating that the Panama Canal Zone would cease to exist on the first of October, 1979, and the Canal itself would be turned over to the Panamanians at the end of 1999. A companion treaty stated that the U.S. could use its military to defend the Panama Canal against any threat to its neutrality. It took more than six months before the Senate voted. More

1977, September 15th - The Voyager 1 spacecraft is launched by NASA to explore the outer solar system. It would later become the first human-made object to reach interstellar space.

1978, September 17th - The Camp David Accords are signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, leading to a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.

1978, September 25 - A Boeing 727-214 airliner, operated by Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) as Flight 182, collides with a Cessna 172 during the landing approach at Lindbergh Field (SAN), today known as San Diego International Airport and crashes into a residential neighborhood. All 135 persons aboard the 727, both persons on the Cessna, and seven persons on the ground were killed. Another nine persons on the ground were injured. Twenty-two homes in a four-block area were destroyed or damaged. More

1979, September 7th - The Soviet Union launches the space probe Venera 12, which successfully lands on Venus and transmits data back to Earth.

1980, September 22nd - Iraq invades western Iran along the countries join border, initiating the Iran-Iraq War, which lasted for eight years and resulted in significant loss of life and economic damage.  More

1981, September 21 -  Belize Independence day from the UK (Effective day of the Belize Act 1981)

1981, September 4th - The Solidarity movement in Poland is officially recognized by the government after a wave of strikes and protests, marking a significant step in the fight for workers' rights and democracy.

1981, September 19 - Saint Kitts and Nevis Independence Day from the UK

1982, September 14th - The massacre of Sabra and Shatila takes place in Beirut, Lebanon, where Lebanese Christian militia, under the supervision of Israeli forces, kill hundreds to thousands of Palestinian refugees.

1983, September 1st - Korean Air Flight 007 is shot down by Soviet Union forces after it strays into Soviet airspace, resulting in the deaths of all 269 passengers and crew on board. More

1984, September 20th - The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) carries out a bombing in Brighton, England, targeting the Conservative Party conference. Although Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher survives, five people are killed in the attack.

1985, September 19th - An 8.1 magnitude earthquake strikes Mexico City, causing widespread devastation and resulting in the deaths of 10,000 people, 30,000 injured and thousands left homeless. More

1986, September 26th - The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act is passed by the United States Congress, imposing economic sanctions against South Africa in protest against its apartheid policies.

1987, September 24th - The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is signed, aiming to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of ozone-depleting substances.

1988, September 5th - The ceasefire in the Iran-Iraq War is declared, ending eight years of conflict and marking the end of one of the longest and deadliest wars of the 20th century.

1989, September 11th - Hungary opens its border with Austria, allowing thousands of East German refugees to flee to the West. This event contributed to the eventual fall of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of Germany.

1987, September 11 - The "Star Trek: The Next Generation" television series premieres, becoming a highly successful continuation of the Star Trek franchise.

1991, September 1 - Uzbekistan Independence Day from the Soviet Union

1991, September 8 - North Macedonia Independence Day from Yugoslavia

1991, September 9 -Tajikistan Independence Day from the Soviet Union

1991, September 21 - Armenia Independence Day from the Soviet Union. (1991 Armenian independence referendum)

1991, September 27 - Turkmenistan Independence Day from the Soviet Union

1993, September 13 - The Oslo Accords are signed between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), aiming to establish peace in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Negotiator Mahmoud Abbas signed a Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements at the White House. Israel accepted the PLO as the representative of the Palestinians, and the PLO renounced terrorism and recognized Israel’s right to exist in peace. More

1994, September 28 - The Passenger ferry, Estonia, sinks resulting in 852 lives lost. The official disaster report, published in 1997, said the fatal event started when the locks on the ferry’s bow door failed from the strain of the waves. Conspiracy theories questioning the official report pointed to an explosion onboard the ferry or a collision with an unidentified submarine. A new official investigation of the MS Estonia wreck was launched in the wake of the Swedish documentary, “Estonia: The Discovery that Changes Everything”, which premiered in 2020 and showed that the sunken cruise ferry had a large wide hole in the hull.  More

1995, September 19 -  The New York Times and The Washington Post publish the 35,000-word manifesto of Unabomber Ted Kaczynski, which called for revolution against a corrupt industrial-technological society and was instrumental in identifying and capturing him. Kaczynski entered Harvard University when he was 16-year-old on a scholarship, after skipping the sixth and 11th grades. During Kaczynski’s sophomore year at Harvard, in 1959, he was recruited for a psychological experiment that, unbeknownst to him, would last three years. The Washington Post and others have reported that the experiment run by Harvard psychologist Henry A. Murray was backed by the Central Intelligence Agency. More 

1997, September 6 - The funeral of Princess Diana takes place in London, with millions of people around the world watching the event on television.

1999, September 21 - An earthquake of  7.6 magnitude on the Richter scale occurs in Taiwan The death toll from Taiwan's devastating earthquake was 2,375 . I caused billions of dollars in damages and left an estimated 100,000 homeless.. More

2000, September 28th - The second Intifada, a period of intensified Israeli-Palestinian conflict, begins with the visit of Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, sparking protests and escalating violence in the region.

2001, September 11th - The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. take place, resulting in the loss of nearly 3,000 people in those cataclysmic hours, and significant damage to infrastructure.

2001, September 20th - The War in Afghanistan begins when the United States, supported by its allies, launches military operations against the Taliban regime in response to the 9/11 attacks.

2004, September 1st - The Beslan school siege begins in North Ossetia, Russia. A group of armed militants takes over a school, resulting in a prolonged hostage crisis and the tragic deaths of more than 330 people, including many children.

2005, September 2nd - Hurricane Katrina makes landfall in the United States, primarily affecting the Gulf Coast region. The hurricane causes widespread destruction and flooding, resulting in the loss of thousands of lives and significant damage to property.

2008, September 15th - Lehman Brothers, one of the largest investment banks in the world, files for bankruptcy, marking the beginning of the global financial crisis that would have far-reaching effects on the global economy.

2004, September 13th - The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine, establishing a framework for collective action to prevent genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity.

2007, September 13 - The United Nations adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples; setting a global standard for the treatment of Indigenous Peoples.  While the Declaration is not legally binding, it is a vital step in securing Indigenous rights worldwide. It has since been ratified by 143 countries. More
2007, September 26th - Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) experiences widespread protests led by Buddhist monks and activists, known as the Saffron Revolution, demanding democratic reforms and an end to military rule.

2008, September 29th - The stock market experiences a significant drop as the Dow Jones Industrial Average falls 777.68 points, the largest single-day point decline at that time, reflecting the deepening financial crisis and concerns over the global economy.

2009, September 1st - The Eurozone officially enters a recession, as confirmed by the European Union's statistical agency Eurostat, following the global financial crisis that began in 2008.

2009, September 11th - The 9/11 Memorial Museum opens to the public in New York City, commemorating the victims of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and preserving the history and memory of the tragic event.

2009, September 23rd - The military junta in Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) releases pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest after almost 15 years of confinement, allowing her to participate in political activities once again.

2009, September 25th - The King of Pop, Michael Jackson, passes away at the age of 50, leaving a lasting legacy as one of the most influential musicians in history.

2009, September 29th - NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) successfully impact the Moon's surface as part of a mission to search for water ice in the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar poles.

2009, September 29th - The H1N1 influenza virus, also known as the swine flu, is declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The virus spreads rapidly worldwide, resulting in widespread illness and increased public health measures.

2010, September 4 - The 2010 Canterbury earthquake strikes Christchurch, New Zealand.

2010, September 8 - A massive pipeline explosion in San Bruno, California.

2011,  September 17 - The Occupy Wall Street movement begins in New York City.

2011, September 20th - The "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy is officially repealed.

2011, September 11 - The U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi, Libya, is attacked.

2012, September 14 - Protests erupt in various countries in response to an anti-Islamic video.

2012, September 25 - World leaders adopt the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development at the United Nations.

2013, September 14th - A terrorist attack occurs at the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya.

2014, September 20 - The Colombian government and FARC sign a peace agreement.

2014, September 18 - Scotland holds a referendum on independence from the United Kingdom.

2015, September 25 - Hurricane Maria devastates Puerto Rico.

2015, September 30 - The U.S., Canada, and Mexico agree to the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).

2016, September 28 - The International Criminal Court convicts Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi.

2017, September 19 - A powerful earthquake strikes Mexico.

2017, September 20 - Hurricane Maria devastates Puerto Rico.

2018, September 29 - Indonesia is struck by a massive earthquake and tsunami.

2018, September 30 - The U.S., Canada, and Mexico agree to the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).

2019. September 20 - Millions participate in a Global Climate Strike, led by Greta Thunberg.

2019, September 23 - Greta Thunberg delivers a speech at the United Nations Climate Action Summit. 

Online History Resources

These are some of the many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of August, listed by year. Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate.

63 BCE, August - The Roman general Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) captures Jerusalem, bringing it under Roman control.

29 BCE, August - Octavian (later known as Augustus) celebrates three days of triumph in Rome, marking the end of the Final War of the Roman Republic.

79, August 24 - Vesuvius, an active volcano in southern Italy, erupted and destroyed the cities of Pompeii, Stabiae, Oplontis and Herculaneum and several other settlements. Although exact toll is unknown, more than 1,000 people are thought to have died in the eruption. The eruption ejected a cloud of stones, ashes and volcanic gases to a height of 21 miles (33 km). Vesuvius is the only volcano on Europe's mainland to have erupted in the last hundred years. It is regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because 3 Million people live near enough to be affected by an eruption, with at least 600,000 in the danger zone.

325, August 25 - The First Council of Nicaea ends. The Council was a meeting of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I. It was specifically called to make a decision about Arianism—the belief that God created Jesus, and that Jesus was not eternal or one with God. Arianism was growing in popularity, even among church leaders threatening to tear the church apart. More

410, August 24 - The Visigoths, led by King Alaric, sack the city of Rome, marking the first time in almost 800 years that the city falls to an enemy force.

1057, August 15 - Malcolm Canmore slains King Macbeth of Scotland at the Battle of Lumphananand. His father, King Duncan I, had been murdered by Macbeth 17 years earlier. Following the battle  Macbeth's stepson, Lulach, was crowned King, before being killed by Malcolm who then recovered the Scottish throne as Malcolm III.  All the kings of Scotland since Malcolm himself and all the kings of England since the accession of Henry II descend from Malcolm and his English wife Margaret, the grandchild of Edmund Ironside.  More

1204, August 1 - The Fourth Crusade concludes with the sack of Constantinople, leading to the division and weakening of the Byzantine Empire.

1209, August 15 - The Massacre at Béziers takes place during the Albigensian Crusade, where the Catholic Crusaders sack the city of Béziers in southern France.

1214, August 24 - The Battle of Bouvines occurs during the Fourth Crusade, where the forces of Philip II of France defeat an alliance of European powers led by Emperor Otto IV.

1227, August 15 - 31  - Genghis Khan, (actually named Borjigin Temujin), the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, dies in Mongolia some time in late August. 1227. At the time of his death, the Mongol Empire was 2.5 times larger by territory than the Roman Empire. A study published in 2003 in The American Journal of Human Genetics suggested that Genghis Khan DNA can be found in one in 200 men today. The cause of his death is shrouded in mystery and it is now believed that it was caused by the bubonic plague.

1248, August 15 - The Seventh Crusade, led by King Louis IX of France, reaches Egypt and begins the siege of Damietta.

1258, August 29 - The Mongol Empire, under the leadership of Hulagu Khan, captures and sacks the city of Baghdad, leading to the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate.

1261, August 15 - The Byzantine Empire recaptures the city of Constantinople from the Latin Empire, marking the end of the Fourth Crusade.

1270, August 25 - The Eighth Crusade, led by King Louis IX of France, departs from Aigues-Mortes, France, with the goal of conquering Tunis.

1281, August 15 - The Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty of China successfully repels a second invasion attempt by the Japanese forces in the Battle of Kōan.

1291, August 1 - Swiss National Day - Alliance against the Holy Roman Empire in 1291.

1291, August 20 - The Siege of Acre ends, resulting in the fall of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the complete expulsion of European Christian forces from the Holy Land.

1305, August 7 - William Wallace, Scottish leader of the resistance against English rule, is captured by English forces near Glasgow.

1314, August 23-24 - The Battle of Bannockburn takes place, where Scottish forces led by Robert the Bruce defeat the English army, securing Scottish independence.

1346, August 26 - The Battle of Crécy occurs during the Hundred Years' War, where the
English army, led by Edward III, defeats the French forces.

1350, August 14 - The St. Mary Magdalene's flood devastates the Netherlands, England, and
Germany, causing significant loss of life and destruction.

1396, August 17 - The Battle of Nicopolis takes place, marking the final major crusade of the Middle Ages and resulting in a victory for the Ottoman Empire over an alliance of European forces.

1485, August 22 - The Battle of Bosworth Field. The last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England. The battle was won by an alliance of Lancastrians and disaffected Yorkists. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory and subsequent marriage to a Yorkist princess. His opponent Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed during the battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field battle one of the defining moments of English history.

1492, August 3 - Christopher Columbus sets sail from Palos de la Frontera, Spain, with three ships, Niña, Pinta and Santa Maria. Searching for a westerly route to the Far East. Instead, on October 12th, he lands in the Bahamas, thinking it was an outlying Japanese island.

1498, August 1 - Explorer Christopher Columbus lands on South America at the Paria Peninsula in present-day Venezuela. He Thinking it was an island, he claims it for Spain and christened it "Isla Santa". 

1521, August 13 - Spanish conquistador Hernándo Cortés succeeds in bringing about the fall of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire after over two months of fighting. Cortes' conquests began with Cuba in 1511, Mexico’s Bay of Campeche in 1519, and then deeper into Mexico.

1572, August 24 - Thousands of Protestant Huguenots are massacred in France by Catholics, in what became known as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.

1583, August 5 - Sir Humphrey Gilbert, a British navigator and explorer takes possession of the area around St. John’s harbor, Newfoundland in the name of the Queen. He was later lost at sea in a storm off the Azores on his return trip to England.

