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753 BCE, May 1 - According to legend, the city of Rome is founded by Romulus.

585 BCE, May 28 - A solar eclipse occurred during a battle between the Lydians and the Medes in what is now Turkey. It is one of the earliest recorded events in history.

431 BCE, May 7 - The Peloponnesian War begins between Athens and Sparta, marking the start of a decades-long conflict in Ancient Greece.

333 BCE, May 1 - The Battle of Issus takes place between Alexander the Great of Macedonia and Darius III of Persia, resulting in a decisive victory for Alexander.

218 BCE, May 4 - Hannibal of Carthage wins the Battle of the Trebia against the Roman Republic during the Second Punic War. More 

324, The ancient city of Byzantium was selected to serve as the new capital of the Roman Empire, and the city was renamed Nova Roma, or 'New Rome', by Emperor Constantine the Great.

325 , May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - the first ecumenical council of Christian bishops at Nicaea, Asia Minor. 

330, May 11 - Byzantium was renamed Constantinople (now Istanbul) and dedicated to Emperor Constantine. Constantinople is generally considered to be the center and the "cradle of Orthodox Christian civilization". Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe, from the mid-5th century to the early 13th century.

1189, May 11 - Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and 100,000 crusaders depart Regensburg for the Third Crusade which is also known as the Kings's Crusade. It was an attempt led by three European monarchs of Western Christianity (Philip II of France, Richard I of England and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor) to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187. It recaptured the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversed most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem. .

1337, May 24 - Beginning of the Hundred Years' War - King Edward III of England formally declares war against King Philip VI of France, marking the start of a long-lasting conflict between the two kingdoms which is referred to as the Hundred Years' War which was eventually won by the French at the Battle of Castillon in 1453. This was largely due to the French use of guns against the English.

1348, May 10 - Siege of Calais begins: King Edward III of England surrounds the city of Calais during the Hundred Years' War, leading to a prolonged siege lasting over a year.

1360, May 8 - The Treaty of Brétigny is signed between England and France, marking a temporary end to the first phase of the Hundred Years' War and granting substantial territorial concessions to England.

1381, May 30 - Peasants' Revolt in England: The Peasants' Revolt, a major uprising against high taxes and social injustice, culminates in a confrontation between rebel forces and King Richard II at Smithfield in London.

1431, May 30 - Joan of Arc was burned at the stake for heresy by an English-dominated tribunal in Rouen. More

1498, May 20 - Italian explorer Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Trinidad during his third voyage to the Americas.

1498, May 20 -  Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama becomes the first European to reach India via the Atlantic Ocean. Arriving in Calicut, where he erected a padrão (stone pillar) to prove he had reached India.  More

1502, May 20 - Christopher Columbus sets sail on his fourth and final voyage to the New World.

1506, May 2 - The cornerstone of the current St. Peter's Basilica in Rome is laid by Pope Julius II.

1527, May 6 - The Sack of Rome takes place, as troops of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, led by Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, pillage and destroy the city.

1536, May 19 - Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII of England, is executed at the Tower of London after being found guilty of adultery and treason against the King. #gs.91u742">More

1541, May 8 - Spanish conquistador and explorer Hernando De Soto reaches the Mississippi River at a point below Natchez. De Soto was the first European documented to have seen the river.

1543, May 24 - Nicolaus Copernicus publishes his book "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres" which formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at its center. In all likelihood, Copernicus developed his model independently of Aristarchus of Samos, an ancient Greek astronomer who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

1559, May 2 - The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis is signed, ending the Italian Wars and establishing peace between France and Spain.

1559, May 8 -  A legal process by which the Protestant Church of England was restored becomes official as Queen Elizabeth gives the Royal assent to the Revised Act of Supremacy of 1558, which re-established the Church of England’s independence from Rome. and the the Act of Uniformity of 1559 which outlined what form the English Church should take.

1568, May 23 - The Eighty Years' War begins as the Dutch rebels, led by Louis of Nassau, defeat a Spanish force at the Battle of Heiligerlee. 
 