1619, August 20 -  First enslaved Africans arrive in Virginia; Two English pirate ships, the Treasurer and White Lion. each carrying 20-30 African slaves land in the Jamestown colony within four days of each other. The slaves had been taken from a Portuguese slave ship, the San Juan Bautista, carrying 350 African slaves in route to Veracruz, Mexico.
Virginia’s first enslaved people spoke Bantu languages, and their homelands were the kingdoms of Ndongo and Kongo. They are the first recorded Africans to arrive in England's mainland American colonies. marking the beginning of what evolved into a legalized system of slavery that lasted two and a half centuries. More

1753, August 4 - George Washington becomes a Master Mason n his hometown of Fredericksburg, Virginia. He was twenty one years old. More

1776, August 2 - Most of the 55 members of the Continental Congress signed the parchment copy of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia.

1782, August 7 -  General George Washington announces the Badge of Military Merit. The Badge was designed by Washington in the form of a purple heart, it was intended as a military order for soldiers who exhibited, "not only instances of unusual gallantry in battle, but also extraordinary fidelity and essential service in any way". It is believed that only three people received the Badge of Military Merit during the American Revolutionary War, In 1932, the United States War Department  authorized the new Purple Heart Medal ,officially considered the "successor decoration" to the Badge of Military Merit. 

1784, August 14 - Russians led by Grigorii Shelikhov established the first permanent Russian outpost in Alaska on Kodiak Island at Three Saints Bay. More 

1789, August 26 - The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen is adopted in France, laying the groundwork for the French

1791, August 19 - Benjamin Banneker, the son of a free Black American woman and a formerly enslaved African man from Guinea, writes a letter to Thomas Jefferson, then-Secretary of State. On the letter, Banneker criticizes Jefferson’s hypocritical stance on slavery in respectful but unambiguous terms, using Jefferson’s own words to make his case for the abolition of slavery. Jefferson brief  response thanked him for the letter, expressed his ambivalence about slavery ("…no body [sic] wishes more sincerely than I do to see such proofs as you exhibit in your letter, that nature has given to our black brethren, talents equal to those of the other colours of men") and endorsed Banneker’s accomplishments. More 

1792, August 10 - Louis XVI of France and his wife, Marie-Antoinette are imprisoned and the French monarchy is effectively overthrown, as the French Revolution (1787–99) continues. They were both executed by guillotine in 1793.

1792, August 29 - In one of the worst maritime disasters, 900 men drowned on the British battleship Royal George. A gust of wind allowed water to flood into open gun ports as the ship was being repaired. The ship sank within minutes.

1794, August 26 - President George Washington leads a militia force of 12,950 men towards Western Pennsylvania to subdue the Whiskey Rebellion, warning locals "not to abet, aid, or comfort the Insurgents aforesaid, as they will answer the contrary at their peril." More

1809, August 10 - Ecuador Independence Day - Celebration of the first Ecuadorian patriot uprising against Spanish rule and original proclamation of independence. The movement failed and the leaders of the movement were executed. On 1822 Ecuador won independence from Spain as part of the confederation of Gran Colombia on the decisive Battle of Pichincha. The confederation of Gran Colombia was comprised of what is now the countries of Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela. On May 13, 1830, Ecuador seceded and became a separate independent republic.

1814, August 24 - British forces capture Washington, D.C., during the War of 1812 and burn down the White House, the Capitol, and other public buildings along with a number of private homes. The burning was in retaliation for the earlier American burning of York (Toronto).

1821, August 10 - Missouri is admitted into the Union becoming the 24th State

1821, August 24 - Spain recognizes Mexico independence with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba, Spain finally recognized the independence of the First Mexican Empire. More

1825, August 6 - Bolivia declaration of Independence.

1825, August 25 - Uruguay Independence day from the Empire of Brazil. Declaration of independence and union with the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.

1833, August 28 - Slavery is abolished throughout the British Empire, including in the British colonies of the Caribbean and North America.

1838, Slavery is abolished in Jamaica where it had been introduced in 1509.

1844. August 8 - Brigham Young is chosen to lead the Mormon Church. More

1876, August 1 -  Colorado is admitted into the Union and becomes the 38th State

1856, August 23 - Eunice Newton Foote makes first public scientific mention of the upcoming "Greenhouse effect". Her paper , titled “Circumstances Affecting the Heat of the Sun’s Rays,” was presented at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Foote' s short paper included a prescient conclusion; “An atmosphere of that gas (Carbon Dioxide) would give to our earth a high temperature,” describing the phenomenon we now call the greenhouse effect, the main cause of climate change. More

1858, August 16 - The first successful transatlantic telegraph line is completed. Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom sends a telegraph  to U.S. President James Buchanan. Near-instantaneous communication between Europe and North America. Become a reality.  

1861, August 5 - The Revenue Act is signed by President Lincoln imposing the first federal income tax. The action was prompted by the financial requirements of the Civil War. At first, Congress placed a flat 3-percent tax on all incomes over $800,and later modified this principle to include a graduated tax. Congress repealed Lincoln’s tax law in 1871, but in 1909 passed the 16th Amendment, which set in place the federal income-tax system used today. Congress ratified the 16th Amendment in 1913. More

1862, August 22 - Abraham Lincoln replies to Horace Greeley's New York Tribune editorial entitled “The Prayer of Twenty Millions". More

1864, August 5 - Battle of Mobile Bay -- Admiral David G. Farragut, leads a fleet of fourteen wooden ships and four ironclads and delivers a much needed victory for the Union and immortalizes the phase "Damn the torpedoes! - Full speed ahead!” Farragut became the first U.S. Navy’s full admiral. At the time of his death in 1870, he had served a total of 59 years in uniform. More

1864, August 22 - The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), created in 1863 comes into being as the draft convention submitted to the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick of Armies in the Field, conference is adopted by 12 nations at meeting.  "The ICRC is an independent, neutral organization ensuring humanitarian protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and other situations of violence." More

1866, August 20 - President Johnson issued a proclamation announcing the end of the American Civil War: "And I do further proclaim that the said insurrection is at an end and that peace, order, tranquility, and civil authority now exists in and throughout the whole of the United States of America." The proclamation  officially closed a costly, bloody, and deadly chapter in its nation's history that started at Fort Sumter several years and incurred the loss of 620,000 Union and Confederate soldiers. More 

1873, August 24, Mount of the Holy Cross was first photographed by William Henry Jackson. Stories had circulated for years of a mountain with a large cross etched in its side. Jackson climbed the western slope of the Rocky Mountains with more than 100 pounds of photography equipment and capture his most famous photograph. He later painted the iconic image in watercolor.

1879, August 28 - Zulu King Cetshwayo, the last king of the independent Zulu nation was captured by the British during the Zulu war and taken into custody. Two years later he was allowed to travel to London and met Queen Victoria. He was permitted to return to South Africa to rule a portion of the former Zulu kingdom in 1883. More

1883,  August 26 - One of the most catastrophic volcanic eruptions in recorded history takes place on the Indonesian island of Krakatoa (Krakatau). The first eruption sends a cloud of gas and debris into the air and it is followed by increasingly powerful explosions culminating in a gigantic blast around 10 am on August 27, sending ash and debris 50 miles into the air blanketing 300,000 square miles (800,000 square kilometers) and plunging the area into darkness for two and a half days. The explosions were heard 2,000 miles away. Tidal waves 120 ft. high killed 36,000 persons on nearby islands, while five cubic miles of earth were blasted into the air up to a height of 50 miles. More

1890, August 6 -  New York executed William Kemmler. It was the first time ever a state used the electric chair to carry out an execution. States have carried out 158 executions by electric chair since 1973. Tennessee was the most recent state to use the electric chair, taking place in 2020.

1896, August 16 - Gold was discovered in Rabbit Creek, a tributary of the Klondike River in Alaska, resulting in the Great Klondike
Gold Rush.

1898, August 12 - A cease-fire agreement to stop the hostilities in the Spanish - American War was signed. Spain formally agreed to to the cession of Cuba, Puerto Rico and Manila in the Philippines to the United States pending a final peace treaty. The war officially ended four months later, when the U.S. and Spanish governments signed the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. More

1911, August 20 - A telegram reading “This message sent around the world” is sent by the New York Times to test how fast a commercial message could be sent around the world.  it traveled over 28,000 miles and was relayed by 16 different operators. It arrived back at The Times only 16.5 minutes later. The building where the message originated is now called One Times Square and is best known for where the ball drops on New Year’s Eve.

1911, August 21 - Theft of the Mona Lisa: The Mona Lisa becomes the world's most famous missing painting. It was returned two years later. More

1914, August 1 - World War I starts. Germany declares war on Russia on August 1 and on France on August 3. Austria-Hungary, with German encouragement, had declared war on Serbia on 28 July. Russia's support of Serbia brought France into the conflict.  Germany's violation of Belgian neutrality and British fears of German domination in Europe brought Britain and its empire into the war on 4 August. More

1914, August 4 - President Woodrow Wilson declared U.S. neutrality as World War erupts .  The conflict eventually became a matter of principles: whether to uphold the freedom of the seas, to make the world safe for democracy in the face of autocracy, or to establish a new world order ensuring permanent peace and governed by rational law. The United States declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917. More 

1914, August 5 -  The first electric traffic signal is installed in Cleveland, Ohio at the corner of East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue. It was shaped like a birdhouse and had just green and red lights, with a buzzer that indicated when the light was about to change. A police officer named Lester Wire came up with the idea that revolutionized traffic engineering. He later sold the patent to General Electric. In 1923, inventor Garrett Morgan patented the three-position traffic signal, which is where we get today’s yellow light. More

1914, August 15 - The Panama Canal had its inaugural passage when the U.S. vessel  SS Ancon, passed through its gates and is opened to traffic, In the 1880s, the French  attempted to build the canal to connect the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. the project  was halted because of poor planning, a breakout of disease among the crew, and financial problems that drove the contractor’s company to bankruptcy in 1889. More

1914, August 15 - Japan issues an ultimatum to Germany demanding the withdraw of its warships from Chinese and Japanese waters and to hand over Tsingtao. This was refused and on  August 23, 1914 Japan declared war on Germany.  More

1914, August 26 - The WW1 Battle of Tannenberg between the Germans and the Russians begins. The German forces, led by Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, handed Russia a crushing defeat. More

1916, August  - 27 Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary. and enters WW1 on the side of the Allies. The decision was motivated primarily by the desire to claim the region of Transylvania and its majority ethnic Romanian population from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

1918, August 30 - Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin is shot by Fanya Kaplan, a member of the Social Revolutionary party. Lenin was seriously wounded but survived the attack which was the third assassination attempt on his life. More

1919, August 11 - Germany's Weimar constitution was passed by the National Assembly. The design of a new Democratic constitution began in late 1918, following the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II and the collapse of the monarchy. The Weimar Republic, Germany's 12-year experiment with democracy, came to an end 12 years later when the Nazis came to power in January 1933 and established a dictatorship. More

1919, August 19 - Afghan Independence Day (Afghan Victory Day) It commemorates the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919

1920, August 18 - 1920 - The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, granting women the right to vote. More

1923, August 2 -  President Warren G. Harding died suddenly in San Francisco while on a Western speaking tour. He was succeeded the next day by Calvin Coolidge.

1926, August 6 - Gertrude Ederle becomes first woman to swim English Channel. She swam across the Channel in 14 hours and 34 minutes, beating the men's record by two hours. More

1934, August 2 - Adolf Hitler becomes absolute dictator of Germany under the title of Fuhrer, or “Leader after German President Paul von Hindenburg death. More

1934, August 11 - The first batch of 137 prisoners arrives at Alcatraz, arriving by railroad from the United States Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas, to Santa Venetia, California. In 1850, a presidential order set aside the island for possible use as a United States military reservation. and the U.S. Army had used the island for more than 80 years. In 1933, the island was transferred to the U.S. Department of Justice for use by the Federal Bureau of Prisons to open a maximum-security, minimum-privilege penitentiary to deal with the most incorrigible inmates in Federal prisons. More

1934, August 19 -  Hitler becomes President of Germany; 89.9 percent of German voters approved granting Chancellor Adolf Hitler additional powers, including the office of president.

1935. August 14 - President Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act to provide for the general welfare by establishing a system of Federal old-age benefits, and by enabling the several States to make more adequate provision for aged persons, blind persons, dependent and crippled children, maternal and child welfare, public health, and the administration of their unemployment compensation laws; to establish a Social Security Board; to raise revenue; and for other purposes.

1936, August 1 - Hitler declares the Berlin Olympics, the eleventh Olympiad of the modern era, to be open.

1939, August 2 - Albert Einstein writes a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt regarding the possibility of atomic weapons. Six years later, on August 6, 1945, the first Atomic Bomb, developed by the U.S., was dropped on the Japanese port of Hiroshima.

1941, August 12 - FDR and Churchill meet for the first time as leaders of their respective nations on board naval vessels anchored in Placentia Bay, off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada. The document released as a result of the meeting is referred to as "The Atlantic Charter." It was not an official document, but rather a joint statement expressing the war aims of the two countries--one technically neutral and the other at war.  More

1942, August 4 - The United States signed the Mexican Farm Labor Agreement with Mexico. An executive order called the Mexican Farm Labor Program established the Bracero Program. This series of diplomatic accords between Mexico and the United States permitted millions of Mexican men to work legally in the United States on short-term labor contracts. The Bracero Program ended  on December 31, 1964. More

1942, August 7 - American forces land on the Solomon Islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida. on the morning of August 7,1942. After some fierce fighting, the US Marines cleared Tulagi and Florida by August 9. The main forces on Guadalcanal met little resistance on their way inland to secure the airfield at Lunga Point,  Almost immediately, however, Japanese naval aircraft attacked transport and escort ships, and Japanese reinforcements arrived in the area. More

1942, August 19-25 - The Dieppe Raid, an Allied amphibious assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France, ends in a heavy defeat and high casualties.

1943, August 1 - A race riot takes place in Harlem, New York City, lasting two days, after a white police officer, James Collins, shot and wounded Robert Bandy, an African American soldier; and rumors circulated that the soldier had been killed.

1943, August 17 - During World War II in Europe, the Allies completed the conquest of the island of Sicily after 38 days.

1944, August 1 - The Warsaw Uprising starts. The Polish Home Army), a non-Communist underground resistance movement, led by Polish General Tadeusz Bor-Komorowski, takes action to liberate the city from the German occupation and reclaim Polish independence, encouraged by the appearance of the Soviet Red Army along the east bank of the Vistula River. and the perceived weakness of the German military. However the Red army made no efforts to aid the rebels in Warsaw and by October 2, 1944, the Germans had suppressed the uprising, deporting civilians to concentration and forced-labor camps and reducing Warsaw to ruins. After the Germans eventually left, the Red Army came into Warsaw and established a Communist regime. More

1944, August 23 - Romania King Michael announces that Romania had unilaterally ceased all military actions against the Allies, accepted the Allied armistice offer and joined the war against the Axis powers. As no formal armistice offer had been extended yet, the Red Army occupied most of Romania as enemy territory prior to the signing of the Moscow Armistice of September 12, 1944.

1944, August 25 - The four-year Nazi occupation of Paris comes to an end. French infantry assaulted German general Choltitz’s headquarters in the early afternoon, taking the garrison commander prisoner. His captors took Choltitz to French General Leclerc where the men signed a formal surrender document and Paris was finally liberated. German general Dietrich von Choltitz had spared Paris from the destruction ordered by Hitler. More

1945, August 6 - The United States drops an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The bomb dropped by the American B-29 bomber Enola Gay, detonated about 1,800 ft. above ground, killing over 105,000 persons and destroying the city. Another estimated 100,000 persons later died as a result of radiation effects.

1945, August 8 - Soviet Russia declared war on Japan and sent troops into Japanese-held Manchuria.

1945, August 9 - The United States drops an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Nagasaki. An American B-29 bomber headed for the city of Kokura, but because of poor visibility then chose a secondary target, Nagasaki. The bomb detonated killing an estimated 70,000 persons and destroying about half the city.

1945, August 14 - Believing that continuation of the war would only result in further loss of Japanese lives, delegates of Emperor Hirohito accepted Allied surrender terms originally issued at Potsdam on July 26, 1945, with the exception that the Japanese Emperor's sovereignty would be maintained. The formal surrender ceremony occurred later, on September 2, 1945, on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.

1945, August 15 - South Korea and North Korea celebrate this day as their National Liberation Day as the Korean peninsula was freed from Japanese rule.

1945, August 17 - Proclamation of Indonesian Independ e from the Empire of Japan and the Netherlands.

1947, August 7 - Norwegian scientist Thor Heyerdahl and five companions sail the Kon-Tiki, raft  from Peru to the islands east of Tahiti. Heyerdahl was interested in demonstrating the possibility that ancient people from the Americas could have colonized Polynesia; to do so, he constructed the raft from locally available balsa logs at Callao, Peru, and in three and a half months traversed some 4,300 miles (6,900 km) of ocean. The Kon-Tiki has been preserved in a museum in Oslo, Norway.

1947, August 14 - Pakistan achieved independence one day prior to Indian independence. India was partitioned, and an East and West Pakistan were created from Muslim majority areas.

1947, August 15, India was declared independent from British colonialism, and the reins of control were handed over to the leaders of the Country. 

1949, - The Soviet Union successfully tested their first nuclear device, called RDS-1 or “First Lightning” (codenamed “Joe-1” by the United States), at Semipalatinsk.  As the Cold War intensified, both the Soviet Union and the United States embarked upon efforts to rapidly develop and grow their respective nuclear arsenals. The US launched its hydrogen bomb program in the early 1950s and the USSR followed suit and initiated their own hydrogen bomb program. More

1950, Aug 25 -  President Harry S. Truman issues an executive order putting America’s railroads under the control of the U.S. Army, Truman said that “governmental seizure [of the railroads] is imperative” to protect American citizens as well as “essential to the national defense and security of the nation.” Truman acted in anticipation of an imminent strike by railroad workers, two months after the United Nations, led by the United States, had intervened in Korea to repel an invasion by communist-led North Korea. More 

1952, August 11 - Hussein was proclaimed king of Jordan succeeding to the throne three months before his 17th birthday. A three-man regency council made up of the prime minister and heads of the Senate and the House of Representatives was appointed until he became 18. He was enthroned on 2 May 1953, the same day that his cousin Faisal II assumed his constitutional powers as king of Iraq. More

1953, August 19 - A CIA supported coup d'état by the Iranian military topples the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh. It favored strengthening the monarchical rule of the shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Sixty years later, in 2013, the National Security Archive released declassified CIA documents on the United States' role in the controversial operation. American and British involvement in Mosaddeq's ouster had long been public knowledge, but the released documents were the CIA's first formal acknowledgement that the agency helped to plan and execute the coup and participated in smoothing over the aftermath. More

1957, August 31 -  Malayan Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom.

1958, August 3 - The USS Nautilus, the first U.S. nuclear submarine, reaches the geographic North Pole traveling 1000 miles under sea from Point Barrow, Alaska and then on to Iceland, pioneering a new and shorter route from the Pacific to the Atlantic and Europe. 

1959, August 21 - Hawaii is admitted to the union becoming the 50th State.

1960, August 1 -  Benin's Independence day. (Previously Dahomey) Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July creating the independent Republic of Dahomey.

1960, August 3, Niger Independance Day - Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July.

1960, August 5 - Burkina Faso Independence Day. Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July and creation of the independent Republic of Upper Volta. On 4 August 1984, it changed its name to Burkina Faso.

1960, August 7 - Ivory Coast Independence Dat Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 11 July

1960, August 11 - Chad's Independence day. Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 12 July

1960, August 15 - Republic of the Congo Independence Day -  Effective date of the agreement with France signed on 12 July.

1960, August 17 - Gabon independence day, officially the Gabonese Republic recognized, ending French colonial rule.

1961, August 13 - East Germany begins to seal off the around Berlin. First, a wire barrier was constructed and a few days later the wire was replaced by a six-foot-high, 96-mile-long wall of concrete blocks. It hoped this measure would put an end to the mass exodus to Berlin. More

1962, August 4 - Nelson Mandela, Apartheid opponent, was arrested by security police in South Africa. He was tried and sentenced to five years in prison. In 1964, he was retried for sabotage , high treason and conspiracy to overthrow the government He was sentenced to life in prison. A worldwide campaign to free him began in the 1980s and resulted in his release on February 11, 1990, at age 71 after 27 years in prison. In 1993, Mandela shared the Nobel Peace Prize with South Africa's President F.W. de Klerk for their peaceful efforts to bring a nonracial democracy to South Africa. In April 1994, black South Africans voted for the first time in an election that brought Mandela the presidency of South Africa.

1962, August 6 - Jamaica achieved independence after centuries of British and Spanish rule.

1962, August 31 - Trinidad and Tobago independence day. Effective date of the Trinidad and Tobago Independence Act 1962.

1963, August 5 - The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. After Senate approval, the treaty that went into effect on October 10, 1963, banned nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water. More

1963, August 28 - Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his iconic "I Have a Dream" speech during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Over 250,000 persons attended the Civil Rights rally in Washington, D.C.

1963, August 30 - The hotline between Washington and Moscow came into operation 10 months after the Cuban Missile Crisis. The first implementation used Teletype equipment. It changed to fax machines in 1986 and in 2008 to a secure computer link over which secured messages are exchanged.

1964, August 2 - The Gulf of Tonkin incident occurs, leading to increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. August 7, 1964 - Following an attack on two U.S. destroyers the U.S. Congress approved the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, granting President Lyndon B. Johnson authority "to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression."

1964, Aug 4 - The bodies of three lynched civil rights workers (James Chaney, Michael Schwerner, and Andrew Goodman) were found in Neshoba County, Mississippi. They had been tortured and murdered by the KKK with help from the deputy sheriff near Philadelphia. M in .after disappearing more than a month before. More

1965, Aug 6 -  The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The Act suspended literacy, knowledge and character tests which were designed to keep African Americans from voting in the South. It also authorized the appointment of Federal voting examiners and barred discriminatory poll taxes. Congress renewed the in 1975, 1984 and 1991.

1965, August 9 -  Proclamation of Singapore independence from Malaysia

1965, August 11 – 16: - Six days of riots began in the Watts area of Los Angeles, triggered by an incident between a white member of the California Highway Patrol and an African American motorist. Thirty-four deaths were reported and more than 3,000 people arrested. Damage to property was estimated at $40 million.

1967, August 30 - The U.S. Senate confirms  the appointment of Thurgood Marshall to the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall became the first African American to be confirmed as a Supreme Court justice.

1968, August Supreme Court 20 - The Soviet Union led Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia to crack down on reformist trends in Prague. Although the Soviet Union's action successfully halted the pace of reform in Czechoslovakia, it had unintended consequences for the unity of the communist bloc. More

1969, August 17 - Hurricane Camille made landfall late in the evening along the Mississippi Gulf Coast near Waveland, MS. Camille is one of only four Category 5 hurricanes ever to make landfall in the continental United States. The combination of winds, surges, and rainfalls caused 256 deaths (143 on the Gulf Coast and 113 in the Virginia floods) and $1.421 billion in damage. Three deaths were reported in Cuba. More 

1969, August 30 - North Vietnam's president, Ho Chi Minh response to President Nixon's letter is received at the White House three days before Ho Chi Minh death in Hanoi on September 2, 1969 from a heart attack at the age of 79. More 

1974, August 7 - French high-wire artist Philippe Petit walks between the Twin Towers at 1,350 feet above ground with no net. More

1974, August 9 – Richard M Nixon resigns the presidency as a result of the Watergate scandal. Facing possible impeachment by Congress, he became the only U.S. President ever to resign. Gerald Ford automatically assumed the presidency, taking the oath of office in the East Room of the White House and becoming the 38th U.S. President. This made him the only person to become the nation's chief executive without being elected to the presidency or the vice presidency. More

1975, August 3 - A  707 passenger flight chartered by the national airline of Morocco, Royal Air Maroc, flying in heavy fog crashed into a mountain on approach to Agadir Inezgane , Morocco Airport . All 188 passengers and crew on board were killed. The cause of the crash was determined to be pilot error.

1975, August 8 - The term "Global Warming" is used for the first time in a science publication. The article by geochemist Wallace Broecker of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory: "Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?" More

1980, August 14-15 - The Solidarity movement in Poland, led by Lech Walesa, signs the Gdansk Agreement with the communist government, marking a significant milestone in the fight for workers' rights. Solidarity opposed Communist rule and was outlawed the following year. Seven years later, the re-legalization of Solidarity occurred and the government agreed to hold partially free parliamentary elections. Solidarity candidates scored stunning victories, paving the way for the downfall of Communism there.

1981, August 13 -  President Reagan signs the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA), the 185-page that fulfilled his campaign promise to cut taxes. The act helped accelerate economic growth but it is blamed for being a major contributor to the growth of Income inequality in the U.S. which is now at heights not seen for a century. More

1983, August 21 - Filipino opposition leader Benigno S. Aquino, Jr., was assassinated at the Manila airport while leaving his plane. Public outcry ultimately led to the collapse of the government of Ferdinand E. Marcos and the inauguration of Corazon C. Aquino, widow of the slain man, as president.

1985, August 2 -  Delta Air Lines Flight 191 crashes at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. The National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) determined that the cause of the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar airplane crash was wind-shear associated with an intense thunderstorm downdraft that occurred at the north end of the airport along runway 17. Today we know this intense, localized downburst as a microburst, a weather phenomenon that was not well understood at the time of the accident.

1985, August 12 - Japan Air Lines Flight 123 flight from Tokyo to Osaka, Japan crashes in the area of Mount Takamagahara, 62 miles from Tokyo. The Boeing 747  suffered a severe structural failure and decompression 12 minutes into the flight  and crashed 32 minutes later after flying under minimal control for that time. 524 people died in the accident. All four survivors were seriously injured. The crash of Flight 123 is the deadliest single-aircraft accident in aviation history.

1986, August 22 - A volcanic eruption under Lake Nios in Cameroon caused deadly fumes which killed more than 1,500 persons.

1987, August 16 -  A DC-9 Super 82 on Northwest Flight 255 crashes minutes aftertakeoff at Detroit Metropolitan Airport in Michigan. The flight was headed to California with a Phoenix stopover.  A four-year-old girl was the sole survivor of the accident,156 people died. The crash was caused by pilot error. More

1990, August 2 - Iraq invades Kuwait, lea ding to the Gulf War and international in tervention to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation.

1991, August 19 - Soviet hard-line Communists staged a coup, temporarily removing Mikhail Gorbachev from power. The coup failed within 72 hours as democratic reformer Boris Yeltsin rallied the Russian people. Yeltsin then became the leading power in the country. The Communist Party was soon banned and by December the Soviet Union itself disintegrated.

1991, August 24 - Ukraine declares independence from the Soviet Union, leading to its dissolution later that year.

1991, August 27 - Moldovia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.

1991, August 31 - Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan declares independence from the Soviet Union and a democratic government is established. 

1998, August 7 - The U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are bombed with truck bombs. The terrorist attacks killed 224 people, among them, 12 Americans, and wounded more than 4,500. The U.S. accuses Saudi exile Osama bin Laden, of masterminding the bombings. On August 20, U.S. President Bill Clinton ordered cruise missiles launched against bin Laden’s terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and to a pharmaceutical plant in Sudan, believed to be manufacturing and distributing chemical weapons. More

1998, August 17 - The United States launches cruise missile strikes against suspected Al-Qaeda targets in Afghanistan and Sudan in
retaliation for the 1998 embassy bombings.