1570, May 20 - The Siege of Famagusta begins during the Ottoman-Venetian War, with the city of Famagusta in Cyprus being besieged by the Ottoman Empire.

1588, May 29 - The Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, with the aim of invading England during the Anglo-Spanish War.

1593, May 7- Playwright Christopher Marlowe is killed in a dispute, possibly over a bill, at a tavern in Deptford, London.

1607, May 14 - The first permanent English settlement in America was established at Jamestown, Virginia. More

1610, May 14 - French King Henry IV is assassinated by François Ravaillac in Paris.

1611, May 2 - The Authorized Version of the Bible (King James Version) was first published, and became the standard English language Bible.

1626, May 4 - Dutch explorer Peter Minuit arrives in New Netherland (present-day Manhattan) and establishes the colony of New Amsterdam.

1639, May 4 - The Fundamental Orders, often considered the first written constitution in North America, are adopted by the Connecticut Colony.

1642, May 29 - The city of Montreal is founded by French colonists under the direction of Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve.

1652, May 18 - The Battle of Dover takes place during the First Anglo-Dutch War, with the Dutch Republic gaining a decisive victory over England.

1660, May 29 - King Charles II of England is restored to the throne after the period of Commonwealth following the English Civil War.

1670, May 2 - The Hudson's Bay Company is chartered by King Charles II, granting it a monopoly over the fur trade in the region of Hudson Bay in North America.

1689, May 1 -  The English Parliament passes the Act of Toleration, granting freedom of worship to Protestant nonconformists.

1692, May 14 - The witchcraft trials in Salem, Massachusetts begin with the arrest of Sarah Osborne, Sarah Good, and Tituba.

1707, May 1 - The Union between England and Scotland is proclaimed. Whales had already been part of England since the 1500's.

1762, - Catherine the Great overthrew Peter III and began her reign as empress of Russia, leading her country into full participation in the political and cultural life of Europe and extending Russian territory.

1765, May 22 - The British Parliament passed the Quartering Act, which required American colonies to provide lodging and supplies to British troops.1841, May 3: New Zealand was declared a British colony.

1773, May 10 - The British parliament passes the unpopular Tea Act. More

1787, May 25 - The Constitutional Convention, which would draft the United States Constitution, began in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1788, May 23 - South Carolina becomes the 8th State to Ratify the U.S. Constitution

1790, May 29 - Rhode Island becomes the 13th State to Ratify the U.S. Constitution

1792, May 17 - The NY Stock Exchange is born with the signing of the Buttonwood Agreement by 24 stockbrokers defining how stocks could be traded and establishing set commissions.

1804, May 14 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition, set out from St. Louis, Missouri traveling up the Missouri River on a mission to explore and map the newly acquired western territory of the United States. The group consisted of around 30 members, including soldiers, interpreters, scouts, and others. They faced numerous challenges, including harsh weather, treacherous terrain, encounters with Native American tribes, and logistical difficulties.  The Lewis and Clark Expedition made significant contributions to American knowledge of the West. and it continues to be celebrated as a remarkable feat of discovery and an enduring symbol of the nation's westward expansion.  More

1812, May 30 - The United States declared war on Great Britain, beginning the War of 1812.

1844, May 24 - Samuel Morse, inventor of the Telegraph  sent the first official telegraph message, "What hath God wrought?" from  Washington, D.C., to Baltimore.

1846, May 12 - The United States declares war on Mexico, beginning the Mexican-American War. More

1848, May 29 - Wisconsin was admitted to the Union of States and becomes the 30th State

1856, May 21 - Pro-slavery forces attacked and burned the free-state town of Lawrence, Kansas, in what became known as the "Sacking of Lawrence."

1858, May 11 - Minnesota was admitted to the Union of States and becomes the 32nd State 

1861, May 20 - North Carolina became the last of the Confederate states to secede rom the United States, triggering the start of the American Civil War.