1999, August 17 - The catastrophic magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake struck the Kocaeli Province of Turkey, causing extensive damage and approximately 17,000 deaths. Named for the quake’s proximity to the northwestern city of İzmit, It is widely remembered as one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern Turkish history. More

2000, August 12 - The Russian nuclear submarine Kursk sinks to the bottom of the Barents Sea while on a naval exercise inside the Arctic Circle. The entire 118-strong crew perished According to the Russian navy, it had not been carrying nuclear warheads. The cause of the disaster remains unknown although it was attributed to an accidental torpedo explosion. The wreck was brought up from the seabed by a Dutch salvage team more than a year after the accident. More

2002, - August 5 - The turret of the Civil War ironclad USS Monitor is lifted out of the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Hatteras N.C. The historic warship sank on December 31 1862 during a storm as it was being towed around Cape Hatteras on its way to Beaufort, North Carolina, to join a fleet being assembled for an attack on Charleston. Many of the sailors were rescued, but 16 of its crew members perished, More

2003, August 14 - A major power blackout affects parts of the northeastern and midwestern United States, as well as Ontario, Canada, leaving millions without electricity.

2005, August 29 - Hurricane Katrina makes landfall in Louisiana, causing catastrophic damage and flooding in New Orleans and other parts of the Gulf Coast.

2006, August 24 - The International Astronomical Union (IAU) redefines the definition of a planet, resulting in the demotion of
Pluto to the status of a "dwarf planet."

2008, August 8 - The opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics takes place, marking the first time China hosts the Olympic

2011, August 5 - NASA's Juno spacecraft launches on a mission to study the planet Jupiter

2011, Aug 5 - Standard & Poor’s credit rating agency downgrades the United States debt from its highest rating of AAA to a lesser AA+ rating, marking the first-ever decline of credit worthiness for the U.S. The agency cited America’s $14 trillion outstanding debt and an ineffective political leadership to address the debt reduction. This downgraded rating remains in effect as of January 1, 2023.

2014, August 9 - The shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, sparks protests and civil unrest, leading to a national conversation on racial tensions and police violence in the United States.

2016, August 5-21 - The Summer Olympics are held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showcasing athletes from around the world.

2017, August 21 - A total solar eclipse, visible across a large portion of the United States, captivates millions of people.

2019, August 5 - India revokes the special autonomous status of Jammu and Kashmir, escalating tensions between India and Pakistan over the disputed region.

2020, August 4 - A massive explosion at the port of Beirut in Lebanon causes widespread devastation and loss of life.

Online History Resources

46 BC, July 2 - Julius Caesar defeats Pompey the Great at the Battle of Dyrrhachium during the Roman Civil War.

365, July 21 - Crete earthquake - An estimated 8.5 magnitude underseas earthquake and resulting Tsunami causes widespread destruction in central and southern Macedonia (Modern Greece), Africa northern Libya, Egypt, Cyprus, Sicily and Hispania (Spain). On Crete, nearly all towns were destroyed. More

 711, July 19 - The Umayyad conquest of Hispania begins as Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar. the Islamic Arabs and Moors of Berber descent in northern Africa crossed the Strait of Gibraltar onto the Iberian Peninsula, and in a series of raids they conquered Visigothic Christian Hispania.

 756, July 28 - The Papal States are established as Pepin the Short, King of the Franks, donates land to Pope Stephen II, creating a temporal domain for the papacy.

 939, July 12 - The Battle of Simancas takes place between the Kingdom of León and the Caliphate of Córdoba, resulting in a victory for León and the decline of the Caliphate's power in the region.

 987, July 3 -  Hugh Capet is crowned King of France, marking the beginning of the Capetian dynasty.

1002, July 23 - The Holy Roman Emperor Otto III dies in his palace in Paterno, Italy, at the age of 21.

1009, July 15 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is destroyed by Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.

1027, July 6 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as the Holy Roman Emperor in Rome.

1054, July 16 - The Great Schism occurs: Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople (now called Istanbul) was excommunicated from the Christian church based in Rome, Italy. The resulting split divided the European Christian church into two major branches: the Western Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. 

1060, July 22 - Henry I of France is crowned King of France in Reims.

1099, July 15 - The First Crusaders launch an assault on Jerusalem, ultimately leading to the capture of the city and the establishment of the Crusader states.

1100, July 31- King William II of England, also known as William Rufus, is killed in a hunting accident in the New Forest.

1209, July 22 - The Massacre at Béziers takes place during the Albigensian Crusade, with Crusaders led by Simon de Montfort sacking the city and killing thousands.

1215, July 15 - The signing of the Magna Carta takes place at Runnymede, England, marking a crucial step towards the limitation of monarchic powers.

1223, July 18 - Louis VIII of France is crowned as the King of France in Reims Cathedral.

1230, July 29 - The Treaty of San Germano is signed between Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX, ending the Papal-Imperial conflict.

1237, July 28 - The Battle of Posada takes place between the Mongol Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, resulting in a Hungarian victory.

1242, July 5 - The Battle of Lake Peipus occurs between the Teutonic Knights and the Novgorod Republic, with the Novgorod forces emerging victorious.

1253, July 10 - Mindaugas is crowned as the first and only King of Lithuania, establishing the Kingdom of Lithuania.

1260, July 3 - The Battle of Ain Jalut occurs between the Mongol Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate, resulting in a decisive Mamluk victory and halting the Mongol expansion into the Middle East.

1290, July 18 - The Edict of Expulsion is issued in England, ordering the expulsion of all Jews from the country.

1307, July 22 - King Philip IV of France orders the arrest of the Knights Templar, marking the beginning of their persecution and eventual dissolution.

1392, July 17 - The Joseon Dynasty is established in Korea with the crowning of King Taejo as the first king of Joseon.

1389, July 15 - The Battle of Kosovo takes place between the Ottoman Empire and an alliance of Balkan states led by Serbia, resulting in a costly but inconclusive outcome.

1456, July 5 - The Siege of Belgrade (Nándorfehérvár) by Sultan Mehmet II begins. Hungarian forces led by John Hunyadi a Hungarian nobleman and warlord of Vlach lineage, defended the city, ultimately compelling the wounded Sultan Mehmet II to lift the siege and retreat. The battle had significant consequences, as it stabilized the southern frontiers of the Kingdom of Hungary for more than half a century and delaying the Ottoman advance in Europe.

1499, July 22 - The Swiss Confederation defeats the forces of the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Dornach. More

1520, July 8 - The Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés and his troops reach Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec Empire.

1536, July 9 - Anne Boleyn is executed in England for high treason.

1567, July 24 -  Abdication of Mary, Queen of Scots.   After failing to quash a rebellion of Scottish peers, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favor of her one-year-old son. More

1588, July 29 - The Spanish Armada is defeated. The Spanish fleet was led by the Duke of Medina Sidonia and its purpose was to  overthrow Elizabeth I, to reinstate Catholicism in England , to end England's support for the Dutch Republic, and prevent attacks by English and Dutch privateers against Spanish interests in the Americas. The English fleet was under the command of Charles Howard, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham. His second in command was Sir Francis Drake. The Spanish Armada defeat is considered one of England's greatest military achievements. More

1609, July 2 - The Dutch explorer Henry Hudson sails into what is now New York Harbor, later establishing Dutch claims to the region.

1620, July 22 - The Mayflower departs from England on its voyage to North America, carrying the Pilgrims who would establish the Plymouth Colony.

1643, July 2 - The Battle of Adwalton Moor takes place during the English Civil War, resulting in a decisive victory for the Parliamentarian forces.

1652, July 4 - The Battle of Plymouth takes place during the First Anglo-Dutch War, with the English fleet under Admiral Robert Blake repelling a Dutch attack on Plymouth.

1663, July 3 - King Charles II of England grants a charter establishing the Carolina Colony, named in honor of his father, Charles I.

1664, July 23 - The Siege of New Amsterdam ends when the Dutch surrender to the English, who then rename the settlement New York.

1670, July 30 - The Hudson's Bay Company receives a royal charter from King Charles II, granting it exclusive trading rights in the Hudson Bay region of North America.

1688, July 10 - The Siege of Derry begins during the Williamite War in Ireland, as the predominantly Protestant city resists a Catholic Jacobite army.

1690, July 1 - The Battle of the Boyne takes place in Ireland, resulting in a victory for Protestant King William III over Catholic King James II and securing Protestant rule in Ireland.

1715, July 31 - The Urca de Lima and 9 other treasure ships on their way back to Spain from Havana were all lost in a hurricane off the Atlantic coast. More than 700 seamen, including the Spanish commander, drowned. More than $15 million worth of treasure sank to the bottom of the ocean. Spain managed to recover about $4 million of the treasure. The rest remained on the ocean floor for more than 250 years. More

1718, July 28 - The city of New Orleans is founded by French colonists under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville.

1742, July 26 - The Battle of Dettingen occurs during the War of the Austrian Succession, marking the last time a reigning British monarch, King George II, personally leads his troops in battle.

1769, July 16 - Fr. Junípero Serra founds Mission San Diego de Alcalá. This is the first of the California Missions.  Fr. Junipero Sierra founded eight more of the 21 California missions: Carmel, San Antonio, San Gabriel, San Luis Obispo, San Francisco (Mission Dolores). San Juan Capistrano, Santa Clara, and San Buenaventura,  Serra’s missions helped strengthen Spain’s control of Alta California.

1775, July 3 - George Washington took command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1775, July 26 - Benjamin Franklin appointed first Postmaster General by the Continental Congress before the Declaration of Independence was even signed. More

1776, July 4 - The United States declares independence from Great Britain.

1777, July 31 -  The Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army. His Masonic membership opened many doors in Philadelphia and Lafayette's advocates included the recently arrived American envoy to France, Benjamin Franklin, urged Congress to accommodate the young Frenchman who had offered to serve without pay.

1779, July 16 - The United States Congress establishes the Badge of Military Merit, later known as the Purple Heart, to honor soldiers wounded in battle.

1788, July 26 - New York ratifies the U.S. Constitution and becomes the 11th of the original 13 states to join the Union.

1789, July 14 - The fall of the Bastille takes place. Many consider this event the start of the French Revolution. It is now commemorated in France as a national holiday. More

1790, July 16 - President George Washington signs the Residence Act bill which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The bill declared that the exact location was to be selected by President Washington. The initial shape of the federal district was a square from land donated by Maryland and Virginia, measuring 10 miles (16 km) on each side and totaling 100 square miles (259 km2). More

1796, July 11 - The United States takes possession of Detroit from the British during the American Revolutionary War, in accordance with the terms of the Jay Treaty.

1799, July 2 - The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta, providing a key to deciphering ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. More

1803, July 4 - The Louisiana Purchase is announced in the United States.

1809, July 2 - Shawnee Chief Tecumseh calls on all Native peoples to unite and resist the growing loss land to the white settlers. proposing that if united,  the various tribes had enough strength to stop the white settlers. More

1810, July 20 - Colombian Declaration of Independence from Spain.

1811, July 5 - Venezuela declares its independence from Spain

1816, July 9 - Argentina declares its independence from Spain

1821, July 28 - Peru declares its independence from Spain.

1838, July 2 -  Enslaved Africans on the Cuban schooner Amistad rise up against their captors and gaining control of the ship, which had been transporting them to a sugar plantation at Puerto Principe, Cuba. More

1840, July 23 - The British North America was approved by the British Parliament. The Act, also known as the Act of Union it was and proclaimed on February 10, 1841, in Montreal. It abolished the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and established a new political entity, the Province of Canada to replace them. More

1847, July 24 - Pioneer Day . Completing a treacherous thousand-mile exodus, an ill and exhausted Brigham Young and fellow members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints arrived in Utah’s Great Salt Lake Valley. The Mormon, as they were commonly known, pioneers viewed their arrival as the founding of a Mormon homeland. hence Pioneer Day. More

1847, July 26 - Liberia declaration of Independence.

1862, July 1 - President Abraham Lincoln signed the first income tax bill, establishing a 3% income tax on annual incomes of $600-$10,000 and a 5% tax on incomes over $10,000.

1863, July 1-3 - The Battle of Gettysburg takes place in Pennsylvania. The loss ended Confederate general Robert E. Lee’s ambitious second quest to invade the North and bring the Civil War to a swift end. With more than 50,000 estimated casualties, the three-day engagement was the bloodiest single battle of the conflict. More

1863, July 7 - Kit Carson begins his campaign against the Navajo that resulted in their removal from the Four Corners area to southeastern New Mexico.

1866, July 30, The New Orleans Massacre:  a mob of ex-Confederates led an armed attack on a group of Louisiana Republicans and their African American supporters as they convened in the Mechanics Institute Building in New Orleans., site of a reconvened Louisiana Constitutional Convention 38 people were killed and 146 wounded. More

1867, July 1 - Canada Day, formerly known as Dominion Day, is the National Day of Canada. A federal statutory holiday, it celebrates the anniversary of Canadian Confederation which occurred on July 1, 1867, when the three separate colonies of the United Canadas, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into a single dominion within the British Empire called Canada.

1868, July 28 - The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is officially adopted, having been ratified by the requisite number of states. The  Amendment granted citizenship to all persons "born or naturalized in the United States," including formerly enslaved people, and provided all citizens with “equal protection under the laws,” extending the provisions of the Bill of Rights to the states. 

1881, July 2 - President James A. Garfield was shot and mortally wounded as he entered a railway station in Washington, D.C. He died on September 19th.

1881, July 19 - Sitting Bull and his people return to the United States from Canada to surrender. More

1890, July 3 -  Idaho is admitted into the Union becoming the 43rd State. 

1890, July 10 - Wyoming is admitted into the Union  becoming the 44th State.

1893, July 1 - President Grover Cleveland undergoes a secret operation on a friend’s yacht to remove a cancerous growth from his mouth. The entire left side of his jaw was removed along with a small portion of his soft palate. Two weeks later, he was fitted with a rubber prosthesis which he wore until his death in 1908. The secrecy was mostly maintained for 24 years until  one of the doctors wrote an article describing what had transpired. More

1898, July 21 - Guam was ceded to the United States by Spain.

1898, July 25 - During the Spanish-American War, the U.S. invaded Puerto Rico, which was then a Spanish colony. In 1917, Puerto Rico became an unincorporated Territory of the U.S. and Puerto Ricans became American citizens. Partial self-government was granted in 1947 allowing citizens to elect their own governor. In 1951, Puerto Ricans wrote their own constitution and elected a non-voting commissioner to represent them in Washington. More

1900, July 19 - Italian King Umberto I was killed in Monza by Italian-American anarchist Gaetano Bresci. He was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel III. More

1903, July 15 - Ernest Pfennig, a Chicago dentist, orders the first Original Model A Ford car. The car is delivered a week later on July 23, 1903. A total of1,750 cars were made from 1903 through 1904 and sold at an average price of $850 More

1908, July 26 - The Bureau of Investigation, forerunner of the FBI, is established.

1911, July 24 - American archeologist Hiram Bingham reaches the ruins of Machu Picchu. Although widely credited with being the first westerner to reach the site, other reports indicate a other Europeans had seen it before Bingham, but he was the one who revealed it to the world at large. Local Peruvians, including the expedition's guide, Melchor Arteaga knew of the site. Nine years before Bingham's expedition, Agustin Lizárraga, a local farmer searching for new land for agriculture with some family members came upon Machu Pichu and carved an inscription on a wall in the Temple of the Three Windows that said: "Agustín Lizárraga, July 14th 1902". More 

1914, July 28 - World War I outbreak of hostilities between Austria-Hungary and Serbia begin.

1915, July 24 - The  excursion boat S.S. Eastland, known as the "Speed Queen of the Great Lakes rolles over into the Chicago river at the wharf's edge. More than 2,500 passengers and crew members were on board that day – and 844 people lost their lives, including 22 entire families. More

1917, July 2 -  Following King Constantine I abdication, under pressure from the Allies, Greece  ends three years of neutrality by entering World War I alongside Britain, France, Russia and Italy. 

1918, July 15 -  The Second Battle of the Marne  was the last major German offensive on the Western Front during the First World War. It lasted a year ending on July 18, 1919.

1918, July 16 - Russia’s last Imperial Family; Nicholas and Alexandra, and their five children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia and Alexey, were murdered by the Bolsheviks. More

1921, July 27 - The Insulin hormone is successfully isolated by Canadian doctors Frederick Banting and Charles Best. More

1921, July 28 - Hitler becomes Party Chairman and leader of the Nazis.

1932, July 28 - The Bonus Army,  a group of 43,000 demonstrators – 17,000 veterans of U.S. involvement in World War I, their families, and affiliated groups gathered in Washington, D.C., to demand early cash redemption of their service bonus certificates. They were forcibly disbanded by the U.S. Army in Washington, D.C. 

1933, July 22 - Wiley Post completes a solo flight around the world in the Lockheed 5C Vega Winnie Mae. This record-breaking flight demonstrated several significant new aviation technologies. More

1936, July 17 - The Spanish Civil War begins.  In a matter of days, a well-planned military uprising splits the county in half, with one zone controlled by the government (known as Republicans, Loyalists, or Reds), and the other by the rebels (also referred to as Nationalists, Fascists, or Whites)  An estimated half million people perished during the civil war which lasted until 1939. Franco ruled Spain as a dictator for almost 40 years until his death in 1975.  More 

, July 10 - The Battle of Britain begins as Nazi Germany launches air attacks on southern England. More

1941, July 7 - The Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, code-named Operation Barbarossa, begins.

1941, July 26 - U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8832, freezing Japanese assets in the United States and eleven days later, on August 1, declares an embargo on oil and gasoline exports to Japan, bringing commercial relations between the nations to an effective end. On December 7 the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. More at: WWII Museum and the The Independent Institute   

1943, July 10 - American and British forces invade Sicily by air and sea. 

1943, July 12 - Battle of Kursk: Russia stops the German advance. More

1943, July 19,  Approximately 700 aircrafts of the USAAF flew over Rome and dropped 9.000 bombs on the city. This raid was intended to only damage the freight yard and the steel factory in the San Lorenzo district of Rome, but it also struck apartments and the Papal Basilica, killing 1500 people. More

1943, July 24 - Operation Gomorrah begins. 791 British bombers took off under cover of darkness tow. ard Hamburg, Germany. The air fleet was composed of British Lancaster, Stirling, Wellington, and Halifax bombers flying in six waves. Each wave had between 100 to 120 aircraft hoping to concentrate as much destruction as possible.  More

1943, July 25 - Mussolini is deposed. The Fascist Grand Council ousted Mussolini from office and placed him under arrest two weeks after the Allied attack on Sicily. King Victor Emmanuel of Italy then ordered Marshal Pietro Badoglio to form a new government.

1943, July 28 - During World War II, a firestorm killed 42,000 civilians in Hamburg, Germany. after 2,326 tons of bombs and incendiaries were dropped by the Allies. 

1944, July 20 - German military leaders attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler and take control of the government. Their plot fails. More

1945, July 16 - The first atomic bomb “ nicknamed “Gadget,” is successfully tested at the Trinity Site in Alamogordo, New Mexico. Gadget detonated with between 15 and 20 kilotons of force, slightly more than the Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The Atomic Age had begun. More

1945, July 17 - The Potsdam Conference begins. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (replaced on July 26 by Prime Minister Clement Attlee), and U.S. President Harry Truman— start a multi day meeting in Potsdam, Germany, to negotiate terms for the end of World War II. During the conference, President Truman informed the Soviet leader that the United States had successfully detonated the first atomic bomb on July 16, 1945. Reportedly, Stalin, was already well-informed about the U.S. nuclear program thanks to the Soviet intelligence network. More

1945, July 30 - The USS Indianapolis is torpedoed by a Japanese submarine and sinks within minutes. Only 316 of the 1,196 men on board survived. The Indianapolis had just completed its major mission; the delivery to Tinian Island in the South Pacific of a key components of the atomic bomb that would be dropped a week later at Hiroshima.

1947, July 18 - President Harry Truman signs the second Presidential Succession Act. The original act of 1792 had placed the Senate president pro tempore and Speaker of the House in the line of succession, but in 1886 Congress had removed them. The 1947 Executive order reinserted those officials but placed the Speaker ahead of the president pro tempore. In 1965, Senator Birch Bayh of Indiana and Representative Emanuel Celler of New York introduced joint resolutions in the Senate and House of Representatives aimed at clarifying and defining in the Constitution, the rules on Presidential succession and inability. Congress approved the 25th Amendment on 1965. The states completed ratification by February 10, 1967, and President Lyndon Johnson certified the amendment on February 23, 1967.

1947, July 26 - President Harry Truman signs The National Security Act of 1947 . The Act mandated a major reorganization of the foreign policy and military establishments of the U.S. Government and created many of the institutions that Presidents found useful when formulating and implementing foreign policy, including the National Security Council (NSC).

1948, July 20 - The second peacetime draft began with passage of the Selective Service Act of 1948 after the STSA expired. The new law required all men of age 18 to 26 to register. It also created the system for the "Doctor Draft", aimed at inducting health professionals into military service. More

1948, July 26 - President Harry S. Truman signs executive order 9981 banning segregation in the Armed Forces. More

1949, July 27 - First flight of the de Havilland DH 106 Comet, world's first commercial jet airliner to reach production. More

1951,  July 27 - The Korean War armistice is signed, ending three years of fighting and establishing a demilitarized zone between North and South Korea. 1951. No peace treaty is signed .

1952, July 23 - The Egyptian army led by by Mohamed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser launched a revolution toppling King Farouk in a coup d'état by the Free Officers Movement and, changing Egypt from a monarchy to a republic. The Revolution ushered in a wave of revolutionary politics in the Arab World, and contributed to the escalation of decolonization and the development of Third World solidarity during the Cold War. More

1952, July 25 - Puerto Rico becomes a U.S. commonwealth.

1953, July 26 - Fidel Castro's revolutionary "26th of July Movement." begins and culminates by overthrowing dictator Fulgencio
Batista in 1959. Although he once declared that Cuba would never again be ruled by a dictator, Castro's government became a Communist dictatorship.

1953, July 27 - The Korean War ended with the signing of an armistice by U.S. and North Korean delegates at Panmunjom, Korea. It brought an end to the hostilities that lasted just over three years and killed 2.5 million people. More

1955, July 17 -  Disneyland opens for its first guests.; a special 'International Press Preview' event, which was only open to invited guests. More

1956, July 26 - Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the foreign-owned Suez Canal Company, which administered the canal and was owned primarily by British and French shareholders. On October 29, Israel invades the Egyptian Sinai.  and on November 5, Britain and France landed paratroopers along the Suez Canal. Political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. The episode humiliated the United Kingdom and France and strengthened Nasser. It later became clear that Israel, France and Britain had conspired to plan the invasion. More

1958, July 29 - NASA is established by U.S. Congress legislation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration began operations on October 1, 1958.

1960, July 1 - The Somali republic was formed on July 1, 1960, as a unification of the Trust Territory of Italian Somaliland, and British Somaliland. The independence day of Somalia is a national holiday observed annually in Somalia and the diaspora worldwide.

1962, July 1 - Rwanda gains independence from Belgium. Independence Day in Rwanda is a somewhat muted affair. Kwibohora, (July 4) is celebrated as Rwanda Liberation Day. On this day in 1994 the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) secured the capital of Kigali and ended the 1994 Genocide Against the Tutsi in Rwanda.

1962, July 1 - Burundi gains its freedom from Belgium.

1962, July 10 - The U.S. Patent Office issued Patent No. 3,043,625 to “Nils Ivar Bohlin, Goteborg, (Volvo) for the three-point seatbelt. Volvo was so convinced of its safety potential safety that it made the patent available for other manufacturers, and motorists, to benefit from.

1964, July 2 - U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act into law, outlawing discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

1964, July 6Malawi Independence Day.

1964, July 23 - President de Gaulle proposes at a news conference in the Salle des Fetes of the Elysee Palace, that the United States, the Soviet Union, Communist China and France agree to get out and stay out of the Indochinese peninsula as a means of ending the fighting in Laos and South Vietnam. He also proposes, once the fighting had ended, a massive program of economic and technical aid to the peoples of North and South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. More

1964, July 29 -  Ranger 7, an unmanned U.S. lunar probe reaches the Moon and takes the first close-up images of earths' satellite. During its final 17 minutes of flight, it sent back 4,316 images of the lunar surface. The last image taken 2.3 seconds before impact had a resolution of just half-a-meter.  More

1965, July 26 - Maldives Independence Day

1965, July 29 - The 1st Brigade, 101st Airborne Division, arrives in Vietnam. More

1965, July 30 - Medicare is signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson at the Truman Library in Independence, Missouri. His gesture drew attention to the 20 years it had taken Congress to enact government health insurance for senior citizens after Harry Truman had proposed it. In fact, Medicare’s history dated back even further. More

1969, July 20 - American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin land the Apollo 11 mission Lunar Module “Eagle” in the Sea of Tranquility and become the first humans to walk on the moon. More

1971, July 1 - The Twenty-Sixth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18.

1973, July 10 - The Bahamas gains its independence by the United Kingdom Government, Order in Council.  This date is now celebrated as the country's Independence Day.

1975, July 5 - Cape Verde Independence Day from Portugal - Effective date of the Agreement Between Portugal and Partido Africano para a Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde (PAIGC) signed on 18 December 1974.[

1975, July 5 - Guinea-Bissau Independence Day - Declaration of independence during the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence.[52]

1975, July 6 - Comoros Independence Day from France. Unilateral declaration of independence by the Chamber of Deputies of Comoros following the 1974 Comorian independence referendum.[

1976, July 4 - The United States celebrates its bicentennial with a day of parades, concerts, and fireworks.

1976, July 20 - Viking 1 Lands on Mars' on the western slope of Chryse Planitia (the Plains of Gold). Viking 1 found a place in history when it became the first U.S. mission to land a spacecraft safely on the surface of Mars and return images of the surface. More

1976, July 28 - A 7.8 earthquake razes the Chinese city of Tangshan located about 68 miles east of Beijing. The official death toll,  reported was 242,000 persons, but it may have been twice as high. At least 700,000 more people were injured and the property damage was extensive.

1978, July 25 - Louise Brown gives birth to the world’s first "test-tube baby", in Oldham, northwest England. More 

1979, July 12 - Kiribati Independence Day

1980, July 30 - Vanuatu, achieves independence from the United Kingdom and France under Prime Minister Walter Lini.

1982, July 9 - Pan Am Flight 759, a Boeing 727 flight from Miami to San Diego, with stops in New Orleans and Las Vegas. crashed in the New Orleans suburb of Kenner after being forced down shortly after takeoff due to wind shear which the pilots were not informed about prior to takeoff. All 145 on board, as well as 8 people on the ground, were killed. More

1985, July 10 - French secret service agents planted two bombs and sank the Greenpeace Flagship The Rainbow Warrior. One crew member was killed. More

1985, July 13 - Live Aid, a global rock concert for famine relief in Ethiopia, is held in London and Philadelphia.

1988, July 3 - The U.S. cruiser USS Vincennes shoots down the Iranian passenger jet, Iran Air 655, with a surface-to-air missile, killing 290 people. More

1990, July 27 - The Jamaat al Muslimeen attempted coup d'état in Trinidad and Tobago.

1994, July 4 - Rwandan Patriotic Front troops capture the Rwandan capital of Kigali, ending the Rwandan Genocide.

1994, July 12 - Germany's Constitutional Court ended the ban on sending German troops to fight outside the country which  had been in effect since the end of World War II. The ruling allowed German troops to join in United Nations and NATO
peace-keeping missions. On July 14, German military units marched in Bastille Day celebrations in Paris, the first appearance of German troops there since World War II.

1995, July 23 - Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp separately discover the Comet Hale–Bopp. The comet becomes visible to the naked eye a year later and stays visible for a record 18 months, due to its massive nucleus size. This is twice as long as the Great Comet of 1811, the previous record holder. Accordingly, Hale–Bopp was dubbed the great comet of 1997. Sadly, 39 people who were part of the "Heaven's Gate" cult in San Diego committed mass suicide as the comet came close to Earth. More

1996, July 17 - TWA Flight 800 departed Kennedy International Airport in New York bound for Paris but exploded in mid-air 12 minutes after takeoff.  All 212 passengers and 17 crew members on board were killed. Although it could not be determined with certainty, the likely ignition source was a short circuit.  Problems with the aircraft's wiring were found, including evidence of arcing in the fuel quantity indication system (FQIS) wiring that enters the tank. More

1997, July 1 - Hong Kong is handed over from Britain to China, ending over 150 years of British rule.