1862, May 5 - An elite French military force led by General Charles de Lorencez headed for Mexico City was stopped at Puebla by an outnumbered Mexican army of 2,000—5,000 led by Mexican General Ignacio Zaragoza. The larger French forces, which were experiencing a larger loss of troops withdrew by the end of the day. The victory at the Battle of Puebla rallied the Mexicans, eventually culminating in the complete withdraw of all French forces in 1867 and the capture and execution by firing squad of Emperor, Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, who had been installed in 1864 as emperor of Mexico by Napoleon III. More

1862, May 20 - President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act making millions of government owned acres in the west available to "homesteaders". More

1863, May 3 - The Territory of Arizona is created by Congress with Prescott as capital.

1865, May 10 - 1865: Confederate President Jefferson Davis is captured by Union forces in Irwinville, Georgia. General, Robert E. Lee, had surrendered on April 9 at Appomattox in Virginia to General Ulysses S. Grant.

1868, May 5 - Martha Jones of Amelia County, Va.,  become the first black woman known to receive a United States patent. Her application for an “Improvement to the Corn Husker, Sheller” was granted U.S. patent No. 77,494 in 1868. Jones claimed her invention could husk, shell, cut up, and separate husks from corn in one operation, representing a significant step forward in the automation of agricultural processes. More

1869, May 10 -The U.S. Transcontinental railroad opens for through traffic linking the East Coast and West Coast by rail, when CPRR President Leland Stanford ceremonially drove the gold "Last Spike" (later often referred to as the "Golden Spike") at Promontory Summit in Utah. More

1871, May 10 - The Treaty of Frankfurt am Main is signed, ending the Franco-Prussian War and leaving a stronger unified German state to influence European power politics and compete with England and France.

1873, May 20 - Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis obtained a U.S. patent on the process of putting rivets in men’s work pants for the very first time creating what we now call jeans.. More

1881, May 21 - The American Red Cross is founded in Washington, D.C. by Clara Barton and a circle of her acquaintances.  Barton led the Red Cross for 23 years. More

1893, May 4 - The Panic of 1893, was one of the most severe financial crises in the history of the U.S. triggering a depression that lasted until 1897. The crisis started with a a slow down of economic activity and a large decline in U.S. Treasury gold reserves,  raising the rates of defaults on loans and weakening banks’ balance sheets. Fearing for the safety of their deposits, men and women began to withdraw funds from banks. Fear spread and withdrawals accelerated, leading to widespread runs on banks. The economy remained in recession until the following summer. According to some estimates, industrial production fell by 15.3% and unemployment rose as high as 19%. After a brief pause, the economy slumped into recession again in late 1895 and did not fully recover until mid-1897. More

1902, May 8 - Martinique's Mount Pelée erupts and destroys the town of Saint-Pierre, killing approximately 30,000 people, 15 percent of the island’s population. in the space of a few minutes. This is considered the worst volcanic disaster of the 20th century. Mount Pelée is still classified as an active volcano.

1904, May 4 - The U.S. officially acquires jurisdiction over the Panama Canal Zone. The U.S had tried and failed to negotiate an  agreement with Colombia leading to the United States backing a separatist group in Panama and President Roosevelt dispatching U.S. warships to Panama City (on the Pacific) and Colón (on the Atlantic) in support of Panamanian independence. Panama declared independence from Colombia on November 3, 1903. A French company was the first to attempt building such a canal, but was unsuccessful and roughly 20,000 workers perished due to accidents and tropical diseases, The company collapsed and was acquired by the U.S. in 1902 after Congress passed the Spooner act, gaining the rights to the land to build the canal . More

1912, May 13 - The U.S. Congress passes the 17th Amendment, modifying Article I, Section 3, of the Constitution by allowing voters to cast direct votes for U.S. senators. Prior to its passage, senators were chosen by state legislatures. The amendment was ratified on April 8, 1913,  More 

1914, May 9 - President Wilson makes his first Mothers Day proclamation after the U.S. Congress set the second Sunday of every May as the official Mothers Day celebration. By then most U.S. States were already celebrating Mother's Day. Julia Ward Howe (1872), a key women's rights figure and participant in the American Woman Suffrage Association and Anna Jarvis (1907) are also credited for suggesting and promoting the idea. The custom developed of wearing a red or pink carnation to represent a living mother or a white carnation for a mother who was deceased. The modern American version of the holiday has been criticized for becoming too commercialized. Many other countries have a multi-century history of a day to celebrate mothers on different dates. More

1915, May 7 - The passenger liner RMS Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine during World War I, killing 1,198 people.