2000, July 25 - Air France Flight 4590, a Concorde passenger jet on an international charter flight from Paris to New York, crashes shortly after takeoff,. All 109 people on board and four on the ground were killed. It was the only fatal Concorde accident during its 27-year operational history. More

2005, July 7 - A series of coordinated terrorist attacks in London, England, kill 52 people and injure over 700.

2009, July 7 - The United Nations declares a famine in parts of southern Somalia, the first time the term has been used in almost 20 years.

2011, July 9 - South Sudan gains independence from Sudan ending a decades-long civil war and becoming the world's newest country.

2013,  July 3 - Egypt's first democratically elected president, Mohamed Morsi, is overthrown in a military coup.

2014, July 17 -  Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 shot down over Ukraine by a Russian-made surface-to-air missile, fired by Moscow-backed separatists. In January of 2023, the European Court of Human Rights confirmed Russia's involvement in the downing of flight MH17. More

2015, July 14 - Iran and six world powers reach a historic nuclear deal in Vienna, limit Iran's nuclear program in exchange for lifting economic sanctions.

2016, July 14 - Terrorist Attack in the city of Nice kills 86 people and injures 434 others. More

Note: These are some of the many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of May, listed by year. Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate. Online History Resources

Cecilia Payne's work on the nature of variable stars showed that the wide variation in stellar spectra is due mainly to the different ionization states of the atoms and hence different surface temperatures of the stars, not to different amounts of the elements. Concluding that stars were composed primarily of hydrogen and helium. Her groundbreaking work from almost 100 years ago, was initially rejected because it contradicted the scientific wisdom of the time, which held that there were no significant elemental differences between the Sun and Earth. Independent observations eventually proved she was correct. More

Flag Day

Posted by Kronos Profile 06/14/23 at 01:44AM Share History Public Interest See more by Kronos

On June 14 , 1777, the Second Continental Congress issued a resolution adopting the Flag of the United States. It wasn't until 1949, that Congress approved the national observance, and President Harry Truman signed it into law.

There have been twenty-seven official versions of the flag to date. The current version of the flag dates to August 21, 1959, after Hawaii became the fiftieth state. More

323 BCE, June 10 - Death of Alexander the Great: The renowned military leader and conqueror, Alexander the Great, dies in Babylon at the age of 32. More

632 CE, June 8 - Death of Prophet Muhammad: The founder of Islam, Prophet Muhammad, passes away in Medina, Saudi Arabia, marking a significant event in the history of the Islamic faith.

793 CE, June 8 - The Viking raid on the monastery of Lindisfarne, the sacred heart of the Northumbrian kingdom in England occurs, highlighting the  Viking expansion, and incursions throughout Europe. More

987 CE, June 1 - Coronation of Hugh Capet: Hugh Capet is crowned as the King of the Franks, marking the beginning of the Capetian dynasty and the consolidation of power in France.

1005, June 29 - The Battle of Lechfeld takes place between the East Frankish (German) forces under Henry II and the invading Hungarian armies, resulting in a decisive victory for the East Frankish forces.

1014, June 23 - The Battle of Clontarf occurs in Ireland, where the forces of Brian Boru, the High King of Ireland, defeat the Viking invaders.

1065, June 28 - Westminster Abbey is consecrated in London, England, becoming the site of coronations and burials for English monarchs.

1071, June 29 - The Battle of Manzikert takes place, where the Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Empire, leading to the gradual decline of Byzantine power in Anatolia.

1099, June 7 - The Crusaders begin the Siege of Jerusalem, a pivotal event during the First Crusade that eventually leads to the capture of the city. On June 15, the Crusaders enter Jerusalem and establish the Kingdom of Jerusalem, marking the culmination of the First Crusade.

1108, June 1 - Louis VI is crowned as the King of France.

1119, June 24 - The Order of the Knights Templar is founded in Jerusalem.

1139, June 24 - The Battle of Ourique takes place, where Afonso Henriques defeats the Almoravids and establishes the Kingdom of Portugal.

1153, June 6 - The Treaty of Wallingford is signed, ending the civil war in England between King Stephen and Empress Matilda, and establishing Henry II as the undisputed king.

1162, June 18 - Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, is formally canonized as a saint by Pope Alexander III.

1178, June 18 - Five monks in Canterbury, England, observe an unusual phenomenon on the moon; a meteor event,now known as the "Canterbury Tales"
1184, June 16 - The Battle of Fimreite takes place in Norway, where King Sverre Sigurdsson defeats the forces of Magnus Erlingsson, securing his rule.

1191, June 8 - Richard I of England (Richard the Lionheart) arrives in Acre, beginning his involvement in the Third Crusade.

1215, June 15 - King John of England signs the Magna Carta and authenticates it with a wax seal. The Magna Carta was the product of political crisis and an uprising of the leading men of England. It was the first document to put into writing the principle that the king and his government was not above the law and placed limits of royal authority by establishing law as a power in itself.

1381, June 14 - Peasants' Revolt begins in England.

1494, June 7 - Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas, dividing the New World between them.

1523, June 6 - Sweden National Day. Celebrates the election of King Gustav Vasa and the new constitutions of  1809 and 1974. The election of King Gustav Vasa was the de facto end of the Kalmar Union and has been seen as a formal declaration of independence.

1665, June 7 - The first recorded victims of the Great Plague of London die - 

1752, June 10 - Benjamin Franklin’s famous kite-in-a-thunderstorm experiment is said to have taken place on this day in 1752. More

1775, June 18 - The Battle of Bunker Hill takes place near Boston, Mass, in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War.

1775, June 22 - The Continental Congress approves the first release of $1 million in bills of credit (paper currency) to help fund the American Revolutionary War. Another $1 million was authorized in July. By the end of 1775, Congress had authorized a total of $6 million bills of credit.  The currency quickly lost value, partly because it was not backed by a physical asset like gold or silver, but also due to the fact that too many bills were printed. The loss in value inspired the term "not worth a continental". More

1777, June 13 - Marquis De Lafayette accompanied by Baron De Kalb arrive on North Island, Georgetown County, S.C.  to serve alongside General Washington. Lafayette was 19 at the time. He and George Washington went on to develop a strong bond. More

1777, June 14 - The Second Continental Congress issues a resolution adopting the Flag of the United States. It wasn't until 1949, that Congress approved the national observance, and President Harry Truman signed it into law. There have been twenty-seven official versions of the flag to date. The current version of the flag dates to August 21, 1959, after Hawaii became the fiftieth state. More

1783, June 5 - The first sustained flight occurred as a hot-air balloon was launched at Annonay, France, by brothers Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier, reaching an altitude of about 6,000 feet.

1788, June 21 -  New Hampshire ratifies the U.S. Constitution and becomes the 9th State and last necessary state of the original 13 colonies to ratify the U.S. Constitution.

1788, June 25 - Virginia ratifies the U.S Constitution and becomes the 10th State.

1792, June 1 - Kentucky was admitted to the U.S and becomes the 15th State.

1796, June 1 - Tennessee was admitted to the U.S and becomes the 16th State.

1812, June 18 - President James Madison signed into law a resolution passed by Congress declaring war with Great Britain marking the beginning of the War of 1812 which ended December 24, 1814 when the two nations met in Belgium and signed the Treaty of Ghent. ending the war and restoring the previously recognized boundaries between the United States and British territory in North America. The Senate unanimously ratified the Treaty of Ghent on February 16, 1815. More

1815, June 18 - Napoleon Bonaparte is defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, ending the Napoleonic Wars.

1836, June 15 - Arkansas was admitted to the U.S and becomes the 25th State.

1837, June 20 - Queen Victoria ascends to the British throne - 

1846, June 15 - The Oregon Treaty is signed, establishing the U.S.-Canadian border at the 49th parallel. Tribes are not consulted as the 49th Parallel becomes the boundary. Many Native people on either side of the line wake up in a different country, living under different laws than those they knew the night before. More

1863, June 20 - West Virginia was admitted to the U.S and becomes the 35th State.

1865, June 19 - Union General Gordon Granger announces in Galveston, Texas, that all slaves in Texas are free, an event, now celebrated as "Juneteenth".

1867, June 19 - Maximilian was executed on a hill outside Querétaro.M bringingin an end to France's the short lived  Mexican empire.
1872, June 6 -  Pioneering feminist, Susan B. Anthony, was fined for voting in a presidential election at Rochester, New York. More

1876, The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass, takes place in southern Montana. More

1885, June 17, The disassembled Statue of Liberty arrives in New York aboard the French steamer Isere . The statue, a gift from the people of France, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886 and has became known around the world as an enduring symbol of freedom and democracy. More

1893, June 7 - Gandhi 's first act of civil disobedience took place in South Africa when he went there to work  for an Indian company after studying to become a lawyer in England. When railroad officials made Gandhi sit in a third-class coach even though he had purchased a first-class ticket, Gandhi refused and police forced him off the train. This event changed his life. More

1896, June 4 - Henry Ford, the founder of Ford Motor Company takes his first car for a spin on the city of Detroit. More

1898, June 12 - The Philippines declared their independence from Spain. Later that year, the Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War and Spain ceded the Philippines to the US, the islands were occupied by U.S. forces. and became an American colony until after World War II.

1900, June 1 - The Boxer Rebellion begins in China. An uprising against against the spread of Western and Japanese influence including western religion begun by peasants but was eventually supported by the government. The Boxer Rebellion was put down by the Eight-Nation Alliance of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, France, Japan, Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary. More

1903, June 16 - The Ford Motor Company was officially incorporated. Founder Henry Ford and 12 investors launched his venture in a converted factory on Mack Avenue in Detroit. It was his third attempt at establishing an automotive business. At the time, the company could only produce a few cars a day. More 

1905, June 7 - Norway Union Dissolution and Independence Day from Sweden. (National Day, commemorating the Independence from Denmark and the Constitution of Norway is celebrated  on17 May 17, 1814).

1910, June 15th - The British Terra Nova Expedition led by Captain Robert Falcon Scott, sails from Cardiff, Wales for Antarctica. Scott wanted to continue the scientific work that he had begun when leading the Discovery Expedition from 1901 to 1904, and wanted to be the first to reach the geographic South Pole. He and four companions attained the pole on 17 January 1912, where they found that a Norwegian team led by Roald Amundsen had preceded them by 34 days. Scott's party of five died on the return journey from the pole. More

1914,  June 28 - Archduke Francis Ferdinand, Crown Prince of Austria and his wife were assassinated at Sarajevo, touching off a conflict between the Austro-Hungarian government and Serbia that escalated into World War I.

1916, June 3 - U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signs the National Defense Act which authorized an expanded Army of 175,000, and an enlarged National Guard of 450,000 and brought the states’ militias more under federal control and gave the president authority, in case of war or national emergency, to mobilize the National Guard for the duration of the emergency.

1917, June 26 - The first American troops arrive in Europe. However, the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) did not fully participate at the front until October, when the First Division, one of the best-trained divisions of the AEF, entered the trenches at Nancy, France. More

1919, June 4 - The 19th amendment granting women the right to vote is passed by Congress. The amendment passed its final hurdle of obtaining the agreement of three-fourths of the states when Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the amendment on August 18, 1920.  U.S. Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby certifies the 19th Amendment on August 26, 1920, giving women the Constitutional right to vote. It had been first proposed in Congress, forty two years earlier in1878, More

1919, June 28 - The signing of the Treaty of Versailles formally ended World War I. According to the terms, Germany was assessed sole blame for the war, it had to pay reparations of $15 Billion. It was also forced to give up Alsace-Lorraine and all overseas colonies. The treaty also prohibited German rearmament.

1922, June 14 - Warren G. Harding became the first U.S. President to broadcast a message over the radio. 

1924, June 2 - The government of the United States confers citizenship on all Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the country. The right to vote, however, was governed by state law; until 1957, some states barred Native Americans from voting. More

1938, June 25 - Fair Labor Standards Act is passed, setting the first minimum wage in the U.S. at 25 cents per hour.

1940, June 10 -  Norway surrenders to Nazi Germany, two months after Germany attacked Denmark and Norway on April 9, 1940. On that same day, Denmark surrendered and was occupied. The Norwegians resisted for two months but surrendered on June 9, 1940.

1940, June 10 - Italy declares war against France and Great Britain. The Italian entry into the war widened its scope considerably in Africa and the Mediterranean Sea.

1941, June 22 -  Nazi Germany Invades the Soviet Union during the Second World War . The Invasion, named Barbarossa, was the largest land offensive in human history, with over 10 million combatants taking part.

1942, June 4 - The battle of Midway -  Early on the morning of June 4, aircraft from four Japanese aircraft carriers attacked and severely damaged the US base on Midway. Unbeknownst to the Japanese, the US carrier forces were just to the east of the island and ready for battle. More

1942, June 11 - Eisenhower is appointed by Army Chief of Staff Marshall to oversee all U.S. operations in Europe. 14 days later, on June 25, 1942, Eisenhower arrived at U.S. headquarters in London and took command.

1944, June 4 - Rome was liberated by the U.S. 5th Army, led by General Mark Clark.

1944, June 6 - Allied forces launch the D-Day invasion of Normandy, France, during World War II - Over 160,000 Allied troops landed on the beaches of Normandy along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which, “we will accept nothing less than full victory.” By day’s end, the Allies gained a foot-hold in Continental Europe. The cost in lives on D-Day was high; more than 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed or wounded. More

1944, June 17 - Iceland National Day. Effective date of the dissolution of the Danish–Icelandic Act of Union following the 1944 Icelandic constitutional referendum.