1915, May 23 - Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.

1916, May 31 - June 1: Battle of Jutland - World War I’s biggest naval conflict off the coast of Denmark marks the first and only showdown between German and British naval forces during World War I.

1917, May 17 - First regular airmail service begins, with one round trip a day between Washington, DC, and New York.

1917, May 18 - Congress passed the Selective Service Act, which authorized the Federal Government to temporarily expand the military through conscription. The act eventually required all men between the ages of 21 to 45 to register for military service. More

1918, May 18 - Day of the proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from the Russian Empire.

1918, May 28 - Independence Day - Commemorates the date on which the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) was founded as the first secular democratic state in the Muslim East. Until 2021, it was marked as Republic Day. In October 2021, it was renamed and became Independence Day.

1919, may 19 - Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Black Sea coast, starting the Turkish War of Independence. More

1920, May 13 -The Socialist Party nominates Eugene V. Debs as its candidate for president in the upcoming November election. It was the fifth nomination for the 64-year-old, Indiana-born labor leader. At the time Debs was in jail, serving a 10-year sentence at a federal penitentiary in Atlanta. He was convicted of violating the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918, controversial laws pushed through Congress by President Woodrow Wilson to silence critics of U.S. involvement World War I. He wasn't due to get out until 1928. Debs had promised to pardon himself if elected. Harding, the newly elected President, pardoned Debs. More

1921, May 31 - The Tulsa race massacre began. A two-day-long riot when mobs of white residents, some of whom had been appointed as deputies and armed by city government officials, attacked black residents and destroyed homes and businesses of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The event is considered one of the worst incidents of racial violence in American history. More 

1926, May 1 - The Ford Motor Company becomes one of the first companies to adopt a five-day, 40-hour workweek for workers in their factories. A move that help change the way companies in America operated. Before this change, factory workers at Ford and other companies typically worked six days a week for up to 60 hours. This left workers with little time for rest or leisure, and they often struggled to balance work with family and personal commitments. It wasn't until 1940 that the 40 hour work week became law. More

1927, May 20-21 - Charles Lindbergh becomes the first man to fly solo completed the first solo across the Atlantic Ocean, flying 3,610 miles from New York to Paris in his plane, the Spirit of St. Louis in 33 1/2 hours. More  

1929, May 16 -The first Academy Awards ceremony was held in Hollywood.

1931, May 1 - The New York City’s Empire State Building was dedicated, 45 five days ahead of its original projected opening date. President Herbert Hoover , pressed a button in the White House that turned on the building’s lights for the first time, Construction costs were about $41M ($550M in 2023 money) and $20M under budget. The Site was previously occupied by the Waldorf -Astoria Hotel which opened in 1890. Official records indicate that 5 workers died during construction, although 14 deaths were reported by local News. More

1932, May 12 - The body of Charles Lindbergh Jr. son of aviator Charles Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, was found in Hopewell Township, New Jersey. More

1932, May 21 -  Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. (May 20 - May 2021). More

1934, May 11 - An enormous dust storm, 1,500 miles long and 600 miles wide, that originated on the west coast, moved eastward across the Great Plains. A total of 300 million tons of topsoil, parched to dust by drought were blown out of the Great Plains. More

1934, May 23 - Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary. When World War I began in July 1914, Italy was a partner in the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, but decided to remain neutral. However, a strong sentiment existed within the general population and political factions to go to war against Austria-Hungary, Italy’s historical enemy.

1937, May 6 - The Hindenburg disaster occurs in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States. More

1937, May 12 -  King George VI was crowned at Westminster Abbey,  following the abdication of his older brother Edward who abdicated so he could marry American socialite Wallis Simpson.

1937, May 27 - In San Francisco, 200,000 people celebrated the grand opening of the Golden Gate Bridge by strolling across it.

1940, May 10 - Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He lead the U.K  through the tumultuous years of World War II.

1941, May 15 - The first test of an Allied aircraft using jet propulsion takes place as the Gloster-Whittle E 28/39 aircraft flies    successfully over Cranwell, England, The jet engine was the brain child of Frank Whittle, an English pilot and aviation engineer,  . A young German physicist, Hans von Ohain, working for Ernst Heinkel, developed the world's first jet plane, the experimental Heinkel He 178. It first flew on August 27, 1939. just before WW II started on September 1, 1939. More

1941, May 24 - The German Battleship Bismarck sinks the battlecruiser HMS Hood during a naval engagement in the Second World War, resulting in the death of all but 3 of her crew of 1,418. During the engagement, the Bismarck‘s fuel tank was damaged and headed for occupied France to effect repairs. Two days later the Bismarck was attacked by torpedo bombers from the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal; rendering the battleship's steering gear inoperable. In her final battle the following morning, the already-crippled Bismarck was engaged by two British battleships and two heavy cruisers, and sustained incapacitating damage and heavy loss of life. The ship was scuttled to prevent her being boarded by the British, and to limit further casualties. There were 2,300 German casualties.

1942, May 6 - U.S. Lt. General Jonathan Wainwright unconditionally surrenders all U.S. troops in the Philippines to the Japanese. All surviving troops; 12,000 Americans and 66,000 Filipinos, were taken to a prison stockade in Manila. This was the largest contingent of U.S. soldiers ever to surrender. More

1945, May 7 - Germany surrenders unconditionally to the Allied forces, bringing an end to World War II in Europe. More

1946, May 25 - Jordan's Independence Day marking its independence from The United Kingdom.

1948, May 14 - Jewish Agency Chairman David Ben-Gurion proclaims the State of Israel, at midnight May 14. The UN General Assembly had  adopted the resolution to partition Palestine on 29 November 1947 and Britain had announced the termination of its Mandate for Palestine, effective on 15 May 1948. Ben-Gurion became Israel’s first premier. More

1949, May 12 - Soviets end blockade of Berlin.

1949, May 23 - The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is established with the consolidation of the western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom and the United States. On 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (GDR)  When West and East Germany were reunited in 1990, West Germany’s constitution and official name (Federal Republic of Germany) were adopted by the former East German state.

1953, May 29 - Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay completed the first confirmed ascent of Mount Everest on May 29, 1953. More

1954, May 7 - French defeated at Dien Bien Phu bringing an end to French colonial efforts in Indochina.  Vietnam was partitioned by the Geneva Accords of 1954 into Communist North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam. President Eisenhower sent some 700 military personnel as well as military and economic aid to the government of South Vietnam. In 1961, JFK authorized sending additional Special Forces troops and military advisors to South Vietnam. By the end of 1962, there were approximately 11,000 military personnel in South Vietnam and 16,000 by the end of 1963.

1954, May 17 - The Supreme Court of the United States hands down its unanimous decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas,  ruling that racial segregation in public educational facilities is unconstitutional. More

1955, May 6 - The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) Joins NATO.

1955, May 14 - The Warsaw Treaty Organization (also known as the Warsaw Pact), a political and military alliance between the Soviet Union and several Eastern European countries. The Soviet Union formed this alliance as a counterbalance to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a collective security alliance concluded between the United States, Canada and Western European nations in 1949. More 

1958, May 13 - Vice President Nixon’s motorcade was attacked in Caracas by angry Venezuelans during his goodwill trip through Latin America. The trip was characterized by Latin American anger over the U.S. Cold War policies. Earlier on the trip Nixon had engaged in loud and bitter debates with student groups during his travels through Peru and Uruguay.