1944, June 22 - The American forces secured Okinawa. The battle for Okinawa drug out over nearly three months and included some of the worst kamikaze attacks of the warThe United States sustained over 49,000 casualties including more than 12,500 men killed or missing. More

1944, June 24 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt Signs the G.I. Bill. More 

1945, June 26 - The United Nations Charter was signed by 50 nations in San Francisco. The United Nations Charter was ratified on October 24, 1945.

1948, June 24 - Soviets begin blockade of Berlin in the first major crisis of the cold war.

1948, June 26 - In response to the Soviet blockade, the  U.S. and Great Britain begin an emergency airlift of food and fuel to West Berlin to relieve two million isolated West Berliners. The Russians blockade of Berlin ended on May 12, 1949.

1950, June 25 - North Korea invades South Korea following clashes along the border. North Korea was supported by China and the Soviet Union. Two days later, on June 27, President Harry S. Truman orders U.S. air and naval forces to South Korea to aid the democratic nation in repulsing the invasion and in support of a U.N. resolution calling for an end to hostilities. The fighting ended with an armistice on 27 July 1953, formally dividing the country at the 38th parallel into North and South Korea. The Korean War was among the most destructive conflicts of the modern era, with approximately 3 million war fatalities including over 36,000 Americans. More

1951, June 14 - The first UNIVAC, acquired by the United States Census Bureau is dedicated. The UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer I) was the first general-purpose electronic digital computer for business application produced in the U.S. Its design was started by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, the inventors of the ENIAC who owned EMCC. The company was acquired by Remington Rand which completed the work. (Remington Rand later became part of Sperry, now Unisys) More

1953, June 10 - President Eisenhower rejects isolationism in the Cold War.  More

1953, June 19 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed by electrocution at Sing Sing Prison in New York. They had been found guilty of providing vital information on the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.

1954, June 27 - Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman resigns after pressure from a clandestine CIA operation approved by U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower, leading to a military take over led by Colonel Castillo Armas. More

1956, June 25 - Detroit built the last Packard that was actually designed by Packard. More

1960, June 26 - Madagascar Independence Day from France.

1960, June 30 - Democratic Republic of the Congo Independence Day

1961, The Antarctic Treaty goes into effect to regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, "all land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude parallel". The 12 original signatories were Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States.

1962, June 1 - Samoa Independence Day. While independence was achieved at the beginning of January, Samoa celebrates its independence day on June 1.

1963, June 20 - The U.S. and Soviet representatives signed the "Memorandum of Understanding Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Regarding the Establishment of a Direct Communications Link." (The Hot line) More

1965, June 3 - Major Edward H. White II steps out of the Gemini capsule, becoming the first American astronaut to walk in space. On March 18, 1965, Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei A. Leonov was the first man ever to walk in space. 

1965, June 7 - The U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Connecticut law banning contraception. With tis decision, the Supreme Court guaranteed the right to privacy, including freedom from government intrusion into matters of birth control.

1967, June 5-10 - The Six-Day War takes place between Israel and Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.

1967, June 8 - The USS Liberty is attacked, during the Six-Day War, by Israeli Air Force jet fighter aircraft and Israeli Navy motor torpedo boats, the USS Liberty was in international waters north of the Sinai Peninsula. The intelligence ship, was well-marked as an American vessel and only lightly armed. The Israeli attack killed 34 US sailors, and wounded 171 in the two-hour attack. More:  USS Liberty Veterans Association  CIA Statement  History 

1968, June 5 - Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy is assassinated in Los Angeles, California.

1971, June, 13 - The New York Times began publication of the Pentagon Papers, a collection of top secret documents exposing U.S. strategy in the Vietnam War. More

1972, June 17 - Five men are arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington, D.C., leading to the Watergate scandal.

1972, June 29 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that capital punishment was a violation of the Eighth Amendment prohibiting "cruel and unusual punishment." The decision spared the lives of 600 individuals then sitting on death row. Four years later, in another ruling, the Court reversed itself and determined the death penalty was not cruel and unusual punishment. On October 4, 1976, the ban was lifted on the death penalty in cases involving murder.

1975, June 25 - Mozambique Independence Day from Portugal

1976, June 29 - Seychelles Independence Day.

1977, June 27 - Djibouti Independence Day from France

1979, June 18 - Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev sign the SALT-II nuclear treaty. The US Senate chose not to ratify the treaty in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, which took place later that year. The Supreme Soviet did not ratify it either. More

1982, June 30 - Deadline for ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution passes without the necessary

1986, June 4 - Jonathan Pollard pleads guilty to espionage for selling top-secret U.S. military intelligence information to Israel.  More

1987, June 12 - In a speech in Berlin, President Reagan challenges Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to ―tear down this wall‖ and open Eastern Europe to political and economic reform. More

1989, June 4 - Chinese military cracks down on pro-democracy protesters in Tiananmen Square, Beijing. More

1990, June 1 - George H.W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sign a bilateral agreement on Destruction and Non-production of Chemical Weapons and on Measures to Facilitate the Multilateral Convention on Banning Chemical Weapons"  The agreement was signed during a summit meeting in Washington D.C

1990, June 25 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled (5-4) that it was unconstitutional for any state to require, without providing other options, for a minor to notify both parents before obtaining an abortion.

1991, June 12 - Boris Yeltsin is elected the first democratically elected President of Russia.

1991, June 25 -  The Republics of Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence from Yugoslavia. Ethnic rivalries between Serbians and Croatians quickly erupted. About 200,000 were missing and presumed dead and over two million people became refugees.

1991, June, last Saturday - Day of Hungarian Freedom. Celebrates the restoration of Hungary's sovereignty after the withdrawal of Soviet troops in June 1991

1992, June 12 - Russia Day. The day commemorates the adoption of the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet. It has been celebrated annually on 12 June since 1992. 

1993, June 26 - President Clinton orders missile attack against Iraq in retaliation for alleged plot to assassinate former President Bush.

1994, June 11 -  After 49 years, the Soviet military occupation of East Germany ended. At one time there had been 337,800 Soviet troops stationed in Germany. Over 300,000 Russians died during World War II in the Battle for Berlin.

1995, June 29 -  Two days after launch, U.S. space shuttle Atlantis, docks at Mir’s Kristall module as the two spacecraft flew 250 miles above the Lake Baikal region of eastern Russia, forming the world’s heaviest spacecraft up to that time – nearly half a million pounds. More

1997, June 30 - In Hong Kong, the flag of the British Crown Colony was officially lowered at midnight and replaced by a new flag representing China's sovereignty and the official transfer of power.

2001, June 11 - Timothy McVeigh, responsible for the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, is executed by lethal injection.

2004, June 28 - The U.S. returns sovereignty to an interim government in Iraq, but maintains roughly 135,000 troops in the country to fight a growing insurgency.

2013, June 6 - Edward Snowden, a former CIA employee, reveals thousands of classified NSA documents to journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, Barton Gellman, and Ewen MacAskill. Snowden came to international attention after stories based on the material appeared in The Guardian, The Washington Post, and other publications. Later in June, Edward Snowden, comes forward and admits that he is the source of the recent NSA leaks. On September 2, 2020, a U.S. federal court ruled in United States v. Moalin that the U.S. intelligence's mass surveillance program exposed by Snowden was illegal and possibly unconstitutional. More at Business Insider and NPR

2015, June 26 - The U.S. Supreme Court legalizes same-sex marriage nationwide.

2015, June 27 - Activist Bree Newsome removes the Confederate battle flag from a flagpole on the South Carolina Statehouse grounds. More

Note: These are some of the many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of June, listed by year.  Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate. Online History Resources

753 BCE, May 1 - According to legend, the city of Rome is founded by Romulus.

585 BCE, May 28 - A solar eclipse occurred during a battle between the Lydians and the Medes in what is now Turkey. It is one of the earliest recorded events in history.

431 BCE, May 7 - The Peloponnesian War begins between Athens and Sparta, marking the start of a decades-long conflict in Ancient Greece.

333 BCE, May 1 - The Battle of Issus takes place between Alexander the Great of Macedonia and Darius III of Persia, resulting in a decisive victory for Alexander.

218 BCE, May 4 - Hannibal of Carthage wins the Battle of the Trebia against the Roman Republic during the Second Punic War. More

325 , May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - the first ecumenical council of Christian bishops at Nicaea, Asia Minor. 

330, May 11 - Byzantium was renamed Constantinople after Emperor Constantine.

1337, May 24 - Beginning of the Hundred Years' War - King Edward III of England formally declares war against King Philip VI of France, marking the start of a long-lasting conflict between the two kingdoms which is referred to as the Hundred Years' War which was eventually won by the French at the Battle of Castillon in 1453. This was largely due to the French use of guns against the English.

1348, May 10 - Siege of Calais begins: King Edward III of England surrounds the city of Calais during the Hundred Years' War, leading to a prolonged siege lasting over a year.

1360, May 8 - The Treaty of Brétigny is signed between England and France, marking a temporary end to the first phase of the Hundred Years' War and granting substantial territorial concessions to England.

1381, May 30 - Peasants' Revolt in England: The Peasants' Revolt, a major uprising against high taxes and social injustice, culminates in a confrontation between rebel forces and King Richard II at Smithfield in London.

1431, May 30 - Joan of Arc was burned at the stake for heresy by an English-dominated tribunal in Rouen. More

1498, May 20 - Italian explorer Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Trinidad during his third voyage to the Americas.

1498, May 20 -  Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama becomes the first European to reach India via the Atlantic Ocean. Arriving in Calicut, where he erected a padrão (stone pillar) to prove he had reached India.  More

1502, May 20 - Christopher Columbus sets sail on his fourth and final voyage to the New World.1536, May 19: Anne Boleyn was beheaded at the Tower of London after being found guilty of adultery and treason against King Henry VIII.

1506, May 2 - The cornerstone of the current St. Peter's Basilica in Rome is laid by Pope Julius II.

1527, May 6 - The Sack of Rome takes place, as troops of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, led by Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, pillage and destroy the city.

1536, May 19 - Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII of England, is executed on charges of adultery and treason.

1541, May 8 - Spanish conquistador and explorer Hernando De Soto reaches the Mississippi River at a point below Natchez. De Soto was the first European documented to have seen the river.

1543, May 24 - Nicolaus Copernicus publishes his book "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres" which formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at its center. In all likelihood, Copernicus developed his model independently of Aristarchus of Samos, an ancient Greek astronomer who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

1559, May 2 - The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis is signed, ending the Italian Wars and establishing peace between France and Spain.

1568, May 23 - The Eighty Years' War begins as the Dutch rebels, led by Louis of Nassau, defeat a Spanish force at the Battle of Heiligerlee.

1570, May 20 - The Siege of Famagusta begins during the Ottoman-Venetian War, with the city of Famagusta in Cyprus being besieged by the Ottoman Empire.

1588, May 29 - The Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, with the aim of invading England during the Anglo-Spanish War.

1593, May 7- Playwright Christopher Marlowe is killed in a dispute, possibly over a bill, at a tavern in Deptford, London.

1607, May 14 - The first permanent English settlement in America was established at Jamestown, Virginia. 

1610, May 14 - French King Henry IV is assassinated by François Ravaillac in Paris.

1611, May 2 - The Authorized Version of the Bible (King James Version) was first published, and became the standard English language Bible.

1626, May 4 - Dutch explorer Peter Minuit arrives in New Netherland (present-day Manhattan) and establishes the colony of New Amsterdam.

1639, May 4 - The Fundamental Orders, often considered the first written constitution in North America, are adopted by the Connecticut Colony.

1642, May 29 - The city of Montreal is founded by French colonists under the direction of Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve.

1652, May 18 - The Battle of Dover takes place during the First Anglo-Dutch War, with the Dutch Republic gaining a decisive victory over England.

1660, May 29 - King Charles II of England is restored to the throne after the period of Commonwealth following the English Civil War.

1670, May 2 - The Hudson's Bay Company is chartered by King Charles II, granting it a monopoly over the fur trade in the region of Hudson Bay in North America.

1689, May 1 -  The English Parliament passes the Act of Toleration, granting freedom of worship to Protestant nonconformists.

1692, May 14 - The witchcraft trials in Salem, Massachusetts begin with the arrest of Sarah Osborne, Sarah Good, and Tituba.

1707, May 1 - The Union between England and Scotland is proclaimed. Whales had already been part of England since the 1500's.

1762, - Catherine the Great overthrew Peter III and began her reign as empress of Russia, leading her country into full participation in the political and cultural life of Europe and extending Russian territory.

1765, May 22 - The British Parliament passed the Quartering Act, which required American colonies to provide lodging and supplies to British troops.1841, May 3: New Zealand was declared a British colony.

1787, May 25 - The Constitutional Convention, which would draft the United States Constitution, began in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1788, May 23 - South Carolina becomes the 8th State to Ratify the U.S. Constitution

1790, May 29 - Rhode Island becomes the 13th State to Ratify the U.S. Constitution

1792, May 17 - The NY Stock Exchange is born with the signing of the Buttonwood Agreement by 24 stockbrokers defining how stocks could be traded and establishing set commissions.

1804, May 14 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition, set out from St. Louis, Missouri traveling up the Missouri River on a mission to explore and map the newly acquired western territory of the United States. The group consisted of around 30 members, including soldiers, interpreters, scouts, and others. They faced numerous challenges, including harsh weather, treacherous terrain, encounters with Native American tribes, and logistical difficulties.  The Lewis and Clark Expedition made significant contributions to American knowledge of the West. and it continues to be celebrated as a remarkable feat of discovery and an enduring symbol of the nation's westward expansion.  More

1812, May 30 - The United States declared war on Great Britain, beginning the War of 1812.

1844, May 24 - Samuel Morse, inventor of the Telegraph  sent the first official telegraph message, "What hath God wrought?" from  Washington, D.C., to Baltimore.

1846, May 12 - The United States declares war on Mexico, beginning the Mexican-American War. More

1848, May 29 - Wisconsin was admitted to the Union of States and becomes the 30th State

1856, May 21 - Pro-slavery forces attacked and burned the free-state town of Lawrence, Kansas, in what became known as the "Sacking of Lawrence."