1960, May 1 - An American U-2 spy plane flying at 60,000 feet was shot down over Sverdlovsk in central Russia. The pilot, CIA agent Francis Gary Powers, survived the crash, and was tried, convicted and sentenced to 10 years in prison. More

1960, May 11 - The FDA announces approval of Enovid for birth control. The approval limited its use to no more than two years. Nine years later, in 1969  Barbara Seaman’s book, “The Doctor’s Case Against the Pill,” show testimony and research showing that the high doses of estrogen in the early Pill put women at risk of blood clots, heart attacks, strokes, and cancer. More

1960, May 20 - Cameroon National Day. Cameroon gained independence on 1 January 1960, but does not celebrate that date. Instead, it celebrates the National Day on 20 May commemorating the 1972 Cameroonian constitutional referendum.

1960, May 22 -  A magnitude 9.5 earthquake,  The largest earthquake ever measured,  - occurred along the coast of Chile causing a tsunami which radiated outward from a subduction zone along the coast. Its waves reached Hawaii in 15 hours and Japan in 22 hours. In Chile, the earthquake and the tsunami that followed took more than 2,000 lives and caused property damage estimated at $550 million (1960 dollars).The tsunami killed 61 people in Hawaii and 122 in Japan. More

1961, May 5 - Alan Shepard, one of the Mercury Astronauts, became the first American in space. He piloted the spacecraft Freedom 7 during a 15-minute 28-second suborbital flight that reached an altitude of 116 miles (186 kilometers) above the earth. Ten years later, Shepard made his second space flight as spacecraft commander on Apollo 14 on January 31, 1971. He was accompanied on man's third lunar landing mission by Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot. Maneuvering their lunar module, "Antares," to a landing in the hilly upland Fra Mauro region of the moon, More

1961, May 25 - United States President. John F. Kennedy announced before a special joint session of Congress the dramatic and ambitious goal of sending an American safely to the Moon before the end of the decade. More

1966, May 26 - Guyana gains Independence from the United Kingdom.

1970, May 4 - Four students were killed and nine others were injured when National Guardsmen opened fire on a peaceful protest against the Vietnam War at Kent State University in Ohio, United States. More

1972, May 26 - U.S. and Soviet Union sign strategic arms control agreement known as SALT I 

1973, May 14 -  Skylab, America’s first space station and the first crewed research laboratory in space, lifts off on the last Saturn V rocket. Although the Soviet Union orbited the first experimental space station called Salyut in 1971, the larger and more complex Skylab enabled research in several areas. More 

1974, May 18 - India successfully detonates its first nuclear weapon in the Rajasthan Desert in the municipality of Pokhran. becoming the world’s sixth nuclear power and the first nation outside the five members of the U.N. Security Council—the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, China and France. More

1980, May 18 - Mount St. Helens erupted in Washington state, killing 57 people. Hundreds of square miles of wilderness were reduced to wasteland, More

1981, May 13 - Pope John Paul II was shot four times by Mehmet Ali Agca in St. Peter's Square at the Vatican.

1989, May 10 - Tens of thousands of Chinese students and civilians gathered in Tiananmen Square in Beijing to protest for democracy and government accountability, leading to a violent crackdown by the Chinese government. More

1990, May 4 - Day of the Restoration of Latvian Independence after the end of occupation by the Soviet Union. The Supreme Council adopted the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, and the Latvian SSR was renamed Republic of Latvia.

1991, May 19 - Somaliland Independence day. Officially the Republic of Somaliland,is an unrecognized de facto sovereign state in the Horn of Africa. Its claimed territory has an area of 68,000 square miles with approximately 5.7 million residents

1991, May 24 - Eritrea Independence day from Ethiopia.

1994, May 6 - The English Channel Tunnel, or “Chunnel,” built under the English Channel is officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II and French president, François Mitterrand. The Chunnel is 31 miles long, 23 of them underwater at an average depth of 150 feet below the sea bed, making it the world’s longest undersea tunnel. The Chunnel cuts travel time between England and France to 35 minutes. More

1994, May 10 - Nelson Mandela becomes the first African president of democratic South Africa. .. More 

1998, May 28 - Pakistan detonates its first nuclear device at the Ros Koh Hills in the province of Balochistan, becoming the seventh country to publicly test nuclear weapons. More

2002, May 10 -  Robert Hanssen, FBI agent who was convicted of spying for the Russian government is sentenced to life in prison without parole. Hanssen died in prison on June 5, 2023, at the age of 79. More

2003, May 1 - United States President George W. Bush declared the end of major combat operations in Iraq, marking the conclusion of the invasion of Iraq by coalition forces.

2004, May 1 -  Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, along with the island of Malta and the Greek portion of the island of Cyprus joined the EU,

2011, May 2 - Osama bin Laden is killed by US forces in Pakistan.

2016, May 19 - EgyptAir flight MS804, an Airbus 320, carrying 66 people, crashed into the Mediterranean Sea as it approached the Egyptian coast near Alexandria. There were no survivors. Egyptian authorities initially stated have stated that a bomb was the likely cause. A 2022 report from the French authorities attributed the cause to a pilot smoking a cigarette, a practice which wasn't banned at the time, caused the fire and the crash. 

Note: These are some of the many widely recognized historic events that occurred during the month of May, listed by year. Dates provided for events that occurred before the Common Era (BCE) may be approximate. Online History Resources

"In the U.S., 350 slices are eaten every second, while 40% of Americans eat pizza at least once a week.
There’s a reason why pizza is so popular. Humans are drawn to foods that are fatty and sweet and rich and complex. Pizza has all of these components. Cheese is fatty, meat toppings tend to be rich, and the sauce is sweet". More at The Conversation ➜

Decades ago, Kris Hansen showed 3M that its PFAS chemicals were in people’s bodies. Her bosses halted her work. As the EPA now forces the removal of the chemicals from drinking water, she wrestles with the secrets that 3M kept from her and the world. More at ProPublica ➜

"...Roughly 1 in 5 U.S. adults report binge drinking at least once a week, with an average of seven drinks per binge episode. This is well over the amount of alcohol thought to produce legal intoxication, commonly defined as a blood alcohol concentration over 0.08% – on average, four drinks in two hours for women, five drinks in two hours for men. More at The Conversation ➜

"A study from the University of Washington, published last week in the Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, reports the noise from the Boeing EA-18G Growlers and their training drills present a “substantial risk” to two-thirds of Island County residents" More at The Seattle Times ➜
(U.S. Navy Photo)

"In March 2023, the Japanese medical authorities announced that the new weight loss drug Wegovy—which was in staggering demand across the world, causing shortages everywhere—had been approved to treat obesity in their country......But industry outlet the Pharma Letter explained that this would not in fact turn out to be much of a boost........ for a simple reason: there is almost no obesity there. Some 42% of Americans are obese, compared with just 4.5% of Japanese people."  More at TIME ➜

The sharp increase in political polarization in America over the past 50 years has been driven in part by how different generations think about politics. But the rise of younger generations to political power may actually erase the deep social divisions associated with polarization. More at The Conversation ➜

"As Tucson gets hotter and hotter, creating more shade in its most vulnerable neighborhoods is making a vital difference ...In 2020 Tucson set a lofty goal to plant one million trees by the decade’s end...More at Reasons to be Cheerful ➜

I snatch at my eagle plumes and long hair.
A hand cut my hair; my robes did deplete.
Left heart all unchanged; the work incomplete.
These favors unsought, I’ve paid since with care.
Dear teacher, you wished so much good to me,
That though I was blind, I strove hard to see.
Had you then, no courage frankly to tell
Old-race problems, Christ e’en failed to expel?

My light has grown dim, and black the abyss
That yawns at my feet. No bordering shore;
No bottom e’er found my hopes sunk before.
Despair I of good from deeds gone amiss.
My people, may God have pity on you!
The learning I hoped in you to imbue
Turns bitterly vain to meet both our needs.
No Sun for the flowers, vain planting seeds.

I’ve lost my long hair; my eagle plumes too.
From you my own people, I’ve gone astray.
A wanderer now, with no where to stay.
The Will-o-the-wisp learning, it brought me rue.
It brings no admittance. Where I have knocked
Some evil imps, hearts, have bolted and locked.
Alone with the night and fearful Abyss
I stand isolated, life gone amiss.