1858, May 11 - Minnesota was admitted to the Union of States and becomes the 32nd State 

1861, May 20 - North Carolina became the last of the Confederate states to secede rom the United States, triggering the start of the American Civil War.

1862, May 5 - The Mexican army defeated French forces at the Battle of Puebla

1862, May 20 - President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act making millions of government owned acres in the west available to "homesteaders". 

1863, May 3 - The Territory of Arizona is created by Congress with Prescott as capital.

1865, May 10 - 1865: Confederate President Jefferson Davis is captured by Union forces in Irwinville, Georgia. General, Robert E. Lee, had surrendered on April 9 at Appomattox in Virginia to General Ulysses S. Grant.

1869, May 10 - The first transcontinental railroad in the United States was completed, linking the East Coast and West Coast by rail.

1871, May 10 - The Treaty of Frankfurt am Main is signed, ending the Franco-Prussian War and leaving a stronger unified German state to influence European power politics and compete with England and France.

1873, May 20 - Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis obtained a U.S. patent on the process of putting rivets in men’s work pants for the very first time creating what we now call jeans.. More

1881, May 21 - The American Red Cross is founded in Washington, D.C. by Clara Barton and a circle of her acquaintances.  Barton led the Red Cross for 23 years. More

1902, May 8 - Martinique's Mount Pelée erupts and destroys the town of Saint-Pierre, killing approximately 30,000 people, 15 percent of the island’s population. in the space of a few minutes. This is considered the worst volcanic disaster of the 20th century. Mount Pelée is still classified as an active volcano.

1912, May 13 - The U.S. Congress passes the 17th Amendment, modifying Article I, Section 3, of the Constitution by allowing voters to cast direct votes for U.S. senators. Prior to its passage, senators were chosen by state legislatures. The amendment was ratified on April 8, 1913,  More

1915, May 7 - The passenger liner RMS Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine during World War I, killing 1,198 people.

1915, May 23 - Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.

1916, May 31 - June 1: Battle of Jutland - World War I’s biggest naval conflict off the coast of Denmark marks the first and only showdown between German and British naval forces during World War I.

1917, May 17 - First regular airmail service begins, with one round trip a day between Washington, DC, and New York.

1917, May 18 - Congress passed the Selective Service Act, which authorized the Federal Government to temporarily expand the military through conscription. The act eventually required all men between the ages of 21 to 45 to register for military service. More

1918, May 18 - Day of the proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from the Russian Empire.

1918, May 28 - Independence Day - Commenmorates the date on which the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) was founded as the first secular democratic state in the Muslim East. Until 2021, it was marked as Republic Day. In October 2021, it was renamed and became Independence Day.

#cite_note-1" style="color: rgb(51, 102, 204); background: none; overflow-wrap: break-word;">1921, May 31 - The Tulsa race massacre began. A two-day-long riot when mobs of white residents, some of whom had been appointed as deputies , , and armed by city government officials, attacked black residents and destroyed homes and businesses of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The event is considered one of the worst incidents of racial violence in American history. More#cite_note-1" style="font-size: 16px; background-image: none; color: rgb(51, 102, 204); overflow-wrap: break-word;">

1927, May 20-21 - Charles Lindbergh becomes the first man to fly solo completed the first solo across the Atlantic Ocean, flying 3,610 miles from New York to Paris in his plane, the Spirit of St. Louis in 33 1/2 hours. More

1929, May 16: -The first Academy Awards ceremony was held in Hollywood.

1932, May 12 - The body of Charles Lindbergh Jr. son of aviator Charles Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, was found in Hopewell Township, New Jersey.

1932, May 21 -  Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. (May 20 - May 2021)

1934, May 11 - An enormous dust storm, 1,500 miles long and 600 miles wide, that originated on the west coast, moved eastward across the Great Plains. A total of 300 million tons of topsoil, parched to dust by drought were blown out of the Great Plains. More

1934, May 23 - Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary. When World War I began in July 1914, Italy was a partner in the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, but decided to remain neutral. However, a strong sentiment existed within the general population and political factions to go to war against Austria-Hungary, Italy’s historical enemy.

1937, May 6 - The Hindenburg disaster occurs in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States.

1937, May 12 -  King George VI was crowned at Westminster Abbey,  following the abdication of his older brother Edward who abdicated so he could marry American socialite Wallis Simpson.

1937, May 27 - In San Francisco, 200,000 people celebrated the grand opening of the Golden Gate Bridge by strolling across it.

1940, May 10 - Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He lead the U.K  through the tumultuous years of World War II.

1941, May 24 - The German Battleship Bismarck sinks the battlecruiser HMS Hood during a naval engagement in the Second World War, resulting in the death of all but 3 of her crew of 1,418. During the engagement, the Bismarck‘s fuel tank was damaged and headed for occupied France to effect repairs. Two days later the Bismarck was attacked by torpedo bombers from the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal; rendering the battleship's steering gear inoperable. In her final battle the following morning, the already-crippled Bismarck was engaged by two British battleships and two heavy cruisers, and sustained incapacitating damage and heavy loss of life. The ship was scuttled to prevent her being boarded by the British, and to limit further casualties. There were 2,300 German casualties.

1942, May 6 - U.S. Lt. General Jonathan Wainwright surrenders all U.S. troops in the Philippines unconditionally to the Japanese. All surviving troops; 12,000 Americans and 66,000 Filipinos, were taken to a prison stockade in Manila. This was the largest contingent of U.S. soldiers ever to surrender.

1945, May 7 - Germany surrenders unconditionally to the Allied forces, bringing an end to World War II in Europe. More

1946, May 25 - Jordan's Independence Day marking its independence from The United Kingdom.

1948, May 14 - Israel declared its independence from British rule.

1949, May 12 - Soviets end blockade of Berlin.

1949, May 23 - The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is established with the consolidation of the western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom and the United States. On 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (GDR)  When West and East Germany were reunited in 1990, West Germany’s constitution and official name (Federal Republic of Germany) were adopted by the former East German state.

1953, May 29 - Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay completed the first confirmed ascent of Mount Everest on May 29, 1953. More

1954, May 7 - French defeated at Dien Bien Phu bringing an end to French colonial efforts in Indochina.  Vietnam was partitioned by the Geneva Accords of 1954 into Communist North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam. President Eisenhower sent some 700 military personnel as well as military and economic aid to the government of South Vietnam. In 1961, JFK authorized sending additional Special Forces troops and military advisors to South Vietnam. By the end of 1962, there were approximately 11,000 military personnel in South Vietnam and 16,000 by the end of 1963.

1954, May 17 - The Supreme Court of the United States hands down its decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.

1955, May 6 - The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) Joins NATO.

1955, May 14 - The Warsaw Treaty Organization (also known as the Warsaw Pact), a political and military alliance between the Soviet Union and several Eastern European countries. The Soviet Union formed this alliance as a counterbalance to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a collective security alliance concluded between the United States, Canada and Western European nations in 1949. More

1958, May 13 - Vice President Nixon’s motorcade was attacked in Caracas by angry Venezuelans during his goodwill trip through Latin America. The trip was characterized by Latin American anger over the U.S. Cold War policies. Earlier on the trip Nixon had engaged in loud and bitter debates with student groups during his travels through Peru and Uruguay.

1960, May 1 - An American U-2 spy plane flying at 60,000 feet was shot down over Sverdlovsk in central Russia. The pilot, CIA agent Francis Gary Powers, survived the crash, and was tried, convicted and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

1960, May 20 - Cameroon National Day. Cameroon gained independence on 1 January 1960, but does not celebrate that date. Instead, it celebrates the National Day on 20 May commemorating the 1972 Cameroonian constitutional referendum.

1960, May 22 -  A magnitude 9.5 earthquake,  The largest earthquake ever measured,  - occurred along the coast of Chile causing a tsunami which radiated outward from a subduction zone along the coast. Its waves reached Hawaii in 15 hours and Japan in 22 hours. In Chile, the earthquake and the tsunami that followed took more than 2,000 lives and caused property damage estimated at $550 million (1960 dollars).The tsunami killed 61 people in Hawaii and 122 in Japan.

1961, May 5 - Alan Shepard became the first American in space. He piloted the spacecraft Freedom 7 during a 15-minute 28-second suborbital flight that reached an altitude of 116 miles (186 kilometers) above the earth.

1961, May 25 - United States President. John F. Kennedy announced before a special joint session of Congress the dramatic and ambitious goal of sending an American safely to the Moon before the end of the decade. More

1966, May 26 - Guyana gains Independence from the United Kingdom.

1970, May 4 - Four students were killed and nine others were injured when National Guardsmen opened fire on a peaceful protest against the Vietnam War at Kent State University in Ohio, United States.

1972, May 26 - U.S. and Soviet Union sign strategic arms control agreement known as SALT I 

1980, May 18 - Mount St. Helens erupted in Washington state, killing 57 people. Hundreds of square miles of wilderness were reduced to wasteland,

1981, May 13 - Pope John Paul II was shot four times by Mehmet Ali Agca in St. Peter's Square at the Vatican.

1989, May 10 - Tens of thousands of Chinese students and civilians gathered in Tiananmen Square in Beijing to protest for democracy and government accountability, leading to a violent crackdown by the Chinese government. 

1990, May 4 - Day of the Restoration of Latvian Independence after the end of occupation by the Soviet Union. The Supreme Council adopted the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, and the Latvian SSR was renamed Republic of Latvia.

1991, May 19 - Somaliland Independence day. Officially the Republic of Somaliland,is an unrecognized de facto sovereign state in the Horn of Africa. Its claimed territory has an area of 68,000 square miles with approximately 5.7 million residents

1991, May 24 - Eritrea Independence day from Ethiopia.

1994, May 6 - The Tunnel, or “Chunnel,” built under the English Channel is officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II and French president, François Mitterrand. The Chunnel is 31 miles long, 23 of them underwater at an average depth of 150 feet below the sea bed, making it the world’s longest undersea tunnel. The Chunnel cuts travel time between England and France to 35 minutes.

1994, May 10 - Nelson Mandela becomes the first African president of democratic South Africa. .. More

2003, May 1 - United States President George W. Bush declared the end of major combat operations in Iraq, marking the conclusion of the invasion of Iraq by coalition forces.

2004, May 1 -  Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, along with the island of Malta and the Greek portion of the island of Cyprus joined the EU,

2011, May 2 - Osama bin Laden is killed by US forces in Pakistan.

Note: These are some of the many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of May, listed by year. Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate. Online History Resources

For centuries, historians believed that any physical evidence of the pivotal Battle of the Aegates was long gone. Then came a chance discovery – which led to dozens of shipwrecks. .... Read more

Carthaginian Naval Ram image credit: Sicily's Soprintendenza del Mare - Department for Cultural Heritage and Identity.

John Herschel Glenn (1921 - 2016)) United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, businessman, and politician. He was the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times in 1962. third American in space and fifth person in history to be in space. He received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal in 1962, the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1990, and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012..... Read more

Our beautiful Camano Island has a rich history and has been given many names over the years. "Kal-lut-chin", Macdonough Island, Caamaño, Perry, Crow Island and then Camano.Today, Camano island with two State Parks, roads, much development and thousands of residents is still a beautiful place to visit or to call home.

A bit of history:

The earliest inhabitants of Camano Island were the Kikalos and Snohomish Indians, who used the island for a summer dwelling while gathering seafood and berries. They called it "Kal-lut-chin," which in the language of the indigenous Snohomish tribe means "land jutting into a bay." They used the island as a base during the fishing and shellfish gathering expeditions.

In 1790, The Spanish expedition led by Manuel Quimper Benítez del Pino, a Spanish Peruvian explorer, cartographer, naval officer, and colonial official born in Lima, brought the first Europeans to map the area. It was Quimper's pilot, Juan Carrasco, who sighted the current Admiralty inlet on the west coast of Whidbey Island and thinking it was a bay he named it Ensenada de Caamaño, after the Spanish naval officer Jacinto Caamaño, Captain of the Aranzazu, (Nuestra Senora de Aranzazu) of the Spanish Navy, who explored western waters working out of Spain’s naval base in San Blas, Mexico during the 1700’s, and was the leader of the last great Spanish exploration of Alaska and the Coast of British Columbia but had not come into what was later known as Puget Sound. This was the first time the Caamaño's name had been used to name any o the local geographical points. Two years later, George Vancouver renamed it Admiralty Inlet, after his ultimate Naval commanders, the Board of Admiralty.

In 1838, Lieutenant Charles Wilkes of the United States Navy was given command of a United States exploration to chart western waters, including Puget Sound and the Oregon country. This United States Exploring Expedition marks America's first formal entry into Puget Sound water. It was also to name the areas not previously titled. Lieutenant Wilkes’ selection for this small island, nestled between Whidbey Island to the west and the mainland to the east, was to name it name it Macdonough Island – to honor Master Commandant Thomas Macdonough, captain of the Saratoga during the War of 1812 and his victory of the battle of Lake Champlain. Following that theme, Wilkes named the waters between Macdonough and Whidbey Island, Saratoga Passage after Macdonough’s flagship the “Saratoga”.

In 1847, British navy Captain Kellett of the surveying vessel Herald, reorganized the official British Admiralty charts and dropped the name Macdonough for the island in his effort to restore Spanish names to the area. He renamed the island giving it its present name of Camano Island to honor Lieutenant Don Jacinto Caamaño. who had started his expedition in San BlasMexico and explored much of the Pacific Northwest going as far north as what is now Alaska for the Spanish. 

As a note of interest, the Caamaño Sound and Caamaño passage in British Columbia were also named in honor of Don Jacinto Caamaño and still maintain the name. 

In 1855, in the treaty with local Indians, the first Governor of the Washington Territory, Governor Isaac Stevens, referred to the island as Perry Island. The first Euro-American settlers on the island arrived at the time of the signing of the treaty and began extensive logging operations. Farmers came later and developed the area agriculturally. During the logging era the island was called Crow Island, a name that is sometimes still used by local residents.

Camano Chamber of Commerce
British Columbia HISTORICAL NEWS -Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation
US government resources.https://www.biografiasyvidas.comwww.simply-san-juan.com
Other:  and Individual research

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