Intensified hush chills all my proud soul.
Oh, what am I? Whither bound thus and why?
Is there not a God on whom to rely?
A part of His Plan, the atoms enroll?
In answer, there comes a sweet Voice and clear,
My loneliness soothes with sounding so near.
A drink to my thirst, each vibrating note.
My vexing old burdens fall far remote.

“Then close your sad eyes. Your spirit regain.
Behold what fantastic symbols abound,
What wondrous host of cosmos around.
From silvery sand, the tiniest grain
To man and the planet, God’s at the heart.
In shifting mosaic, souls doth impart.
His spirits who pass through multiformed earth
Some lesson of life must learn in each birth.”

Divinely the Voice sang. I felt refreshed.
And vanished the night, abyss and despair.
Harmonious kinship made all things fair.
I yearned with my soul to venture unleashed.
Sweet freedom. There stood in waiting, a steed
All prancing, well bridled, saddled for speed.
A foot in the stirrup! Off with a bound!
As light as a feather, making no sound.

Through ether, long leagues we galloped away.
An angry red river, we shyed in dismay,
For here were men sacrificed (cruel deed)
To reptiles and monsters, war, graft, and greed.
A jungle of discord drops in the rear.
By silence is quelled suspicious old fear,
And spite-gnats’ low buzz is muffled at last.
Exploring the spirit, I must ride fast.

Away from these worldly ones, let us go,
Along a worn trail, much travelled and—Lo!
Familiar the scenes that come rushing by.
Now billowy sea and now azure sky.
Amid that enchanted spade, as they spun
Sun, moon, and the stars, their own orbits run!
Great Spirit, in realms so infinite reigns;
And wonderful wide are all His domains.

Hark! Here in the Spirit-world, He doth hold
A village of Indians, camped as of old.
Earth-legends by their fires, some did review,
While flowers and trees more radiant grew.
“Oh, You were all dead! In Lethe you were tossed!”
I cried, “Every where ’twas told you were lost!
Forsooth, they did scan your footprints on sand.
Bereaved, I did mourn your fearful sad end.”

Then spoke One of the Spirit Space, so sedate.
“My child, We are souls, forever and aye.
The signs in our orbits point us the way.
Like planets, we do not tarry nor wait.
Those memories dim, from Dust to the Man,
Called Instincts, are trophies won while we ran.
Now various stars where loved ones remain
Are linked to our hearts with Memory-chain.”

“In journeying here, the Aeons we’ve spent
Are countless and strange. How well I recall
Old Earth trails: the River Red; above all
The Desert sands burning us with intent.
All these we have passed to learn some new thing.
Oh hear me! Your dead doth lustily sing!
‘Rejoice! Gift of Life pray waste not in wails!
The maker of Souls forever prevails!’”

Direct from the Spirit-world came my steed.
The phantom has place in what was all planned.
He carried me back to God and the land
Where all harmony, peace and love are the creed.
In triumph, I cite my Joyous return.
The smallest wee creature I dare not spurn.
I sing “Gift of Life, pray waste not in wails!
The Maker of Souls forever prevails!”

Zitkála-Šá (“Red Bird”), also known as Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, (1876 - 1938) was Yankton Dakota writer, editor, translator, musician, educator, and political activist who fought for women's suffrage and Indigenous voting rights in the early 20th century. Her writings and activism led to citizenship and voting rights for not only women, but all Indigenous people. She was the author of "American Indian Stories", "Old Indian Legends," "Americanize The First American," and others. Member of the Woman's National Foundation, League of American Pen-Women, and the Washington Salon. This poem recounts the cutting of her hair by employees of White’s Indiana Manual Labor Institute in Wabash, Indiana, where Zitkála-Šá was boarded for three years. More

This poem is in the public domain

French President Emmanuel Macron, in a speech delivered at the Sorbonne University in Paris, urged Europe to find its own path and warned "That the European Union needs to take bold action to tackle U.S. and Chinese protectionism, and be vigilant of the geopolitical threats from authoritarian regimes or face the death of Europe as a real possibility..."  More at Euronews ➜ 

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